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Full text of "The new statistical account of Scotland. By the ministers of the respective parishes, under the superintendence of a committee of the Society for the benefit of the sons and daughters of the clergy"



CO 




PURCHASED FOR THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 

FROM THE 

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT 

FOR 

to 

ECONOMIC HISTORY 







^ v^ I 



THE NEW 

STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 



OF 



SCOTLAND. 

VOL. VI. 



THE NEW 



STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 



OF 



SCOTLAND. 



THE MINISTERS OF THE RESPECTIVE PARISHES, UNDER THE 

SUPERINTENDENCE OF A COMMITTEE OF THE SOCIETY 

FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE SONS AND 

DAUGHTERS OF THE CLERGY, 



VOL, VI, 

LANARK, 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS, 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON. 

MDCCCXLV. 



LANARK. 



CONTENTS. 



AVONDALE, PAGE 301 

BERTRAM SHOTTS, . . . . 624 

BIGGAR, . . . . . 354 

BLANTYRE, .... 314 

BOTHWELL, . . .. 765 

CADDER, . .' . .391 

CAMBUSLANG, . . . 416 

CAMBUSNETHAN, . / - . 608 

CARLUKE, . . . . 563 

CARMICHAEL, '. 517 

CARMUNNOCK, . . . 597 

CARNWATH, . . . .76 

CARSTAIRS, . . . 547 

COVINGTON AND THANKERTON, . 872 

CRAWFORDJOHN, . . . 497 

CRAWFURD, . -..* . . 327 

CULTER, . . 340 

DALSERF, . . . . 719 

DALZELL, . . . . 442 

DOLPHINTON, * .- . . . 49 

DOUGLAS, . . . 477 

DUNSYRE, . . .64 

EAST KILBRIDE, .' . . 877 

GLASFORD, . . . 294 

GLASGOW, ... . 101 

GO VAN, . . . 668 

HAMILTON, . 249 

KILBRIDE, EAST, . . . 877 

LANARK, . . 1 

I.ESMAHAGOW, . . . 30 

LIBBERTON AND QUOTHQUHAN, . 41 

MONKLAND, NEW, . . . 242 

MONKLAND, OLD, . . . 635 

PETTINAIN, , . . 535 

RUTHERGLEN, . ., 373 

SHOTTS, . . / . 624 

STONEHOUSE, . * . . 468 

SYMINGTON, . . . 867 

WALSTON, . . . 846 

WANDELL AND LAMMINGTOUNE, . . 805 

WISTON AND ROBERTON, . . 93 



PARISH OF LANARK. 

PRESBYTERY OF LANARK, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. WILLIAM MENZIES, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name and Boundaries. SOME trace the origin of the name 
of this parish to the Latin terms Lana and area, quasi the wool- 
chest; others to Lan-cerig, the bank of the river; or to the Gaelic 
words Lan, signifying a house, repository, or church, and deare, a 
bilberry. A derivation equally probable is that given by Chalmers 
in his Caledonia ; namely, from Llannerch, which in several places 
in Wales is applied to a slip of level ground, or a vale.* 

The parish lies pretty nearly in the centre of the county to 
which it gives its name. It is of an irregular oblong form ; in the 
south about 3, in the north about 5 miles broad. It is from 6 to 
7 miles in length; and stretches along the eastern bank of the river 
Clyde, which separates it on the south from Pettinain and Car- 
michael, and on the west from Lesmahagoe. The adjacent parish 
on the north is Carluke, from which it is partly divided by Mashoch 
burn. Carstairs bounds it on the east. The town of Lanark is 
situated in 55 34' of north latitude, and 3 5' of west longitude 
from Greenwich. It may be considered as the central town of the 
Lowlands, being 31 miles distant from Edinburgh, 35 from Stir- 
ling, 25 from Glasgow, and 47 from Ayr. 

Topographical Appearances. The ground nowhere rises into any 
eminence deserving the name of a hill. It may be described in 
general as an elevated plateau, declining on the south and west 
towards the River Clyde, sometimes in gentle slopes, sometimes 
in steep declivities. From east to west, it is bisected by the 
deep and irregular valley of the Mouss. The flat uplands on 

* Several places in North Britain have the same name; thus Lcndrich in Kil- 
madock ; Lendrich in Dumblane ; Lendrich in Callander ; Lendrich Hill in Fos- 
saway ; and Drumlanrig, the former seat of the Duke of Queensberry ; all these ac- 
cord with the colloquial name of Lanerk, and are probably from the same British 
source. 

LANARK. A 



2 LANARKSHIRE. 

either side of this valley, where they rise to the highest elevation 
at Lee moor on the north, and Lanark moor on the south, are pretty- 
nearly of the same height, being about 670 feet above the level 
of the sea. The same valley presents two very remarkable chasms. 
The river Mouss shortly after it enters the parish, near Cleghorn, 
plunges into a deep ravine, which it seems to have formed through 
the solid rock as a channel for its waters. Lower down, and 
at little more, than a mile from its junction with the Clyde, the 
river, abruptly leaving its direct course, although the comparative 
lowness of the ground seems favourable for its continuing in it, 
again, by a sudden bend, seeks its way in a deep chasm through the 
hill of Cartlane. This tremendous ravine is about half a mile in 
length. It is composed of two faces of irregular, precipitous and 
lofty rocks, and describes in its course a zig-zag line. Where- 
ever the cliffs come prominently forward upon the one side, there 
is a corresponding recession on the other. The north bank is 
about 400 feet high, the south is at least 100 feet lower. Va- 
rious conjectures have been proposed as to the manner in which 
this remarkable chasm was formed, but these it is unnecessary to 
discuss or to notice in this place. 

Meteorology Climate. Owing to the elevated situation of the 
parish, there is at times very intense frost. A gardener in the 
neighbourhood during several severe winters, comparing the cold 
here with simultaneous observations made at Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow, generally found it to be 10 more intense than at either of 
these places. This applies, however, only to the uplands ; for in 
the lower situations, the frosts are less severe, and the snow dis- 
appears much sooner than in most of the surrounding districts ; 
and it is no uncommon thing to see the plough going on the banks 
of the Clyde, while the ground cannot be broken in the adjacent 
parishes. The seasons formerly varied with the soil along the banks 
of the river. Where the subsoil is a hard rock, and the soil itself 
light and gravelly, they were always remarkably early. But along 
the north and east sides of the parish they used once to be prover- 
bially late ; and there are persons still alive who have been known 
to engage themselves to do the harvest work consecutively in both 
situations in the same year. Since fencing, draining, and a better 
mode of cultivation, however, have been introduced, this variation 
has almost entirely disappeared. 

Its central situation saves the parish alike from the fogs of 
the eastern, as from the superabundant rains of the western coast. 



LANARK. 3 

The atmosphere is much less humid than at Glasgow, and even 
Hamilton. It has often been observed that not more than one 
out of five of the spring and autumnal showers which rise duly 
to windward pass over this parish, being either attracted by the 
range of mountains to the south, or by the high wet ground on 
the north-west ; and that the thunder storms which succeed the 
summer droughts commonly drench all the neighbouring districts 
before they reach this place. The prevailing winds are west and 
south. The latter is generally attended by rain. Any permanent 
drought usually begins with an east wind. 

Diseases. Lanark is celebrated, and deserves its reputation, as 
a remarkably healthy place, an advantage for which it probably 
is indebted to its open, dry, and elevated situation, and the absence 
of all noxious effluvia. There is no endemical disease. Cases of 
wen sometimes occur, and at particular seasons, especially in spring 
and autumn, the variation of the temperature and the prevalence 
of rain occasion all kinds of catarrhal complaints, such as colds, 
sore-throat, &c.and likewise diseases of the viscera, chest, and abdo- 
men often accompanied by fluxes and spasms. Typhus fever also 
prevails more or less at these seasons. Yet, on the whole, the 
quantity of disease is unusually small. In the village of New La- 
nark, where the inhabitants are exclusively employed in the ma- 
nufacture o cotton yarn, and exposed many hours at a time to the 
inhalation of an atmosphere loaded with cotton flocculi and dust, 
numerous cases of pulmonary disease might be expected. Yet, on 
consulting the medical records of that extensive establishment, such 
cases are found to be much rarer, in proportion to the number of the 
inhabitants, than in the neighbouring town. This may arise part- 
ly from the equable temperature which is maintained in the rooms 
of the manufactory, and partly from the low and sheltered situa- 
tion of the place, exposing the inhabitants less to the influence of 
those exciting causes which would bring the latent disease into 
action. 

Hydrography. There is no extensive sheet of water in the pa- 
rish. Lang-loch, to the south-east, is the largest. There are places, 
however, which bear evident marks of having formerly been under 
water, particularly the low valley adjoining the house of Lee, amount- 
ing to more than 100 acres. 

The River Mouss, which we have mentioned as traversing the 
parish from east to west, has its source in the northern parts of 
Carnwath moor. It draws its contributions principally from the 



4 LANARKSHIRE. 

adjacent mosses, the dark colour of whose waters it retains, and 
to that circumstance has probably been indebted for its name. It 
is in general an insignificant stream, but is occasionally swelled by 
copious rains into a powerful torrent. In summer, it is subject to 
such decrease, as scarcely to be sufficient for supplying the nume- 
rous mills erected upon its banks. Its course is irregular, westerly 
in its direction, with a slight inclination to the south. After emerg- 
ing from the rocks at Cleghorn, it finds a more expansive channel 
through finely wooded banks, steep upon the south, and gently slop- 
ing upon the northern side. On issuing from the Cartlane Craigs, 
it pursues but a brief course before it falls into the Clyde, opposite 
the village of Kirkfield-bank. 

Cartlane Craigs. There are few specimens of rocky scenery in 
the country to be compared with the Cleghorn, but more especially 
the Cartlane Craigs. Even when seen from the walks which skirt 
the summit of the precipice on either side, they present the most 
romantic views of bold and lofty rocks, combined in endless va- 
riety with wood and water. But the traveller who visits this spot 
in summer, (at which season alone the passage by the bed of the 
river is practicable,) and will submit to the toil of an occasional 
scramble over rocks, will enjoy the highest gratification. At every 
turn of the river, a new and varying scene of rocky grandeur, 
heightened by the accompaniments of the stream, and a rich and 
varied foliage, bursts upon the view. The popular tradition, that 
a cave in this ravine once afforded a refuge to the patriot Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace, gives additional interest to the scene. It also a few 
years ago received a new ornament by the erection of a bridge, 
which spans the chasm at its lower extremity, with three arches, 
and whose Roman simplicity and elegance are in the finest keeping 
with the scenery around. 

Clyde. The Clyde is here a large and beautiful river. It ap- 
proaches the parish from the east with a scarcely perceptible mo- 
tion, after flowing through a long track of holm land, which, being 
very little elevated above the bed of the stream, is liable occasion- 
ally to be overflowed, and seems to have once formed the bottom 
of an extensive lake, before the waters had worn their channel suffi- 
ciently deep to drain it. It then takes a long sweep towards the south 
and south-west with a more accelerated motion ; the high grounds 
advance on each side, and the channel becomes uneven and rocky. 
But upon passing Hyndford Bridge, it assumes its former placid 
aspect, and, receiving a considerable augmentation from one of its 



LANARK. 5 

principal tributaries, the Douglas Water, soon reaches the Boning- 
ton Fall, where, in a divided stream, it is abruptly precipitated over 
a ledge of rocks of about thirty feet of perpendicular height. Its 
channel from this point, for about half a mile, is formed of a range of 
perpendicular and equidistant rocks on either side, which are from 
70 to 100 feet high, and which Mr Pennant has well characterized 
as stupendous natural masonry. At Corehouse it encounters an- 
other fall 84 feet in height, and immediately assumes a more tran- 
quil character until it reaches a small cascade called Dundaf Lin, 
about a quarter of a mile farther down. The banks now slope more 
gently, sometimes covered with natural wood, and sometimes cul- 
tivated to the water's edge. This character it preserves for a dis- 
tance of about three or four miles, until it reaches Stonebyres, 
where it passes through another rocky ridge, and projects itself in 
three leaps over a precipice of 80 feet in height. In its farther 
course, which extends about a mile and a-half in this parish, the 
stream in general flows quietly between gently sloping and beauti- 
fully wooded banks. 

The breadth and depth of the river vary at different places. At 
the broadest a stone may be thrown across ; and there is a spot 
between the Bonington and Corra Falls where the whole volume of 
its waters is so confined between two rocks, that an adventurous 
leaper has been known to clear it at a bound. There are fords 
which children can wade across, and pools which have never been 
fathomed. 

The scenery along the banks of the Clyde is acknowledged to 
be scarcely equalled in this country, and rarely surpassed abroad. 
It has for a long period attracted multitudes of admiring visitors 
during the fine season, and still continues to be as much visited as 
ever. The country above the falls is comparatively tame and un- 
interesting. But from that point nothing can surpass the variety 
and beauty of the prospects, which successively present themselves 
to the eye of the traveller. 

Waterfalls. The waterfalls, however, are the chief objects of 
attraction. The uppermost, called the Bonington Fall, is about 
two miles and a-half distant from Lanark. The way lies for the most 
part through the beautiful grounds of Bonington ; and, with a libe- 
rality worthy of imitation, the Ross family, to whom the property 
belongs, allow free access on every day but the Sabbath, and at all 
hours, to the public, who find tasteful walks kept in the highest 
order, and seats at every fine point of view for their accommodation. 



6 LANARKSHIRE. 

The upper is perhaps the least beautiful of the falls, owing to its 
smaller height, and to the bareness of the southern bank above it. 
Still, when seen from the point at which it first bursts upon the 
view, it is very imposing; and the present proprietor, Lady Mary 
Ross, by means of a bridge thrown across the north branch of the 
stream, immediately above the precipice, and points of observation 
happily selected, has secured some charming coups d'oeil to the ad- 
mirers of nature. The Corra Lin, which is about half a mile far- 
ther down, is generally allowed to be the finest of the three. Un- 
til a few years ago, this splendid cascade could only be seen from 
above. But fine although it must ever be from whencesoever con- 
templated, all former views of it were greatly inferior to one which 
the present proprietor has opened up. A flight of steps has been 
formed along the face of the opposite rock. By this, the traveller 
descends into a deep and capacious amphitheatre, where he finds 
himself exactly in front, and on a level with the bottom of the fall. 
The foaming waters, as they are projected in a double leap over 
the precipice, the black and weltering pool below, the magnificent 
range of dark perpendicular rocks 120 feet in height, which sweeps 
around him on the left, the romantic banks on the opposite side, 
the river calmly pursuing its onward course, and the rich garniture 
of wood with which the whole is dressed, combine to form a spec- 
tacle with which the most celebrated cataracts in Switzerland and 
Sweden will scarcely stand a comparison. The lower or Stonebyres 
Fall, so named from the adjacent estate of Stonebyres, belonging 
to the ancient family of Vere, it is unnecessary to describe. It has 
great similarity in many of its features to the Corra Lin, and it is 
sufficient to say, that, in the opinion of many it is even superior in 
beauty. 

Geology. The parish lies upon a mass of old red sandstone, 
which probably forms the basis of the country to the south and 
east. This mass is composed of strata from a few inches to many 
feet in thickness, having a considerable declination towards the east, 
but upon the surface they generally follow the declination of the 
ground in which they are situated. It is also divided by perpendi- 
cular fissures, which become less perceptible as they descend be- 
low the influence of the sun and air. In some places it is likewise 
traversed by narrow dikes of trap rock, sinking perpendicularly, and 
cutting the general stratification nearly at right angles. The trap 
rock of these dikes is often disintegrated, or if solid, appearing 
composed of a congeries of elliptical balls, and has evidently been 



LANARK. 7 

in a state of fusion at the time of its formation. Many of the 
internal crevices are filled with heavy spar, some of which is 
found in a state of complete crystallization. On the lands of Jer- 
viswood, a thick vein of quartz, intermixed with small veins of rich 
iron ore, was discovered many years ago, which for some time raised 
sanguine expectations that lead or other valuable minerals would 
be found in its neighbourhood. But these expeditions have not 
yet been realized. The surface of the rock is very rugged and un- 
even, consisting of several conical eminences, which sometimes rise 
with a gentle ascent, and sometimes abruptly terminate, forming 
precipices of several hundred feet in height. 

No beds of coal hare hitherto been disco vered in the parish, except- 
ing at the north-west end, where it encroaches for about half a mile 
upon a coal district, and where all the minerals common to that 
district are found to crop out, but in such shallow strata as to ren- 
der their working impracticable* Carboniferous limestone is wrought 
in considerable quantities in Craigend-hill, on the north-west cor- 
ner of the parish, accompanied by a small seam of coal, but which 
does not yield sufficient to burn the limestone. Nodules of clay- 
ironstone are likewise found here imbedded in clay. Specimens of 
petrified wood have also been met with in the .limestone rock. 
Small detached pieces of jasper have been picked up in the bed of 
the Mouss, with ochre, and several other mineral productions, 
which have probably been carried down by the river from the upper 
part of the country. A detached and water-worn piece of limestone 
was found near the old bridge upon the Clyde, containing petrified 
shells resembling on a general view pholades and cockles. Masses 
of freestone are frequent near the Chapel on the lands of Nemphlar, 
and near Moussbank, where a quarry was opened some years ago, 
but which has since been abandoned. Several attempts have been 
made to discover coal upon the estate of Lee, and upon Lanark 
moor, hitherto without success. 

Few places present more evident traces of a deluge than the pa- 
rish of Lanark. Hills of gravel, beds of clay, banks of sand, and 
large masses of mud, are heaped together in the wildest confusion. 
The uneven nature of the surface would naturally produce different 
currents, which, meeting together, would form, at their junction, 
beds of gravel ; and, in the eddies betwixt them, banks of sand. In 
more still water, mud or clay would be deposited according as the 
waters were charged with a greater or less proportion of sand. This 
arrangement is very conspicuous along the banks of the Mouss and 



8 LANARKSHIRE. 

Clyde, from the Hyndford Bridge on the latter, but more espe- 
cially at their confluence. Where the waters flowed over a less 
rugged surface, a sort of hard till has been deposited, which is 
scarcely pervious to water, and consequently renders the soil more 
unproductive. Upon examining twenty stones taken promiscuously 
from a gravel pit, there were found ten of the common red sandstone, 
five of a hard Idnd of sandstone, and the other five of various kinds, 
some of which are not found in masses in any part of the neigh- 
bourhood. Detached pieces of granite are also found here, which, 
notwithstanding their hardness, have all the asperities rounded off, 
proving that they must have rolled from a vast distance ; and in- 
deed no rocks of the kind are known to exist within many miles of 
the parish. These rocks are very much prized for curling-stones. 
Marl has also been found at Bonington and Sunnyside, but has not 
been dug to any extent. 

Soil. From what has been said,, it is obvious that the soil must 
vary with the subsoil. Accordingly, along the west end of the pa- 
rish for nearly a mile in breadth, it is generally composed of a stiff 
clay. Along the banks of the rivers it is light and gravelly. In 
the east it is wet and clayey. Nemphlar and Cartlane moors con- 
sist of a hard till, and this soil prevails more or less in all high 
and exposed situations. It is the most stubborn of all kinds of 
soil, and has longest resisted the efforts of the farmer. But 
in every part of the parish, sometimes even in the same field, 
all the different varieties of soil are found. In Lanark moor, in 
the low grounds adjoining the house of Lee, and elsewhere, some 
inconsiderable beds of moss are met with. 

Zoology. The only cattle bred here are horses and cows, all of 
the best kinds, for draught and dairy, which are sold young. There 
are no sheep kept but by gentlemen for their private use. 

The only fish in the Mouss are minnow and trout. In the 
Clyde, besides these, there are pike, eels, and very rarely perch. 
The Stonebyres Fall arrests the further ascent of salmon. For- 
merly two or three individuals in the town of Lanark used to 
pick up a livelihood by catching and selling fish, but their business 
has been much injured, and the sport ruined for amateur anglers, 
by the numbers, who, owing to the dulness of trade, now engage in 
it, and by the new and deadly tackle which they employ. 

The common insects are wasps, gad-flies, gnats, and the goose- 
berry, apple, and cabbage caterpillar. The cabbage caterpillar is 
destroyed by sprinkling with powdered lime ; the gooseberry ca- 



LANARK. 9 

terpillar, by searching the centre of the bush near the ground at 
the time when the leaves expand, and picking off such as are 
found riddled, and full of holes. The apple and pear caterpillars 
are of two kinds, the one a small green worm, with a black head, 
that breeds in the blossom-bud and consumes its heart ; the bud 
does not expand, but soon turns brown, and then the tree is said 
to be fired. The cobweb, or, as it is called in some places, the 
cotton caterpillar, is sometimes so very destructive, that the trees 
in the month of June appear as bare as in January ; if picked off 
once a-day at the opening of the season they may be destroyed ; 
as they surround themselves with a round ball of cobweb, they 
are easily seen, and a few boys would soon clear an orchard. The 
small black-headed caterpillar is less easily overcome ; it does its 
mischief before the blossom expands. Mr Sinclair, late gardener 
at Bonington, discovered a method, by which for many years he 
effectually saved his trees and bushes from these destructive insects. 
It is to mix sifted lime in a tub with water, and by means of a 
gardener's engine to project this with force upon the plants ; in 
this manner, the moss upon the branches in which insects harbour 
is destroyed. 

Botany. The recesses of Cartlane Craigs present a rich va- 
riety of plants to the botanist'; among which may be named 
Berberis vulgaris, Pyrola rotundifolia, Pyrola minor, Saxifraga 
oppositofolia and granulata, Prunus padus, Bird Cherry or Hawk- 
berry, Spirea salicifolia, Rubus saxatilis, Cistus Helianthemum, 
Aquilegia vulgaris, Cardamine impatiens, Geranium lucidum, Oro- 
bus sylvaticus, Vicia sylvatica, Doronicum pardalianches. There 
are said to be a considerable variety of mosses of rare species above 
the falls. 

There are several large plantations in the parish, consisting 
chiefly of Scotch, larch, and spruce fir. The grounds of Lee, Bo- 
nington, and Cleghorn are ornamented with fine old trees, such as 
oak, beech, larch, and lime. The banks of the Clyde and Mouss 
are covered with natural wood of various kinds, viz. oak, ash, hazel, 
birch, alder, hawkberry, hawthorn, and mountain-ash. 

Close to the House of Lee are two trees which deserve par- 
ticular mention. The first is an oak of prodigious size. Accord- 
ing to a late measurement,' it was found to be 60 feet of perpendi- 
cular height, and 30 in circumference, and to contain 1460 cubic 
feet of wood. It is called the Pease tree ; is understood to be a 
relict of the ancient Caledonian forest, and still continues to ve- 



10 LANARKSHIKE. 

getate, although its huge trunk is hollowed to such a degree that ten 
persons .have been crammed into the excavation. The other is a 
magnificent larch, said to have been one of the firs brought into 
this country; it is 100 feet in height, and 18 in girth, containing 
320 cubic feet of timber. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Historical Notices. There does not exist any ancient account 
of this parish. The town is acknowledged to be of very great an- 
tiquity ; but all the information we possess with respect to it in 
former ages, consists in a few rare and incidental notices scattered 
throughout the general histories of the country. It is supposed 
to be the . Colsenia of Ptolemy ; a Roman road having passed 
through, or near it, to its castle, on the south-west side. In subse- 
quent ages, it must have been a place of considerable importance, 
as may be inferred from the fact recorded by Buchanan, that, in 
the year 978, Kenneth II. here held an assembly of the states of 
the realm. That it was a royal town at a very early period is 
certain ; for Malcolm IV., in granting a toft in Lanark, speaks of 
it as in burgo meo ; and William, the successor of Malcolm, also 
designates it his burgh. It possesses charters ; the original one 
erecting it into a royal burgh was granted by Alexander L; there 
is also one by Robert L, dated at Linlithgow, the fourth year of 
his reign ; another without date, by Alexander III. ; a fourth by 
the same monarch in the thirteenth year ^>f his reign ; there 
are besides two by James V. ; and a final one, confirmatory of 
all the rest, given by Charles L, and bearing date 20th February 
1632. 

Chalmers is certainly wrong, when he says in his Caledonia, 
that " we hear nothing of any royal castle or place of royal resi- 
dence in this city." On a small artificially-shaped hill, between the 
town and the river, at the foot of the street called Castle Gate, and 
still bearing the name of the Castle hill, there stood in former times 
beyond all doubt a royal castle. Tradition ascribes it to David I. 
It was the place from which the charter of William the Lion, in 
favour of the town of Ayr, was dated in 1197. In the treaty ne- 
gotiated in 1298, respecting the marriage of the niece of King 
Philip of France, with the son and heir of John Baliol, the Castle 
or Castelany of Lanark was mortgaged as part of the security for the 
lady's jointure. We hear of it as being in. the thirteenth century 
in the hands of English soldiers. Besides, there are places in the 



LANARK. 11 

neighbourhood of the town which, even to this day, bear the names of 
King-son's Know, King-son's Moss, King-son's Stane, which seems 
to favour the tradition, that it was once a place of royal residence. 

We have already mentioned the circumstance related by Bu- 
chanan, although passed over in silence by Fordun, of Kenneth II. 
having in 978 summoned at Lanark a convention of the estates 
of the realm ; the first of which there is any record in history. 

In 1244, Lanark was burnt to the ground ; a fate which befell 
several other towns at the same period, and to which they were 
liable from having been then built of wood. In 1297 it was the 
scene of the first military exploit of Sir William Wallace, who 
there slew William de Hesliope or Heselrigg, the English she-^ 
riff, and expelled his soldiers from the town. It seems to have 
been a garrisoned place in 1310, for we read of its having then 
surrendered to King Robert Bruce, with Dumfries, Ayr, and 
the Isle of Bute. On the 12th of January 1682, the Covenanters 
here published a declaration, which Wodrow calls the first essay of 
the " societies united into a correspondence." This act roused the 
indignation of the Privy- Council, who fined the town 6000 merks, 
and issued processes against the freeholders for not preventing it, 
nor seizing the parties concerned in it. Several persons were exe- 
cuted at the place about the same time, and among the rest Wil- 
liam Hervie, who was charged with being at Bothwell Bridge, and 
publishing Wood's declaration. The grave of this person is still 
seen in the churchyard of the parish, and is an object of great reve- 
rence. 

Lanark formerly enjoyed the privilege of keeping the standard 
weights of the kingdom. An act of Parliament in 1617 narrates, 
that of old, the keeping and out-giving of the weights to the 
burghs and others was committed to this town, and charges it 
again with the " care of the weights." The old standards are still 
preserved. They are stamped with a spread eagle, with two heads, 
the arms of the burgh, although some have supposed this to be a 
foreign mark. In 1790, they were measured by Professor Robi- 
son of Edinburgh; and, for the second time, about ten years subse- 
quently, for the purpose of rectifying those of Edinburgh. It was 
then discovered that the pound had lost something less than seven 
grains English Troy, weighing 7613 instead of 7620 grains, which, in 
terms of the act of Parliament 1618, it ought to have contained. 
Dr Robison says, that this standard is better ascertained than any 
other in Europe, except that of Brussels, and its copy at Paris. 



12 LANARKSHIRE. 

At the time of the union, a new set of weights was sent from Lon- 
don to the burgh. They are of very handsome workmanship, and 
are thus dated, "Primo Maii Anno Dom. 1707 A.R. An.Regni 
vi." But by the act of 1826, these have been superseded by the in- 
troduction of the imperial standard, and the ancient prerogative of 
, the town disannulled ; every burgh and county having been enjoin- 
ed to procure and keep a set of standard weights. . 

Eminent Men. Sir William Wallace was connected with this 
parish, having resided in the town after his marriage with the co- 
heiress of Lamington. James Birnie, secretary to John Cassimir, 
King of Poland, was the son of Mr William Birnie, who was ap- 
pointed minister of Lanark in 1597. Sir William Lockhart of 
Lee, a great statesman and general under the Protector, and after- 
wards Lord Justice- Clerk, was born in the parish, and received the 
first rudiments of education at the school of Lanark. The estate 
of Jerviswood was the family property of Robert Baillie the martyr. 
In the mansion-house, which is now fallen into decay, he found con- 
cealment from the pursuit of his enemies, and is said to have owed 
nis life upon one occasion, to a spider, which spun its web over the 
door of the oven in which he was lurking, thus averting the sus- 
picions of the soldiers. Lithgow, the traveller, was born in this 
parish, and lies buried in the churchyard ; but the site of his grave 
is unknown. Dr William Smellie, the celebrated accoucheur; 
and the learned and ingenious General Roy, were both educated 
at Lanark school, to which the former left as a memorial his va- 
luable library, with L. 200 to build a room for its accommodation. 
Robert Macqueen, Lord Justice- Clerk for Scotland, was born 
in the parish, and educated at the schools of Lanark. Sir John 
Lockhart Ross, so renowned in the naval chronicles of Great 
Britain, as captain of the Tartar, although born in the adjacent 
parish of Carstairs, acquired by his marriage with the late Lady 
Ross Baillie, the beautiful property of Bonington in Lanark parish, 
where he built the present mansion-house, and occasionally resided. 
Among other celebrated men, we must not omit the excellent 
and pious Mr David Dale, founder of the village and manufactory 
of New- Lanark; nor his son-in-law, Robert Owen, who here exco- 
gitated and made an abortive attempt to reduce to practice, his 
wild theories for the renovation of society. 

Land-owners. The principal land-owners are Sir Norman 
Macdonald Lockhart, Bart, of Lee ; Lady Mary Ross of Boning- 
ton ; Mrs Elliot Lockhart of Cleghorn ; George Baillie, Esq. of 



LANARK. 13 

Jerviswood ; Thomas Young Howison, Esq. of Hyndford ; the 
Misses Carmichael of Smyllum Park ; Walker and Company of 
New Lanark ; Sir Richard Honyman of Huntly Hill ; Archibald 
Nesbit, Esq. of Carfin ; Alexander Gillespie, Esq. of Sunnyside. 
Besides these, there are 65 smaller heritors in the out-parish, and 
100 in the in-parish, possessing burgh lands. 

Parochial Registers. The parochial registers consist of 14 vo- 
lumes ; 7 of births, and 7 of marriages. The date of the earliest 
entry is 1 647. The session records reach no farther back than 1 699. 
Antiquities. The Castle- Hill, which we have already mention- 
ed as a small mount in the immediate vicinity of the town, towards 
the river, is supposed to have been originally a Roman castellum ; 
and General Roy mentions a fine silver Faustina as having been 
found here. But at present there is scarcely left a single vestige 
either of the ancient Roman work, or of the royal castle, which in 
later times occupied its site. It has been converted into a bowl- 
ing-green. 

There are remains of two Roman camps in the neighbour- 
hood of Lanark. The most considerable is not far from Cleg- 
horn-house, and was thought by General Roy to have been the 
work of Agricola. It measures 600 yards in length, and 420 in 
breadth, and at the south-west angle has a small post or redoubt. 
The other is situated upon the Lanark moor, on the opposite side 
of the Mouss, and is within a mile of one in the adjoining parish 
of Carstairs, apparently of later construction, and of which the 
vestiges are much more distinct. Through this passed the great 
Roman road from Carlisle to the wall of Antoninus, leaving the 
camp at Cleghorn upon the right. 

About half a mile below Lanark, upon an elevated situation on 
the banks of the Mouss, stands the picturesque remnant of a lofty 
tower, of which little or nothing is known. The eminence is called 
Castle Hill, and from it the Lockharts of Cambusnethan take 
their title. 

On the very brink of Cartlane Craigs, and overhanging a pre- 
cipice of above 200 feet of perpendicular height, are to be seen 
the vestiges of an old stronghold, called by some the Castle of the 
Quaw, probably from the Gaelic cuas or cave. Neither history 
nor tradition has preserved any record of what this was, or of the 
date of its erection. And it is only remarkable for certain subter- 
raneous caves or arched ways of rather a singular description, which 
have probably given the place its name. One of them was ex- 



14 LANARKSHIRE. 

plored by Mr Lockhart, who has given a description of it in the 
former Statistical Account. He there argues, from the absence of all 
traces of lime, that it must have been of a date anterior to the in- 
troduction of the use of mortar by the Romans. Another person 
to whom it was shown was of a different opinion, and says, that the 
arch appeared to him more like the work of some cow-herd boy 
than anything else. 

Old Church. About a quarter of a mile to the south-east of the 
town, and seen from all the country around, rise the beautiful ruins 
of the old parish church. There still remain traces to show that 
it must have been a building of great elegance. Six fine Gothic 
arches, supporting a wall which seems to have separated the body 
of the church from a side aisle, along its whole length, are at pre- 
sent standing. It is altogether unknown by whom, and at what 
exact period this fabric was erected ; but Chalmers, in his Cale- 
donia, has collected some interesting particulars with respect to it 
which had previously fallen into oblivion. It appears to have been 
in existence at the beginning of the twelfth century, before the 
re-establishment of the bishoprick of Glasgow by Prince David, 
and was dedicated to Kentigern, the patron saint of that city, and 
founder of the episcopate. In 1150, David I. granted it, with 
its tithes and pertinents, to the monastery of Dryborough, a grant 
which subsequent monarchs successively confirmed, and which was 
afterwards extended to a chapel at Cleghorn. In 1297, Blind 
Harry alludes to it, making his hero pass 

" On from the kirk that was without the town." 

The canons of Dryborough continued in possession of it, drew the 
revenues, and served the cure by establishing a vicarage until the 
period of the Reformation. In 1589-90, the presbytery passed a 
resolution " that the kirk of Lanerk should be removed from the 
auld place to a situation within the town." " Notwithstanding of 
this resolution," says Chalmers, " the kirk still remains in the old 
place, and continued to be the parish church until 1777, when a 
new one was built in the middle of the town." Long before this 
period, however, it had fallen into a ruinous state, and had ceas- 
ed to be used for public worship. The inhabitants of the town 
attended Divine service in the chapel of St Nicholas, which de- 
volved to the burgh at the Reformation, and in which the lofts 
and galleries were set apart for the magistrates and corporations. 
It seems impossible to ascertain at what precise period the old 
church was abandoned as a place of public worship. In former 

4 



LANARK. 15 

times it seems to have had various altars ; one consecrated to the 
holy cross, was styled the Ruid Altar, and another to the Virgin, 
Our Lady's Altar. To the chaplain who served the latter, James 
IV. granted in mortmain a tenement in Lanark, which had fallen to 
him by royal right. The charter is thus noted in the general index 
of charters in the Register office. " Willielmo Clerkson, capellano 
moderno ad altare gloriosissimae Virginis Marise, infra ecclesiam 
parochialem de Lanark," dated Lanark, 18th October 1500. In 
the reign of Robert III. John Simpson, a burgess of the town, 
founded and endowed a chaplainary in this church. The ground 
around it continues as of old to be the parish cemetery. For a num- 
ber of years it was abandoned to shameful neglect ; and the hands 
of mischievous boys co-operated with time in accelerating the de- 
struction of the venerable ruin. Its appearance has also suffered very 
materially by the erection of an ugly square tower in -the centre, 
for the accommodation of grave- watchers. But better feelings 
have lately prevailed. The churchyard has been enclosed with a 
wall ; and a small fund was raised for the purpose of using means 
to prevent the total dilapidation of the ancient pile. Considera- 
ble repairs were made, which it is hoped will uphold it a century 
or two longer to grace the spot where so many generations of La- 
narkers repose. * 

Before the Reformation there were various chapels in this pa- 
rish, of which, however, there remain at the present day scarcely 
any other memorial than the tradition of their existence, and the 
names which they have given to the spots at or near which they 
were situated, f 

* If the dead were conscious of what takes place above them, the ashes of at least 
one of the sleepers in this churchyard must have been disturbed by the profanations 
which used to take place in it. I allude to Mr William Birnie, of whom it is said 
in Nesbit's Heraldry, that when of age, and after three years study abroad, he was, 
upon the 28th of December 1597, presented by King James VI. to the parish of 
Lanark. An interesting reprint of an old and learned work of this person, entitled 
" The Blame of Kirk Burial, tending to persuade to Cemeterial Civilitie," has late- 
ly been made by William Turnbull, Esq. advocate. The author, in quaint but 
powerful language, inveighs against the practice of burying in the area of churches, 
but delivers many admirable sentiments on the honour due to the resting-places of 
the dead. It would appear that in his day the ecclesiastical profession required more 
various and extensive accomplishments than are now deemed necessary, or even be- 
coming in clergymen. For it is said of Mr Birnie, " that he not only learnedly 
preached the gospel in this parish, but, because of the several quarrels and feuds 
amongst the gentlemen, was obliged many times, as he well could, to make use of 
his sword." 

f Some notices respecting the chapels of St Nicholas, St Leonards, and the cha- 
pels at Cleghorn and East Nemphlar, will be found in the original MS. 



1C LANARKSHIRE. 

In the Tnansion-house at Bonington are preserved a few inte- 
resting relics of Sir William Wallace, of whose family the Rosses 
claim to be the representatives in the female line. These were 
brought from the old castle of Lamington. A portrait there 
shows the chieftain in look and features much as he is repre- 
sented in the common pictures. There is also a broad oaken 
seat, which has borne from time immemorial the name of Wallace's 
Chair. The four large posts which compose its frame-work, and 
of which the two at the back are considerably higher than those 
in front, are the only parts which have any claim to antiquity, and 
certainly are sufficiently rude for the fourteenth century. All the 
rest together, with the bear skin with which it has been covered, 
are modern additions. A third object is a small oaken cup, called 
Wallace's quaigh, evidently of very great antiquity. * 

Lee-penny. The most celebrated antiquity, however, which we 
have to mention is the Lee-penny. This is a small triangular stone, 
of what kind, a lapidary, to whom it was shown, confessed himself 
unable to determine. In size, it is about half an inch on each side, 
and is set in a piece of silver coin, which, from the traces of a cross 
still discernible, is supposed to be a shilling of Edward the First. 
The traditional history of this gem is as follows : King Robert 
Bruce had ordered, that after his death his heart should be carried 
to the Holy Land, and one of those who joined the expedition, ap- 
pointed to carry the royal wish into effect, was Sir Simon Lockard 
of Lee. To defray his expenses, he borrowed a sum of money 
from Sir William de Lindsay, prior of Ayre, to whom he granted 
a bond of annuity for L. 10 upon his estate of Lee. This bond, 
bearing date 1323, is still preserved amongst the family papers. 
As a memorial of his services upon this occasion, the family name 
of Locard was changed into Lock-heart or Lockhart, and he ob- 

Among.the minor antiquities may be mentioned the church bell. It was removed 
from the old to the present parish church, and has been several times refounded. It 
bears the date of these. The first is so early as 1110 ; the second 1659 ; and the last 
1740. 

* Its history is thus recorded in verse upon the silver hoop which encircles the 
edge : 

At Torwood I was cut from that known tree, 
Where Wallace from warres toyls took sanctarie. 
For Mars's sonnes I'm only now made fitt, 
When with the sonnes of Bacchus they shall sitt. 

Sir Walter Scott, in the Tales of a Grandfather, mentions his having forty years ago 
examined the roots of the oak here alluded to, which at that time were all that remain- 
ed of it. 



LANARK. 17 

tained for arms a heart within a lock, with the motto, Corda serata 
pando. Sir Simon is said in this journey to have taken prisoner a 
Saracen chief, for whose liberty his lady offered a large sum of 
money. In counting it out, she happened to drop the gem from 
her purse, and showed such eagerness in recovering it as drew the 
knight's attention, and raised his curiosity to learn what it was. 
Being told of its remarkable virtues, he refused to liberate the 
husband, unless it were added to the ransom. With this demand 
the lady unwillingly complied, and thus the talisman came into the 
possession of the family with whom it has ever since remained. 
Formerly it bore a very high and extensive celebrity for extraor- 
dinary medicinal properties. Water in which it had been but dipt 
was supposed to be an effectual remedy for all diseases of cattle, 
and has been sent for as far as the northern counties of England. 
It was also considered to be a specific against hydrophobia. The 
most remarkable instance of its efficacy in that distemper was the 
cure of a Lady Baird of Saughton-hall, near Edinburgh, who, by 
using draughts and baths of it, recovered from the bite of a mad 
dog, after, it is said, hydrophobia had actually begun. When the 
plague was last at Newcastle the inhabitants borrowed the Lee- 
penny, giving a large sum in trust for the loan, and so convinced 
were they of its good effects, that they were willing to forfeit the 
deposit and retain possession.* 

* Various, of course, arc the opinions held as to whether these virtues are real or 
imaginary, natural or miraculous. The following authority upon the subject is per- 
haps curious enough to deserve a place: 

" Copy of an Act of the Synode and Assembly apud Glasgow the 25th of October, 
Synode Session 2d. 

" Quhilk daye amongest the referies of the Brethern of the ministrie of Lanark, it 
was propondit to the Synode, that Gawen Hammiltoune of Raploch had preferit ane 
complaint before them against Sir Thos Lockhart of Lee, anent the superstitious 
using of ane stone set in silver for the curing of deseased cattel, qulk the said Gawen 
affirmed could not be lawfullie used, and that they had defer! t to give any desisioune 
therin till the advise of the Assemblie might be heard concerning the same. The As- 
semblie having inquerit of the maner of using therof, and particularlie understood 
be examinatioune of the aid Laird of Lie and otherwise, that the custom is onlie to 
cast the stone in sume water, and give the deseasit cattel ther-af to drink, and yt the 
same is done wt-out using onie wordes, such as charmers use in their unlawful prac- 
tissess, and considering that in nature they are monie thinges sein to work strange 
effect, qrof no humane witt can give a reason, it having pleasit God to give unto 
stones and herbes a special virtues for the healling of mony infirmities in man and 
beast, and advises the Brethern to surcease thair process, as qr-in they perseive no 
ground of offence, and admonishes the said Laird of Lie in the using of the said 
stone, to tak heid it be usit heir after wt. the least scandall that possihlie maybe. 

LANARK. B 



18 LANARKSHIRE. 

Modern Buildings. There are several very handsome seats in 
the parish. The lordly-looking mansion of Lee, the seat of Sir 
Norman Macdonald Lockhart, was renovated a few years ago, 
after a design of Mr Gillespie Graham. The style is castellated. 
Its principal ornament is the lofty Gothic hall in the centre, which 
replaces the open court of the old house, rises high above the rest 
of the building, and is lighted by twelve windows, three on each 
side near the roof. 

Bonington, the jointure house of Lady Mary Ross, is an elegant 
modern mansion, delightfully situated within a quarter of a mile from 
the Corra Lin. It was lately much improved by the addition of a 
handsome porch in front, also from a design of Mr Gillespie 
Graham. 

Smyllum, a spacious mansion of imposing appearance, was built 
about twenty years ago. It is in the castle style, and stands in a 
high and very conspicuous situation half a mile above the town. 

Cleghorn is an old and comfortable dwelling-house, finely situ- 
ated upon the north bank of the Mouss, and surrounded with fine 
wood. 

Sunnyside Lodge is an elegant English villa, beautifully placed 
upon the steep bank of the Clyde, about a mile and a-half below 
Lanark. A particular point in the avenue commands one of the 
richest and most extensive prospects in the country. 

Many of the houses in Lanark have been rebuilt within the last 
ten years, in rather a handsome style, which has greatly improved 
its appearance, although it has deprived it of its ancient title to 
be considered a finished town. The best house in it was built a 
few years ago by the Commercial Bank for the accommodation of a 
thriving branch of their business. The stones principally used are 
rag and freestone, the former from quarries near the town ; the 
latter is brought from the adjoining parishes of Lesmahagoe and 
Carluke. The Auchinheath and Maingill quarries yield a stone 
which is found not to bear exposure to the weather. A new quarry 
has lately been opened at Pittfield, on the road to Carluke, the 
rock of which promises fair, but has not yet been sufficiently tried. 
Lime is brought a distance of four miles from Craigend-hill. 

Extract out of the Bookes of the Assemblie holden at Glasgow, and subscribed by 
thair clerk at thair command. 

" M. ROBERT YOUNG, 
" Clerk to the Assemblie at Glasgow." 



LANARK. 19 

III. POPULATION. 

In 1755 the population amounted to 2294 by Dr Webster's return. 

In 1781 - " - - 2360 Chalmers's Caledonia. 

In 1792 -' -- : 4751 Old Statistical Account. 

In 1794 - - - 4905} 

In 1796 4761 Taken by Mr Menzies. 

In 1800 ,.-.v 51033 

In 1811 - - ,' - 6067 

In 1821 7085 

In 1831 7672 

The great increase observable between 1781 and 1792 took 
place chiefly in consequence of the erection and prosperity of the 
cotton manufactory at New Lanark ; but it is in some measure also 
to be ascribed to the improvement and extension of trade, manu- 
factures, and agriculture in general. 

The number of the population at present residing in the town, 
4266; in New Lanark, 1901 ; in the country, 1505 ; total, 7672. 
The nobility and persons of independent fortune in the parish 
amount to 10. 

There are 16 persons who possess land of the yearly value of 
L. 50 and upwards, besides the burgh of Lanark, and the Com- 
pany at New Lanark. 

1 . Number of families in the parish, 1 540 

of families chiefly employed in agriculture, - 93 

chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 1197 

2. The average number of births yearly, for the last 7 years, (exclusive of dis- 

senters,) . 129f 

of marriages, 63 

of deaths in 1830, 153 

Belonging to the parish are 4 insane persons kept in asylums ; 
4 fatuous ; 6 blind, 3 of whom are resident, and 3 are kept in asy- 
lums ; 2 deaf and dumb. 

Families which have for several generations been domiciled in 
the town are remarked to be in general small in stature compared 
with the population of the country district, who are tall and robust. 

Character, Habits, and Customs of the People. Within the last 
forty years the language of the people has improved much, and 
especially of late among the young. The natives have a striking 
peculiarity of accent, which consists in lengthening the last syllable, 
raising the voice upon it, and adding the sound of an a. 

Palm Saturday was observed as a holiday at the grammar- 
school until within the last thirty years. The scholar who pre- 
sented the master with -the largest Candlemas offering was ap- 
pointed king, and walked in procession with his life-guards 



20 LANARKSHIRE. 

and sergeants. The great and little palm branches of the Salix 
caprcea in flower, and decked with a profusion of daffodils, were 
carried behind him. A handsome embroidered flag, the gift of a 
lady in the town to the boys, was used on this festival. The day 
concluded with a ball. 

On the Lanemar or Landmark-day, there are processions to in- 
spect the marches of the town lands. As a method of impressing 
the boundaries upon the memory, all persons who attend for the 
first time are ducked in the river Mouss, in the channel of which 
one of the march-stones is placed : and horse and foot races take 
place upon the moor. It is a day of great festivity. 

The people are, upon the whole, cleanly in their habits. But the 
late severe depression in the weaving trade has reduced great num- 
bers to such a state of destitution as calls for the liveliest sympathy. 
They not only want decent clothing, but can hardly procure sufficient 
food. At the cotton-works the people are well dressed, and live 
in general very comfortably. In all parts of the parish, oat-meal 
porridge for breakfast, potatoes with herrings for dinner, and again 
porridge or potatoes for supper, form the usual diet of the labour- 
ing-classes. Tea is used whenever it can be afforded. Poaching 
prevails to a considerable extent, with its usual bad effects. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

.Agriculture and Rural Economy. As much of the land in the 
parish, both arable, waste, and in wood, has never been measured, it 
is only by approximation that the following results have been 
obtained : 

Arable acres, Scotch statute measure, 6500 

Uncultivated, 1200 

Town common, 600 

Under wood, - 600 

Planted as orchards, - 36 

Of late years there has been very little planting in this parish, 
and that little confined to the estates of Lee and Cleghorn. An 
intelligent nurseryman in the place says, that the forest trees plant- 
ed in the whole of the upper ward of Lanarkshire amount to 
700,000 and 900,000 annually for the last ten years. These 
have been in the proportion of two parts of larch to one of spruce 
and Scotch fir. The larch is found to grow best upon the high 
lands, and is of more value to the planter, and hence is now in far 
greater demand than about twenty-five years ago. Little oak, ash, 
elm, or hard-wood, of any kind is planted, except in the more shel- 



LANARK. 21 

tered situations, as it is found they seldom come to perfection on 
the light heathy lands. 

JRent, Prices, Wages^ fyc. The average rent of arable land is 
L. 1, 3s. per Scotch statute acre ; the average price of a cow's 
grazing on good land, L. 4; on inferior, L. 1, 10s. ; that of an ox 
varies from L. 3 to L. 3, 10s. The common labourer's wages is 
9s. per week; women get Is. per day. 

Breeds of Live Stock. There are no store-farms in the parish. 
The cattle are all of the Ayrshire breed, and, owing to the pre- 
miums given by the agricultural societies, they are greatly improved. 

Husbandry. A great part of the arable land is said to be unfit 
for green crop. After four or five years pasture, it is top-dressed 
and two crops of oats taken, with the last of which grass seeds are 
sown. It is then again pastured for four or five years. About a 
fourth part of it, however, is of a very superior description. It is 
cultivated with a rotation of four years 1st, oats ; 2d, green crop, 
consisting of potatoes, turnips, or beans ; 3d, wheat or barley ; 4th, 
hay. It is then pastured one or two years, but in many cases not 
at all. The land of the orchards is generally cropped in a simi- 
lar manner, but is dug instead of being ploughed ; and, instead of 
its being pastured, a hay crop is taken. 

A good deal has been done in the way of irrigation, principally 
at Cleghorn, and likewise in draining at the joint expense of land- 
lord and tenant. 

The leases being for nineteen years are favourable to the occu- 
pier, and the rents are in general well paid. The farms are all 
small, and the buildings and enclosures indifferent. 

Quarry. There is only one lime quarry in the parish, which is 
wrought partly by open cast, and partly by mining. It produces 
7000 bolls annually, and has a seam of coal eighteen inches thick, 
capable of burning about one-third part of the lime. 

Produce. As various courses of cropping are adopted, and the 
land is of very unequal quality, the average value of the gross 
produce can only be given in a very vague approximation : 

Grain, L. 15,500 

Green crop, 2,275 

Hay, 1,625 

Pasture, - 3,287 

Orchards,* 300 

Plantations, - 600 

Lime, 700 



L. 24287 
Fifteen years ago, the orchards would have brought double the sum ; but of late, 



LANARKSHIRE. 

Manufactures. Cotton-spinning. The principal manufacture 
in the parish is cotton-spinning at New Lanark. The establish- 
ment formerly acquired very extensive notoriety, under the super- 
intendence of Mr Robert Owen, son-in-law of David Dale, the 
original founder. But in 1827, that gentleman ceased to have any 
interest in the business, which has since been carried on under the 
firm of Walker and Company. 

There are 1110 persons employed in this manufacture, of whom 
about 60 are mechanics and labourers. Children are not admitted 
into the factory under ten years of age. The hours of work are 
eleven and a quarter daily throughout the year, whatever be the 
state of trade. The people are very comfortably supported, are 
in general healthy, and, in comparison with other establishments 
of the kind, remarkably decent in behaviour. 

Weaving. Another extensive branch of manufacture in the 
parish is weaving, in which 873 persons are engaged ; 702 in the 
town, and 171 in the country. This trade is at the very lowest 
ebb, and scarcely yields the means of support to those who are 
employed in it. There are a few of the weavers who, being in 
the prime of life, and endowed with superior strength and skill, 
can gain 8s. a-week ; but to do this, they must sit from fourteen 
to sixteen hours a-day, and the exertion soon ruins the health of 
the most robust. The common wages scarcely average 6s. per 
week, from which a drawback must be made or Is. 3d. ; lOd. 
for loom-rent, 3d. for light, and 2d. for carriage of the web. Men 
advanced in life, dispirited by the remembrance of better times, 
may make about 3s. 6d. The only addition to this miserable pit- 
tance is what their wives can earn by winding the waft upon pirns, 
and which varies from 6d. to Is. 3d. per week.* 

When three or four in one family are employed, and the joint 
gains are under the management of a thrifty wife, they are able to 
make a tolerable shift. But nothing can exceed the misery of 
those who have themselves and a family to support by their single- 
handed industry. The misery they have suffered has had the un- 
happy but too common effect of plunging some of them into care- 
less and dissipated habits ; but the majority are well behaved and 
intelligent men, and bear their hardships with commendable pa- 

the value of fruit has been gradually falling, partly owing to the larger quantities 
produced, and partly to its being brought from other districts to Glasgow by means 
of steam-vessels, with greater safety and expedition than formerly. 

* Since the above was written, the condition of the weavers has been considerably 
improved, in consequence of the cheapness of provisions, a greater supply of work, 
and a small advance on the p rice of the yard. 






LANARK. 23 

\ 

tience. The following fact will illustrate the melancholy depres- 
sion of this branch of industry. On Martinmas fair day 1812, a 
general strike took place, and continued for nine weeks, because 
a certain description of work, 1200 policuts, fell from 8d. to 6d. 
per yard. For the last three years, the same description of work 
has been, upon an average, at l|d. Accustomed at the former pe- 
riod to better days, the weaver believed that 6d. was too low a rate 
to afford him a livelihood, and it is only because it came upon them 
gradually that they have been able to survive the present depres- 
sion. Forced by the pressure of immediate want, they are accus- 
tomed to put their children of both sexes upon the loom at the 
early age of nine or twelve, by which means their numbers are con- 
tinually augmenting, and the evil is increased. 

Shoemaking, fyc. There are in the parish 96 shoemakers. This 
trade is at present in as flourishing a condition as was ever known. 
The weekly wages which a tradesman actually gains average 8s. ; 
but, with steadiness and skill, he may easily increase them to 1 2s. 
Boots and shoes for foreign export are occasionally made here. 

The tailors are 24 in number, and their wage is about 9s. per 
week. There are 51 wrights and 34 masons, who gain about 14s. 
per week. Occasionally more are required than live in the place, 
but they are easily procured from the adjoining parishes. Build- 
ing is rather expensive, in consequence of the distant carriage of 
the materials. There are in the parish 13 smiths, 14 bakers, 8 
butchers, 45 young females employed in mantua-making, 120 in 
embroidering gymp lace. Three brewers carry on business to a 
considerable extent in the town. There are three mills, two of 
which are for grinding flour. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Town and Villages. The town of Lanark stands in nearly the 
centre of the parish. It is under the government of magistrates, 
who employ five or six town-officers. A large body of constables 
can likewise be called out when occasion requires. Here the prin- 
cipal business transactions of the surrounding district are carried 
on. There are markets on Tuesday and Saturday ; the former in 
general is very numerously attended. In Lanark, as the county 
town, the Sheriff and Justice of Peace courts are held, and the elec- 
tion of the member of Parliament for the county takes place. 

New Lanark is a large and handsome village, lying on the south- 
west from the town. It stands low upon the river side, and is com- 



24 LANARKSHIRE. 

pletely surrounded by steep and beautifully wooded hills. It owes 
its existence to David Dale, who built the first mill in 1784. It has 
always been and still continues a remarkably thriving manufactory. 

There are, besides, three considerable hamlets, Cartland in the 
north-west, Nemphlar in the west, and Hyndford Bridge-end in the 
south-east quarter of the parish. 

Means of Communication. The parish enjoys the most ample 
means of communication. There is a post-office ; fifteen miles of 
turnpike road traverse the parish in different directions. In the fine 
season, a stage-coach goes to and from Edinburgh every lawful 
day ; in winter, three times a-w'eek. There is also a stage coach 
to Glasgow, in summer twice, and in winter once a-day, besides a 
number of carriers. 

There are two bridges over the Clyde. The old bridge, about 
a mile below the town, is of a very indifferent description. It was 
built about the middle of the seventeenth century, at an expense 
of L. 56, 11s, 7d., which was raised by private contributions and 
parochial collections.* 

The New or Hyndford Bridge, a little more than two miles from 
the town, is remarkable for its elegance. Over the Mouss, there 
are no fewer than five bridges, at Cleghorn, at Lockhartford, at 
Cartlane Craigs, and two at Mouss Mill. The Cartlane bridge 
was built in 1822, from a design of Mr Telford, engineer, and is 
one of the most beautiful in the country. The height from the 
bed of the river to the parapet is 125 feet, and to the spring of the 
arch 84. It has three arches of 52 feet span each. 

One of the bridges at Mouss Mill is very ancient and curious ; 
it has a semicircular arch. When the new one was built, this was 
condemned to be demolished, but, being an object of considerable 
beauty, it was purchased for L. 50, and preserved by Michael Lin- 
ning, Esq. and is a great ornament to his beautiful little property 
in the vicinity. 

Ecclesiastical State Patronage of the Parish. The patronage 

* The following extract from the presbytery records connected with this bridge is 

curious. " March 29th 1649 It is ordained the act of Parliament which is granted 

in favour of the town of Lanark for building a bridge at Clydesholm, a work of 
great necessity and public concernment, be presented to the synod that we may have 
the help and advice of the synod for the furtherance of the work. April 19th 1649. 
The brethren, after their return from the synod, report to the baillies of Lanark 
being then present, law willing, all the brethren of the synod were to further the work 
of building a bridge at Clydesholm by a contribution of their several parishes, and 
desires the baillies not to neglect speedily to go on with the work, which the presby- 
tery will further all they can." 



LANARK. 25 

is in the hands of the Crown ; but from the time of Charles II. it 
had been claimed by the family of Lee. The Laird of Lee, in 
1748, granted a presentation in favour of the Rev. Robert Dick, 
one of the most pious and learned ministers ever belonging to the 
church of Scotland, the king presenting at the same time the Rev. 
James Gray. The people, unjustly prejudiced against the former 
presentee, tumultuously opposed his induction, for which several of 
them were tried. The civil question of right was at that time 
brought before the Court of Session, and decided in favour of the 
Laird of Lee; but, upon an appeal' to the House of Lords, this 
decision was reversed, and the Crown has since exercised the pa- 
tronage. 

The parish church is situated in the middle of the town, and 
is in so far convenient for the large majority of the population, al- 
though a few families residing at the extremities of the parish may 
be between four and five miles distant from it. It was built in 
1774. For many years back it had been in a very dilapidated 
state. During last autumn, however, it underwent considerable 
repairs, by which it has been greatly improved.* 

Elegant silver communion cups were anciently presented to the 
church by the Laird of Lee. Lady Ross Baillie likewise present- 
ed the church with a handsome baptismal bason, a clock, and a 
pair of stoves, and in other ways also contributed to its comfort. 

By the original contract, the church should have been seated to 
accommodate 2300 persons. But such a number would scarcely 
find room. There are about 100 free sittings, and these might 
easily be increased, if necessary, by benches along the passages. 

The manse was built in 1757. It received repairs and an addi- 
tion in 1811, and is now in a tolerably comfortable state. 

* The following is a list of the ministers of Lanark since the Reformation : 

David Cuningham about 1562 

John Leverance, 1567 

James Raitt, 1574 

William Birnie from 1597 to about 1615 

William Livingstone 1614 1641 

Robert Birnie 1643 1691 

In the Second Charge. 

James Kirkton 1655 1657 

John Bannatyne - . -i ' 1688 1707 

John Orr 1708 1748 

Robert Dick 1750 1754 

James Gray 1755 

William Menzies 179:3 

The presbytery records commence in 1620. 



26 LANARKSHIRE. 

The glebe is four acres in extent, and is worth about L. 16 per 
annum. The amount of the stipend is 19 chalders, half barley, half 
meal, with L.20 for communion elements. 

There is no chapel of ease attached to the Established church, 
although one is much needed, especially at New Lanark. 

The dissenters have three places of worship in the town, one 
Relief, the others belonging to the Burghers. One of the dissent- 
ing clergymen is promised L. 120, another L.100, and the third 
L. 60 per annum. 

As many families and persons frequent the Established church 
as can procure seats ; and here and at the Relief Chapel divine 
service is well attended. The average number of communicants 
at the Established church is 1100. 

Religious Societies. There is a Bible society and a ladies' Bible 
association in the parish. Previously to 1827, they were accus- 
tomed to send their funds to the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
But since that period they have deemed it more proper to employ 
them otherwise ; and to different institutions and societies for the 
spread of the gospel, they have contributed the following sums : 
In 1827, L.100; in 1828, L.70; in 1829, L.80; in 1830, L.40; 
in 1831, L.20; in 1832, L.20. 

There is likewise a missionary society ; but neither this nor any 
other institution of the kind is now prospering as it ought, and what 
they have been able to effect has been in consequence of handsome 
legacies left them by a benevolent lady. Formerly, the private 
subscriptions and collections at the church door for religious and 
charitable purposes were wont to be liberal, but of late years they 
have unhappily very much decreased. 

Education. The number of schools in the parish is 12, none 
of which is parochial. One is endowed, and one is supported by a 
society. 

The grammar-school once enjoyed high celebrity as a seminary 
of education. The rector's salary amounts to L.40; that of the assist- 
ant is L.20. The wages are 4s. per quarter for Latin; and 2s. 6d. for 
English, writing and arithmetic Is. more. Connected with this school 
there are twenty-eight bursaries ; nine of them were endowed in 
1648 by Mr John Carmichael, commissary of Lanark, who mort- 
gaged the lands of Batiesmains for the purpose. The rest were 
endowed by one of the Earls of Hyndford, by the family of Maulds- 
lie, and by a former chamberlain of the name of Thomson. The 
patronage of these bursaries is in the hands of the magistrates. 






LANARK. 27 

They are of different value, and, after the payment of the school 
fees, may leave about L. 2 or L. 3 over, for the support of each of 
the boys who enjoy them. This school possesses a library, which 
we have already noticed as having been left to it by Dr William 
Smellie; but, as the books are principally medical, it is of little use. 

Some years ago a benevolent lady of the name of Wilson en- 
dowed a free school in the town of Lanark for the instruction of 
fifty poor children. The sum mortgaged was L. 1200. 

The subscription school has long been well managed, and is a 
blessing to the place. 

The teachers of the Nemphlar and Cartlane schools have each 
an allowance of L. 5 yearly from the heritors. At New Lanark 
there is a day-school, frequented by about 500 children, who re- 
ceive instruction in the ordinary branches, more suitable to their 
rank of life than the ornamental accomplishments to which, under 
a former management, an exclusive attention had been paid. 

In general, the people are alive to the benefits of education. 
There is no part of the parish so distant as to be out of the reach 
of a school, and no additional schools are required. 

Libraries. There is a subscription library on a small scale, 
which is tolerably flourishing. There are also two circulating 
libraries in the town. Several efforts have been made to set a week- 
ly periodical agoing, but hitherto without success. A reading-room 
was attempted some years ago, but failed. 

Benevolent Societies. There is at .Lanark a brotherly society, 
to which about 100 persons subscribe. Its object is the relief of 
members when in distress, and at the present moment five are re- 
ceiving assistance from it. It would probably have declined like 
other institutions of the kind in this place, but the funds were laid 
out in the purchase of three roods of land in the vicinity of the town, 
which is advantageously feued, and to this it owes its continuance. 
There were once many more such societies; but two or three years 
ago a groundless alarm, that Government meant to seize upon their 
funds, produced their immediate dissolution. 

At New Lanark, a sick society for the same benevolent object 
is in existence. The maximum contribution is 3d. weekly ; 
rate of aliment when sick, 7s. 6d. ; when recovering, 5s. ; superan- 
nuated, 3s. Besides these there are 3 funeral societies in the 
parish, I in Lanark, and 2 in New Lanark. On the death of a 
member or his wife, the family receives L. 4, and L. 2 on the death 



28 LANARKSHIRE. 

of a child. The sum is gathered as occasion requires, the socie- 
ties accumulating no funds. 

There is a society in Lanark for the relief of sick, aged, and 
indigent females. It is supported by subscriptions, &c. amount- 
ing to about L. 40 annually, and has proved of signal benefit, in 
distributing pecuniary relief, coals, and clothing. This society 
is well conducted, and the objects carefully selected by the re- 
spectable females of Lanark. 

Savings Bank. In 1815, a savings bank was instituted, in which, 
for each of the last three years, there has been invested about 
L. 200 ; withdrawn L. 342. The deposits are all made by the 
working-classes, chiefly maid-servants. There is a sum amounting 
to L. 1400 in the bank belonging to about 410 depositors. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The number of the poor amounts 
in the in-parish to 71, in the out-parish to 36. In virtue of a mu- 
tual agreement made seventy-five years ago between the two classes 
of heritors, each to support their own poor, the management of 
the former is in the hands of the kirk-session and in-town heritors, 
while that of the latter is in the hands of the kirk-session and out- 
heritors. Paupers in the burgh are paid from Is. to 10s. per month, 
according to circumstances ; country paupers on an average, 5s. 
per month. 

The contributions at the church door now amount annually to 
no more than L. 37. Of this, L. 8 are, by agreement, paid to the 
landward heritors for the support of their poor. What remains 
after that and the other drawbacks, together with an annual assess- 
ment of L. 230, goes to maintain the poor of the in-parish ; besides 
L. 70, the annual rent of the hospital lands, is distributed by the 
magistrates among the poor of the burgh, and L. 40 by the cor- 
poration of shoemakers to the poor belonging to them. 

The landward paupers are maintained by the L. 8 received out 
of the church collections, and an assessment amounting to L. 100 
annually, which has been levied for a period of seventy-five years, 
without undergoing any considerable increase. 

Mrs Wilson mortified a sum which yields about L.32 per annum, 
for the aid of indigent persons not upon the poor's roll ; and for the 
same class of persons, the late Mr Howison of Hyndford, left 
L. 700, which is to be invested in land, and the produce annually 
distributed. Formerly it was considered disgraceful to receive pa- 
rochial relief, but for some years past, this honourable feeling has 
been gradually wearing away. 



LANARK. 29 

Jail. There is a jail in the town, under the government of the 
magistrates. But it has, for a long course of years, been in so in- 
secure a condition, that none have staid in it but such as were 
prisoners de bonne volonte. An act of Parliament, however, has 
been obtained for the erection of County Buildings at Lanark, 
including a Prison for the Upper Ward ; and the foundation stone 
was laid on 21st March 1834. 

Fairs. Seven fairs are held at Lanark every year. The one 
on the last Wednesday of May, old style, is for black cattle ; that 
on the last Wednesday of July for lambs and horses ; and the one 
in October, on the Friday after the Falkirk tryst, is for horses and 
black-cattle. 

Inns. There are 53 persons licensed to keep inns in the parish. 
Of these, however, 14 are merely spirit-dealers, and do not sell any 
kind of liquors but in the way of retail over the counter. The 
Clydesdale Hotel in this town is one of the handsomest and best 
kept inns in Scotland. A few years ago, the shareholders expend- 
ed L. 2400 in adding to it an elegant assembly room. 

Fuel. Fuel is excellent and cheap. Coal is brought from the 
adjoining parishes, some of it six, and the rest nine miles distance, 
and is laid down in the town at an expense of from 4d to 4gd per 
cwt. A few peats are also cast in the adjoining moor. 

April 1834. 



PARISH OF LESMAHAGO, 

PRESBYTERY OF LANARK, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. JAMES HAMILTON, D.D.) 
THE REV. JOHN WILSON, A. M. f 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name Boundaries, tyc. THIS parish is supposed to derive its 
name from Les or Lis, signifying in Gaelic, a green or garden, and 
Machute, the tutelar saint of the place, who is said to have settled 
here in the sixth century. 

A monastery was founded in this parish by David I. in 1140. 
It was dependent on the abbey of Kelso ; and hence the village 
which collected round it received the name of Abbey Green, 
which it still retains. This village is nearly in the centre of the 
parish, and about twenty-two miles from Glasgow, upon which 
the inhabitants of this and other villages in the parish depend for 
employment as weavers. 

The parish may be described as nearly square, and contains 
sixty-seven square miles, or 34,000 acres. It is bounded on the 
east by the parishes of Lanark and Carmichael ; on the south by 
Douglas, and Muirkirk ; on the west by Strathaven and Stone- 
house ; and on the north by Dalserf and Carluke. 

Topographical Appearances. The average elevation of more 
than three-fourths of the parish is probably about 500 feet above 
the sea;^-the remainder, lying upon the west and south-west 
side, rises into considerable hills, dividing the counties of Lanark 
and Ayr, some of which may be supposed to be 1200 feet high. 
They afford an excellent sheep-pasture. On the south side of 
the parish there is a fissure in the rocks known by the name of 
Wallace's Cave ; if ever that hero inhabited it, his lodging could 
not be of the most comfortable kind. 

Meteorology. The elevated situation of the parish renders the 
temperature of the atmosphere very variable ; and, not unfrequent- 
ly, the fruit-trees, after promising an abundant crop, have had 

* This Account has been drawn up by Andrew Smith, Esq. of Fauldhouse. 



LESMAHAGO. 31 

their blossoms blighted by a few chilly nights in May. In rainy 
weather, the hills upon the west seem to attract the clouds, and, 
consequently, more rain falls there than in the lower parts of the 
parish ; Jbut even there, want of moisture is not generally com- 
plained of. The prevailing winds may be said to be from the 
westward, every tree or hedge that is exposed leaning from that, 
and making their most vigorous shoots in an opposite direction. 
Upon the whole, however, the climate may be said to be salubrious, 
and instances of longevity are numerous. 

Hydrography. This parish abounds in springs of excellent wa- 
ter ; though none of a medicinal quality have been yet discovered. 
These springs are the parents of several streams, capable of driv- 
ing machinery. The Poniel water, which rises in the south-west 
of the parish, divides it from the parish of Douglas, and after a 
course of seven or eight miles in an easterly direction, joins the 
Douglas water about three miles from its junction with the Clyde ; 
for which three miles the united stream becomes the boundary of 
the parish. The Logan, Nethan, and also the Kype water rise 
in the high grounds on the west. The banks of the Nethan 
are generally clothed with coppice, and adorned with gentlemen's 
houses, or neat farm-steadings. 

The Kype, so far as it divides this parish from Avondale or 
Strathaven, is a moorland stream, naked and unadorned on its 
banks, but capable of working mischief on the lower grounds, when 
thunder storms have passed along the hills. In consequence of 
these grounds being much drained within these few years, the water 
descends more rapidly than formerly, and in greater quantities, de- 
stroying bridges and injuring the small haughs or holms. There 
are some other small streams that run a few miles in the parish, 
but all are tributary to the above, with the exception of the Can- 
nar, which, after a course of a few miles, joins the Avon in the 
parish of Stonehouse. As all these streams ultimately join the 
Clyde, where it is from three to four hundred feet above the sea, 
their courses are pretty rapid. 

Geology. This parish lies nearly on the south side of the great 
coal field which crosses our island through Fife, Ayrshire, and the 
intermediate counties. Nevertheless, the strata are so deranged 
by numerous dikes or fissures, that, where coals are wrought, the 
direction and inclination of the strata vary so materially, as to set 
hopes and expectations at defiance. In several of the coal and 



32 LANARKSHIRE. 

lime-works, the dip is as one in six ; while at Auchenheath, where, 
as well as in two other places in this parish, a fine kind of cannel 
coal is wrought, supplying Glasgow and other places with gas, the 
inclination is only one to twelve, or thirteen. Coal of the same 
quality has (we believe) been nowhere found in Scotland ; and even 
here, and in a small corner of the parish of Carluke, to which it 
extends, the thickness of the strata varies from ten to twenty-one 
inches ; it is sold for about 8s. per ton upon the coal-hill, and 
affords employment to about forty pickmen in this parish. Pit- 
coal is also plentiful in Lesmahago. 

The rocks that appear are either whin, or trap sandstone, or 
limestone ; in some places the sandstone inclines to slate, but no 
true roofing-slate has been discovered in this parish. Limestone 
has been wrought, and still is wrought in seven or eight different 
places in the parish. Though sold at a pretty fair price, affording 
the landlord about one-sixth of the sale price, it has given a stimu- 
lus to improvement, particularly of waste lands. In these lime- 
stone workings, petrified shells are very commonly found ; and 
sometimes the fossil remains of terrestrial animals. Ironstone may 
be seen in many of the banks, both in balls and in regular strata, 
but not in such quantities, nor lying so regularly, as to warrant the 
erection of a furnace. 'Lead has frequently been sought in the- 
high grounds, on the south-west of the parish, but hitherto with- 
out success ; nor have simple minerals been found in the rocks, 
or beds of rivers, to any extent. 

From the rapid current of the streams, little alluvial soil is found 
in the parish ; it may therefore be said to consist chiefly of a yel- 
low clay, to a small extent resting on a substratum of white sand- 
stone ; of a light friable soil, resting on whinstone ; of a Fandy 
gravelly soil, from decomposed sandstone, and of moss. The se- 
cond of these is unquestionably the best ; but both that and the 
first, when properly managed, produce better and more certain 
crops than the other two. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

A short account of this parish was written by the Rev. Mr 
Whyte of Libberton, and published in the Edinburgh Magazine 
about sixty years ago. 

Historical Notices. There are no historical events of import- 
ance connected with Lesmahago, except the burning by the bro- 






LESMAHAGO. 33 

ther of Edward III. of the abbey, and its destruction a second 
time by fire, kindled by the zeal of the old reformers. This religi- 
ous spirit appears to have here broken forth on more occasions ; for 
many of the inhabitants bore arms at Bothwell Bridge. The co- 
lours and the drum then used are still preserved in the parish. 

It was in Lesmahago that the unfortunate Mr Macdonald of 
Kinlochmoidart was apprehended by a carpenter named Meikle, 
and a young clergyman of the name of Linning, while on his 
way south to join Prince Charles ; in revenge for which, the clans, 
on their way north, burned Meikle's house. A Mr Lawrie, gene- 
rally designated the Tutor of Blackwood, from his having married 
the heiress of that estate, seems to have been a leading character 
in this part of the country in and about the time of the Revolution. 
His son was created a baronet by King William. 

Land-owners. The Duke of Hamilton, Lord Douglas, and 
James J. Hope Vere, Esq. of Blackwood, are the principal pro- 
prietors in Lesmahago ; there are a number of other respectable 
land -owners, several of whom Reside upon their properties. 

Parochial Registers. The parochial registers commence in 
1697; since which time they have been pretty regularly kept, and 
now extend to twenty volumes. 

Antiquities. Lesmahago can boast of little to attract the no- 
tice of the antiquarian, excepting the ruins of Craignethan Castle ; 
which about a century ago passed from the family of Hay into that 
of Douglas, by purchase. 

The remains of an old abbey were pulled down about thirty years 
ago, to make room for a modern church ; and an old Roman road, 
which passed through a corner of the parish, has been obliterated by 
the plough. About twenty years ago, 100 small silver coins of Ed- 
ward I. were found below a large stone. Nearly at the same time 
a Roman vase was found in the parish ; it is now placed in the 
museum of the University of Glasgow. Some Roman coins have 
also been found ; and in making a drain about ten years ago, an 
old Caledonian battle-axe, made of stone, was found upon the es- 
tate of Blackwood. It is now in the possession of the proprietor. 

Many large cairns have been removed in this parish, for mate- 
rials in making roads and fences. These were always found to 
contain bones in the centre, but so far decayed as to crumble into 
dust on exposure to the air. 

Modern Buildings. A number of modern mansions have been 
erected by the resident gentlemen within the last thirty years, and 

LANARK. C 



34 LANARKSHIRE. 

during that time upwards of one-half of the farm-steadings have 
been renovated ; for which purposes abundance of good stone is 
easily procured. 

III. POPULATION. 

1. In 1801 the population was - 8070 
1811, 4464 

1821, 5592 

1831, 6409 

2. Number of families in the parish, 1168 

of families chiefly employed in agriculture, 302 

chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 466 

3. The average number of births yearly, for the last 7 years, - - 150 

of deaths, 64 

of marriages, 52 

4. The number of persons at present under 15 years of age, - 2968 

up wards of 70, 313 

There are about 90 small proprietors in Lesmahago ; of whom 
at least 50 have rentals of upwards of L. 50 a-year. 

The increase of the population betwixt 1821 and 1831 may be 
accounted for by the facility with which even boys engaged at 
weaving got possession of money ; able to earn considerable wages 
before they had acquired sense to manage them, many hurried into 
matrimonial connections ; and their wives being equally young and 
thoughtless, they indulged in dress and luxuries, and preserved no 
portion of their gains against poverty in less auspicious seasons. 

Character and Habits of the People. The people in general 
may be said to be of cleanly habits, which are impaired, however, 
in some degree, by the influx of strangers. Their style and man- 
ner of dress, however, may be said to be rather expensive, the ser- 
vant-girl dressing as gaily as the squires' daughters did thirty years 
ago. The difference in their table has nearly kept pace with that 
of their dress ; and, with few exceptions, unless among those em- 
ployed in agriculture, tea is an universal beverage ; even paupers 
consume more of that article than was used in the parish fifty years 
ago. How far these changes tend to the comforts and be- 
nefit of society may be questioned. Certainly the lower orders 
are not so contented nor independent as formerly; nor is their 
general character for morality or religion improved ; while there 
cannot be a doubt that pauperism has greatly increased. The 
number of illegitimate births during the last three years has been 
27. 

Until the weaving of cotton was introduced about forty-five years 
ago, no trade or manufacture was carried on beyond the wants of 



LESMAHAGO. 35 

the parish. A cottage or two was attached to every farm-house, 
for the accommodation of the necessary labourers ; along with whom 
the small proprietors and farmers shared in the toils of the day ; 
joined at the same table in their meals ; and, by the side of the 
kitchen fire, enjoyed the song or gossip of the evening, conclud- 
ing the day with family-prayer. A fire in the better apartment, 
except on the visit of a friend, or on some gala day, was never 
thought of. Their dress was composed of home-made stuff, ex- 
cepting a suit of black, which was generally of English cloth, 
and carefully preserved for funeral and sacramental occasions. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

As before stated, this parish contains about 34,000 Scotch acres; 
of which, probably, 11,000 never have been under cultivation. 
About 1000 acres may yet be brought to carry grain occasionally, 
if the spirit of improvement, now so general, be not checked. 
1200 acres are planted; 450 are in coppice-wood, and 50 in vil- 
lage gardens and orchards. 21,300 acres thus appear to be now, 
or occasionally, in cultivation. 

Planting in general has been carried on within these forty years 
to a considerable extent in Lesmahago, which before that period 
was naked and bare. Now, however, it has a very different ap- 
pearance, and almost everywhere the eye of the traveller may 
rest on useful stripes or clumps. In these the Scotch fir predo- 
minates, though that plant seems very much degenerated ; wher- 
ever it is mixed with the larch, the latter takes the lead ; and 
in damp soils it is also far behind the spruce. Were we to hazard 
an opinion on the cause of this degeneracy of Scotch fir, we 
would say it might be found in the careless way in which the nur- 
serymen procure the seed, which, when collected from the nearest 
young and stunted trees, produces feeble plants. Another circum- 
stance tending much to prevent the proper growth, is- the want of 
thinning in proper time. Few people who plant, like the idea of 
cutting. 

Rent of Land. The quality of land varies very much : some of 
it is very rich, but unfortunately the poorer soil predominates. The 
average rent of the whole may be stated at L. 1 per acre Scotch, 
while the waste lands may be estimated at 2s. 6d., giving a ren- 
tal for the parish, exclusive of woods and orchards, of L. 22,675. 

The inclosed lands around gentlemen's houses are generally let 
for pasture during the summer, yielding a rent of about L. 3 for 
every cow or ox weighing from 400 to 500 Ibs. weight. In the com- 



36 LANARKSHIRE. 

mon sheep-pastures, 5s. a-head during the season may be stated 
as a fair rent. 

Rate of Wages. Farm-servants are not so high priced, nor so 
difficult to be got as they were a few years back ; at present, a good 
man-servant, fit for the plough, &c. may be hired for L. 14 a-year, 
with bed and board; while less experienced hands may be had from 
L.9 to L. 12; girls fit for conducting a dairy, under the eye of their 
mistresses, get about L. 4 during the summer, and about L. 2, 10s. 
during winter, with board. Tradesmen generally work by the 
piece or job ; but, like the labourers, are getting less wages than 
lately, nor are they so shy to work by the day ; when they do so, 
masons and carpenters expect 2s. 6d. a-day, without victuals ; and 
tailors Is. 3d. or Is. 6d. with board. 

Breeds of Live Stock. From the elevation of Lesmahago parish, 
it is better suited for the dairy, and the breeding of cattle, than 
for raising grain ; consequently, the small proprietors and tenants 
have turned their attention in these ways for the last thirty years. 
During that time, the Ayrshire breed of cattle has been principal- 
ly reared ; and the cheese made from new milk, known by the 
name of Dunlop, has become a staple commodity. Of this about 
300 Ibs. weight may be made from every cow, when the whole milk 
is turned to that account ; and on some farms, with careful hands, 
that quantity, is raised, and a number of young stock reared, 
which goes to uphold the original stock, or to supply the English 
and other markets with that breed of cattle. Lanarkshire has 
long been famous for its breed of draught horses, of which Les- 
mahago has its share. 

The Jewish antipathy against swine seems to be wearing off, and 
the occupiers of land find it profitable to keep a few of these ani- 
mals, to consume the refuse of the dairy ; and many labourers and 
mechanics Keep a pig, by the dung of which they raise potatoes with 
a neighbouring farmer in the following year. A mixed breed, be- 
tween the English and Highland kind, seems the favourite ; which, 
when properly fed, may be killed at the age of nine or ten months, 
weighing from two to two and a-half hundred weight. It is pro- 
bable this kind of stock may be more attended to hereafter. 

The sheep kept on the high grounds are of the old Scotch 
black-faced kind, weighing from ten to fifteen pounds imperial per 
quarter, when fattened. This breed is better adapted to the soil 
and climate than the Cheviot or finer kinds ; and the improvements 
sought after by the sheep-master are in shape and weight ; to both 
of which they pay particular attention. By keeping fewer in num- 



LESMAHAGO. 37 

her than was done forty years ago, they are better fed, and are 
thus enabled to struggle with the storms and snows of winter ; while 
surface-drains made upon the soft lands, at the rate of L. 3 for 
6000 yards, have added greatly to their improvement, by keeping 
the ground dry, and raising sweeter herbage. 

Husbandry. A very considerable extent of waste land has been 
reclaimed in Lesmahago within the last twenty-five years ; which 
has generally paid the improvement in the course of the first three 
years, leaving the amelioration of the soil as profit to the farmer. 
Draining had long been only partially carried on, but seems now 
to become more general. Irrigation is little attended to here, ex- 
cept, in a few instances, for meadow hay ; and embanking is not 
much wanted, as the streams have generally high and steep banks. 

The leases granted ^o tenants are generally for nineteen years. 
Some time ago, when land was constantly increasing in value, 
landlords in some instances made the leases of shorter duration ; 
but this has not had the effect of either putting money into their 
pockets, or improving their estates : it has rather been of a con- 
trary tendency. As mentioned before, the farm-houses have been 
much improved within the last forty years ; and within the same 
time, enclosures have been much attended to ; some hundreds of 
miles of Galloway stone-dikes have been built, where the materials 
were abundant, or the soil inimical to hedges ; while the last have 
been raised upon the better soils, and now adorn a great propor- 
tion of the parish. It may be regretted, however, that we still want 
those hedge-rows of timber, which in many parts of the island give 
the appearance of a close-wooded country. 

The greatest obstacles to improvement appears to be the sys- 
tem of entails ; and, I may add, the custom among landlords of let- 
ting their farms to the highest bidder, without a sufficient evidence 
of his possessing capital adequate to the management of the farm 
in the most advantageous way. 

Produce. The gross amount of raw produce (exclusive of the 
pasture lands) raised in the parish, as nearly as can be ascertain- 
ed, is as follows : 

20,000 quarters of grain, say at L. 1, 5s. per quarter, - L. 25,000 
600 acres of potatoes, and 50 of turnips, average value L. 14 per acre, 9,100 
1200 tons of cultivated hay, at L. 3 per ton, and 300 tons of mea- 
dow, at L. 2 per ton, ... 4,200 
Thinnings of wood, i . _ . _ 490 Q 
Cutting of coppice, - * , , . *.',' >,% 250 



Total, L. 38,950 



38 LANARKSHIRE. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

There are no market-towns in the parish, the nearest being La- 
nark, at the distance of six miles from Abbey Green. Upwards of 
one-third of the population, however, are congregated in the vil- 
lages of Abbey Green, Kirkmuirhill, Kirkfield Bank, Boghead, and 
Nethanfoot, all of which villages have a regular communication 
with Glasgow by means of coaches and carriers ; and there is a daily 
post to the former. 

Means of Communication. Besides the Glasgow and Carlisle 
road, which runs upwards of eight miles in the parish, and the Glas- 
gow and Lanark road, running about five, there are not less than 
eighty miles of parish roads kept up by converted statute labour 
money : and of these fifty miles at least are in very tolerable order. 
Bridges have been built, partly from the county funds, upon all the 
streams crossed by these lines of road. 

Ecclesiastical State. Lesmahago has been a collegiate charge 
ever since the Reformation. The church is in the village of Abbey 
Green, in the centre of the parish. It is capable of containing 
1500 sitters, the whole being divided among the heritors for 
their respective tenantry, according to their respective valuations, 
with the exception of a pew to each clergyman. The first minis- 
ter has a glebe of eight acres (Scotch,) which might be let at 
L. 5 per acre ; with a stipend of sixteen chalders, one half oat- 
meal and the other barley, converted, at the highest fiars price of 
the county, and yielding on an average of the last seven years, 
L. 277, 12s. The second minister has a manse and garden, but 
no glebe : he has the same stipend as the first, and rents a small 
farm from the patron, on which the heritors have built his house 
and the requisite accommodations. 

There are two dissenting chapels belonging to different deno- 
minations of Burghers ; both of these have been lately erected. 
The officiating clergymen are paid from the seat rents, and from 
voluntary contributions, affording about L. 100 a-year to each. 
Although these houses have still the enticement of novelty, by far 
the greater number in the parish adhere to the Established church, 
in which divine service is well attended. The average number 
of communicants at the Established church is about 1700. The 
number of dissenters is about 200. 

Education. The parochial schoolmaster has the maximum sa- 
lary, with a good house and garden ; he has also perquisites as ses- 
sion-clerk, amounting to L. 22 a-year. His school-fees may amount 

4 



LESMAHAGO. 39 

to L. 45. The heritors have assessed themselves in an additional 
chalder, which is divided among a few other schools, enabling those 
at a distance from the parish school, to educate their children in 
English, writing, and arithmetic, and sometimes even in Greek and 
Latin, at an expense of from 3s. to 5s. a quarter, according to their 
studies. The consequence is, that reading and writing may be said 
to be universal, and at present the different schools are attended by 
upwards of 600 children. A subscription school for teaching girls 
to read and sew is also kept up in the village of Abbey Green ; it 
is attended by about 30. There are also four well attended Sab- 
bath schools for boys and girls. It does not, however, appear very 
evidently that either the conduct or morals of the people have 
been improved by the increased facilities of education : the vices 
of drunkenness and pilfering, from whatever cause, have certainly 
not decreased, while discontent has made rapid strides, and the 
reluctance to come upon the poors' roll has vanished. 

Library, $c. There is a small subscription library in the parish, 
but it is not in a very thriving state. The parishioners at the 
same time receive a variety of the London, Edinburgh, and Glas- 
gow newspapers and periodicals. 

Benevolent Societies. There are three Societies in the parish, 
which distribute a portion of their funds among their aged or sickly 
members : the inclination, however, to join in such associations, it 
is feared, is now declining. 

Savings Bank. A Savings bank was established a few years ago. 
The principal depositors are farm and house-servants : and it is 
now in a thriving state. The average amount yearly invested is 
L. 60; withdrawn, L. 20. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The number of paupers has been 
trebled within the last thirty years, and now amounts to 148 regu- 
larly enrolled. There being neither alms nor poors' house in the 
parish, they receive from 3s. to 15s. monthly in their own houses, 
amounting to about L. 500 yearly; of this sum, L.47 is raised by 
collections in the. church ; and L. 98 is the produce of mortified 
money; the remainder is made up by an assessment upon the land, 
one-half paid by the heritors, and the other by the tenants. Too 
little attention, however, is paid to this branch of parochial busi- 
ness; the session, by giving up the practice of collecting with 
ladles in the church, and individuals by propagating the idea that 
the heritors are bound to support the poor, have brought the public 
collection below what it was a hundred years ago, when the popu- 



40 LANARKSHIRE. 

lation was less than half what it is now, and money four times the 
value. 

Inns. There has been an increase in the number of inns, or 
rather whisky shops, in the parish, at the rate of six to one, within 
the last forty years ; which either tends to, or is a proof of, the de- 
moralization of the inhabitants ; at present their number is as 
one to less than every 250 souls in Lesmahago. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

This parish has undergone a great change since the last Sta- 
tistical Account was published ; the population has greatly in- 
creased ; the lands have been generally inclosed ; plantations have 
sprung up ; roads, from mere tracts, have become good carriage 
ways; and these, with the opening up of lime in several places, 
have given a facility to improvements in agriculture which has not 
been neglected; an improved mode of husbandry has been adopted ; 
draining has been introduced ; and waste lands to a great extent 
have been brought into cultivation. These improvements, how- 
ever, may, with due encouragement on the part of the landlords, 
be carried still farther, and, by giving employment to labourers, 
would add to the comfort and happiness of that useful class of so- 
ciety, and tend to the diminution of pauperism, objects which 
ought never to be lost sight of by judicious landlords. 

March 1834. 



UNITED PARISH OF 
LIBBERTON AND QUOTHQUAN. 

PRESBYTERY OF BIGGAR, SYNOD OF LOTHIAN AND TWEEDDALE, 

THE REV. ALEXANDER CRAIK, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Extent THE parish of Quothquan was annexed to that of 
Libberton in the year 1669. The united parish extends from north 
to south about seven miles, and from east to west about four and 
a-half miles. It contains nearly 1 4 square miles, or 8703 impe 7 
rial acres. 

Topographical Appearances, Along the whole course of the 
Clyde in this parish, there is a great extent of low level land, con- 
sisting of a strong clay soil, a considerable portion of which is covered 
with water as often as the Clyde overflows its banks, which gene- 
rally happens ten or twelve times in the year ; and the soil being 
enriched by these inundations, produces luxuriant crops, without 
any other manure. Where these holm lands are embanked, (which 
is done when it can be effected without great expense,) the crops 
are protected against the inroads of the river; but in this, as in other 
cases, manure is required to renew the soil. 

The banks of the Clyde rise gently, but in some places rather 
suddenly, to the height of 50 or 60 feet above the stream, and ex- 
tend to the distance of half a mile or more beyond it. The land 
on the banks of the Clyde is generally early and fertile, and its 
average rent L. 2, 10s. per acre. As the land recedes from the 
Clyde, it becomes more elevated, later, and less productive ; and 
though there are some early and fertile spots near the Medwin, the 
banks of that river are for the most part poor and moorish. 

Meteorology. On this head, it may be only remarked, that a 
greater quantity of rain falls here than on the east coast. 

The climate is neither so warm nor so dry as to render the cul- 
ture of wheat an object ; but other kinds of grain succeed very well 



42 LANARKSHIRE. 

in ordinary seasons; and the inhabitants of this parish are subject 
to as few diseases, and are as healthy, on the whole, as those of 
any other parish in Scotland. This must be owing, in a great 
measure, to the pure keen air they breathe, as well as to the ge- 
neral temperance of their habits. 

Hydrography. The only rivers in this parish are the Clyde and 
the Medwin. The Clyde, when swollen by rain, overflows all the 
low grounds on its banks, doing much damage to the growing crops 
within its reach. The farmers, however, often carry off the crops 
as they are cut, beyond the reach of the inundation. The breadth 
of the Clyde in this parish is from 100 to 120 feet, and its depth 
from 15 to 1 foot. There are several fords when the stream is 
low ; but in winter they are often impassable. 

The South Medwin, which bounds Libberton parish for three 
miles, rises near Garvaldfoot, in the parish of West Linton, and, 
after a course of nine miles, is joined by the North Medwin, in this 
parish, about a mile and a-half before they both fall into the Clyde. 
A small branch of the South Medwin runs off" towards the east, 
near Garvaldfoot, and, dividing at Dolphington, the counties of La- 
nark and Peebles, falls into the Tweed. The South Medwin, 
within its usual channels, is in general about 22 feet broad, and 2 
or 3 feet deep, at an average. When united, the Medwins are 
not much broader, but of greater mean depth. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

It appears from Wodrow's History that, in the year 1663, the 
parish of Libberton was fined L. 252, 8s. Scots, and Quothquhan 
L. 182, 16s. Scots, for nonconformity to Prelacy. 

Chief Land-owners. The chief land-owner is Sir Norman Mac- 
donald Lockhart, Bart, of Lee and Carnwath. 

Family of Chancellor of Shieldhill. The second land-owner is 
Alexander Chancellor, Esq. of Shieldhill, whose ancestors have 
been in possession of this estate for the last four centuries, as appears 
from a charter still extant, * granted by Thomas Lord Sommerville 
to William Chancellor of Shieldhill and Quothquhan, A. D. 1432. 
In July 1474, William Chancellor rode with the rest of the then 
Lord Sommerville's vassals to meet King James on his way from 
Edinburgh to Couthally Castle, to partake of the festivity of the 
" speates and raxes." f 

* This charter is referred to in the Memoirs of the Sommervilles, Vol. i. p. 175. 
f Ibid. pp. 240-248. 



LIBBERTON AND QUOTHQUAN. 43 

After the battle of Bothwell Bridge, James Chancellor was im- 
prisoned on suspicion of having harboured some fugitives; but no- 
thing being proved against him, he was liberated after some days 
confinement. * The same gentleman was returned as elder by the 
presbytery of Biggar to the first General Assembly which met after 
the revolution of 1688.f 

The family residence was originally at Quothquan, and remain- 
ed there till 1567, when the then proprietor joined Queen Mary's 
party at Hamilton, and engaged in the battle of Langside. After 
her defeat, a party of 500 horsemen, sent out by Regent Murray to 
demolish the houses of her adherents, burned down, among others, 
the mansion-house at Quothquan. After this calamity, the family 
residence was removed to Shieldhill, which appears originally to 
have been a square tower of no great dimensions, but which has at 
different times been added to and modernized, particularly by the 
present proprietor. 

At a short distance to the southward from Shieldhill is the man- 
sion-house of Huntfield, the property of John Stark, Esq., surround- 
ed by thriving plantations. 

Parochial Register. The earliest date of the parochial registers 
is 1717. They consist of two volumes, and refer to births and 
baptisms, marriages and burials. The registration by dissenters 
is somewhat irregular ; but otherwise the records are satisfactorily 
kept. 

Antiquities. About half a mile south-west from the church, are 
to be seen the ruins of a fortification or camp, improperly called 
Roman, as its form is circular. It stands on the edge of a high 
and barren moor, about half a mile from the Clyde, and commands 
an extensive view of that river to the south and west. It contains 
about 1 \ acres, and is surrounded by a double wall of earth, a deep 
ditch intervening. 

III. POPULATION. 

" From the session records," according to the Statistical Account 
of the late Mr Fraser, " it appears that the births in this parish from 
April 1683 to April 1753, amounted exactly to 2205, the annual 
average of which is 31 J. The marriages during the same period 
amounted to 563, the annual average of which is little more than 

* Wodrow's Church History. 

f- Records of the Biggar Presbytery. 



44 LANARKSHIRE 

8." The return to Dr Webster in 1755 gave 708 persons examin- 
able, or above 8 years of age. 

In 1811, the population was 749 
1821, -. 785 

1831, 773 

The decrease of population may be imputed to the consolidation 
of farms, the non-residence of heritors, the removal of part of the 
population to towns in quest of employment, and of late to Ame- 
rica, twenty individuals having emigrated to that country from 
this parish in the year 1831. 

There are 8 proprietors in this parish, having yearly rentals of 
L. 100 and upwards. The gross rental of the parish is L. 4561. 

1. Number of families in the parish, - 152 

of families chiefly employed in agriculture, . ' 80 

chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 36 

2. Number of unmarried men, bachelors or widowers, upwards of 50 years of age, 7 

of unmarried women, including widows, upwards of 45, 33 

3. The average number of births yearly, for the last 7 years, 14 

of deaths, 9 

of marriages, - 7 

4. The number of persons at present under 15 years of age, - 331 

up wards of 70, 18 

Character of the People. They are generally sober, frugal, and 
industrious, and, as a proof^of this, there is not an alehouse in 
the parish. I regret to add, however, that illicit intercourse be- 
twixt the sexes has become more common than it appears to have 
been forty or fifty years ago ; the number of illegitimate births be- 
ing not less on an average than three in the year. I should add, 
too, that poaching is not uncommon, and is hardly considered to 
be unlawful. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 
Agriculture and Rural Economy. 

Arable, 5403 imperial acres. 

Waste or pasture land, 2500 

Land worth the cultivating, - 300 
Land under wood, - 500 

8703 

Rent of Land. Average rent of land per acre is L. 1, 5s. ; ave- 
rage cost of grazing an ox or cow per year, L. 3 ; grazing a quey, 
L. 1, 10s, ; grazing a sheep, 14s. 

Rate of Wages. Yearly wages of a ploughman, with victuals, 
L. 12; of a maid-servant, L. 6, 10s.; of a boy or girl, L.2; la- 



LIBBERTON AND QUOTHQUAN. 45 

bourers, per day, without victuals, Is. 9d.; masons, 2s. 6d ; wrights, 
2s. 6d. ; smith's work per Ib. of iron, 6d. In the time of harvest, 
labourers' wages with victuals, L. 2 ; womens' 30s. 

Breeds of Live Stock. The common breed of cattle is the Ayr- 
shire, and of sheep a cross between the Cheviot and Leicester. 
Both are improved by the frequent introduction of new stock. 

Husbandry. The general method of farming on dry lands is 
in six divisions, by the following rotation of crops, viz 1 . corn ; 2. fal- 
low or green crop ; 3. corn ; 4. hay ; 5. pasture ; 6. pasture. On 
rich lands lying near the Clyde, four divisions are observed, viz. 
1. corn; 2. green crop; 3. corn: 4. hay. 

Every encouragement has been given by the proprietors to in- 
dustrious tenants. In the southern and western parts of the pa- 
rish, where enclosures can be considered advantageous, the whole 
of the lands are enclosed, either by stone-dikes or hedges and 
ditches. In other districts of the parish, there are no enclosures 
of any description. A good deal of improvement has been effect- 
ed in draining wet lands, but very little of any consequence in re- 
claiming waste lands. On one estate about fifty acres have been 
reclaimed within fifteen or twenty years. 

The duration of leases in the parish is nineteen years. In the 
southern division the state of farm-buildings is considered supe- 
rior to that of those on almost any estate in the neighbourhood of 
equal extent. In the course of the last seven years the greater 
part of the farm-steadings has been rebuilt substantially. The 
others have been repaired, and by enlargements every suitable 
accommodation has been given to the tenants. In the rest of the 
parish, the farm-buildings are generally bad, and incommodious. 

The face of the country would still be much improved by en- 
closures and belts of planting, judiciously made. A good deal 
has been done in this respect of late years : and on the lands of 
Cormiston, Shieldhill, Huntfield, and Whitecastle, more than 
400 acres of larch, Scotch and spruce fir, intermixed with va- 
rieties of hard wood, have been planted by their respective proprie- 
tors. These plantations are at present in a thriving state, and are 
already, or will, ere long, be a great ornament to the vicinity. On 
the property of Huntfield alone, there are 250 imperial acres under 
wood, the greater portion of which has been planted within the last 
twenty years. A great part of Libberton moor, which is now a 
barren waste, if sheltered, drained, jind subdivided by belts of 
planting, and let in small pendicles to industrious cottagers at little 



46 LANARKSHIRE. 

or no rent for some years, would soon be reclaimed ; and at no very 
great expense rendered no less profitable to the proprietor, than 
ornamental to the neighbourhood. 

Produce. The average gross amount of raw produce raised in 
the parish, as nearly as that can be ascertained, is as follows : 

Oats, 6020 bolls, at 18s. per boll, ^ - - - L. 5418 

As my predecessor, Mr Eraser, in his Statistical Account, states 
the number of acres sown in oats forty years ago at 2123, which 
at only five bolls per acre, a very moderate average, would amount 
to 10,615 bolls, and as a still greater quantity is produced now, 
the feed and seed oats cannot be included in the above. Feed 
oats mean the meal used by the family and servants, and the corn 
consumed by the cattle on a farm ; and seed oats those required 
to sow it. Many farms in the parish afford an average of 8 or 9 
bolls per Scotch acre. 

Barley and bear, _ - 700 

Turnips, 3400 tons, at 5s. per ton, - 850 

Potatoes, 2400 bolls of 4 cwt. at 5s. per boll, '- - - 602 10 

Rye-grass, 32,240 stones of 22 Ibs. at 6d. per stone, - - 806 

Meadow hay, 8000 stones, at 4d. per stone, ... 133 6 

Produce of cattle and sheep grazed, .*,." . 11 00 

Do. of the dairy in butter and cheese, at L 7 per cow, is - 3395 



Gross amount, - L. 13004 16 

A considerable portion of most of the above articles is consumed 
by the horses and cattle. 

Number of milk cows in the parish, - 485 

Do. of queys and stots reared and bred, - 190 

Number of horses, '. - - _ 120 

of carts, ]08 

of ploughs, - , ;-. 49 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Carnwath is the nearest market-town. It is 2J miles from 
Libberton church. 

Means of Communication. There is no toll-road in the parish, 
except the one betwixt Glasgow and Peebles, which passes through 
the north-east corner of it for nearly a mile ; and many of the pa- 
rish roads are bad, as they extend about 30 miles, and would re- 
quire far more funds to put and keep them in repair than the pa- 
rish could afford. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church was built in 1812, and 
had the heritors laid out L. 40 or L. 50 more upon it, it would have 
lasted sixty or seventy years longer than it will do. It is feared 
that from damp much of the wood, both in the galleries and below, 



LIBBERTON AND QUOTHQUAN. 47 

will soon rot. The church affords accommodation to 450 persons, 
and is amply sufficient for the whole population. 

The manse was built in 1824, and is a good house; but the 
offices are indifferent. 

The glebe extends to about 8 Scotch acres, and is worth L. 16 
yearly. 

The stipend is 15 chalders, or 240 bolls Linlithgow measure, 
of grain, half meal and half barley, besides L. 8, 6s. 8d. for com- 
munion elements. 

There are no chapels of ease, nor dissenting chapels in the parish. 
The number of dissenters above twelve years of age is about 170, 
much the same number as was found by the present writer when 
he entered to the parish in 1813. The dissenters generally be- 
> long either to Seceding or Relief congregations in Biggar, which 
is nearer to some parts of the parish than the parish church. 
There are only two Episcopalian families in the parish, who have 
no chapel within 20 miles. The average number of communicants 
at the parish church is from 200 to 220. 

Education. There are two schools in the parish, viz. the paro- 
chial school at the church town of Libberton, and the school of 
Quothquan ; the latter is supported by a mortification of L. 2, 
10s. L. 6 for house rent yearly, and the school fees; there are 
also attached to it a good school and school-house, built last sum- 
mer. 

There is also a Sunday school taught at Quothquan, which is 
attended by 25 scholars, and is superintended partly by the teacher 
at Quothquan, and partly by the private tutor at Shieldhill. 

The salary of the parochial teacher is L. 30, and the amount 
of school fees does not exceed L. 20 a-year. In Quothquan 
school the school fees must be considerably less. The parochial 
teacher has the legal accommodations. There are no persons born 
and brought up in the parish, who cannot read and write. 

There is a parochial library in the parish ; also a Friendly So- 
ciety, which was instituted in 1811 for the relief of its distressed 
members. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. At present there are 13 poor per- 
sons receiving each about an average of L. 4 yearly. The amount 
of annual contributions for the poor is about L. 58, of which L. 45 
arises from voluntary assessment, one-half of which is paid by the 
proprietors, and the other half by the tenants. The church col- 
lections amount to L. 1 1 ; and there is also the interest of L. 40, 



48 LANARKSHIRE. 

L. 1, 16s. There is less disposition among the poor to refrain 
from seeking parochial relief than formerly, nor do they now con- 
sider it so degrading. 

fuel The fuel chiefly used is coal, procured either from the 
parish of Douglas, at the distance of ten miles, or from Cleugh, in 
the parish of Carnwath, nine miles distant from the church town of 
Libberton. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

As a proof of the great rise in the value of land in this parish 
within these last thirty or forty years, the property of Whitecastle, 
situated in the most elevated district of the parish, was purchased 
about forty years ago, for about L. 2700 ; and it has yielded an an 
nual rent, for these nineteen years past, of L. 283, which is not ac- 
counted too high. About thirty-two years ago, a property was 
purchased for the same sum, in the southern district of the parish ; 
the annual rent of which is now L. 345. 

It may be added, that the farmers labour under great disadvan- 
tages from their high rents, the difficulty of communication with 
good and ready markets, and their liability to have their crops of 
corn and potatoes injured by frosts in autumn ; in consequence of 
which they have not only a deficiency of produce, but are obliged 
to purchase their seed at a dear rate from a distance. In certain 
districts, chiefly the poorest, and most elevated of the parish, there 
is a disease incident to cows called the stiffness, the cause or cure 
of which has never yet been well ascertained, but which generally 
proves fatal to its victims. It is a general wasting, or atrophy, 
which attacks cattle in the spring or winter months, and reduces 
them to skeletons. Their only chance of recovery is in their re- 
moval to a richer pasture, before the disease has far advanced. 

March 1834. 



PARISH OF DOLPHINTON. 

PRESBYTERY OF BIGGAR, SYNOD OF LOTHIAN AND TWEEDDALE. 

THE REV. JOHN AITON, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name Boundaries. A Dolphin fish is represented in the arms 
of the principal heritor; but the name of Dolphinstown, as it was an- 
ciently spelled, seems with more probability to be derived from that 
of one of the early proprietors of the manor. Dolfine, the eldest 
brother of,Coss Patrick, first Earl of Dunbar, acquired this property 
during t^reign of Alexander I., about the begining of the twelfth 
cent; , the district of the country from which he came, a 

village with the ruins of an ancient castle still retains his name ; 
and there are other places of the same appellation in Roxburgh- 
shire and in West Lothian.* 

The parish is 3 miles long from east to west, 2J broad, and con- 
tains 2926 statute acres. I ts form is nearly that of an oblong 
square, bounded by Linton, Walston, Dunsyre, and Kirkurd. 

Topographical Appearances. Dolphinton hill is in height above 
the level of the sea about 1550 feet. This and the hill of Wai- 
ston adjoining to it, are separated about a mile from the west end of 
the Pentlands, and form with Tinto, which is five miles to the west- 
ward, so many connecting links of one of the great collateral chains 
which gird our island, from St Abb's Head to Ailsay Craig. 
With the exception of Keir-hill, which rises in a conical shape 
about 250 feet high, the rest of the land in the parish is arable, 
with a moderate acclivity in an altitude of from 700 to 800 feet.f 

Meteorology* During the last two months of spring and first of 
summer, the wind generally blows from the east or north-east. In 
[arch and April it dries up from the ground the stagnant mois- 

* In Douglas MS. Chronicle of England, Thomas Dolfine is recorded among the 
grete lordes of Scoteland" who were defeated at Halidon Hill in 1338. 
.f Altitude of Garvaldfoot, as ascertained by Telford, 735 feet. The top of Dol- 
linton-hill, as lately measured by the writer of this account, is 816 feet above the site 

the manse. 

LANARK. D 



50 LANARKSHIRE. 

ture of winter, pulverizes the seed-furrow, and extracts noxious mat- 
ter from the air ; but in May and June it retards vegetation and en- 
genders the grub worm. At this season, in consequence of copi- 
ous evaporations arising from the high comparative temperature of 
the German Ocean, (which in winter is three degrees colder, and 
in summer five degrees warmer than the Atlantic,) thick easterly 
haars occasionally reach us from the coast. When the polar re- 
gions become warmer, the westerly winds get the ascendancy; and 
in winter they temper the air, sweep before them pestilential va- 
pours, and import from the green forests of America gases health- 
ier than those arising from the putrid vegetation of our own coun- 
try. The prevalence of these winds is indicated by the direction 
in which the branches of trees are inclined; and to shelter their na- 
kad trunk, nature has given a great-coat of cup, herbaceous, and 
thread-like lichen on its windward side, and on the westward skirts 
of our plantations. 

Climate. Although most of the arable land lies 700 feet above 
the level of the sea, yet, as it is partially sheltered by nature and 
art, and as the rays of the sun are reflected from the hills on both 
sides of the valley, the temperature of the atmosphere is not so 
low as might have been expected. The average of the whole year 
may be about 45 of Fahrenheit. In other words, our climate is 
more affected by its relative than its real altitude ; and, to a certain 
extent, verifies the observation, that a height of 600 feet is equal 
to no more than a degree of latitude to the north. As the soil 
is now generally dry, and as the air is not too moist, epidemic dis- 
tempers are little known. Our artificial water-meadows may still 
create some unhealthy exhalations, and induce mildew on grain in 
harvest, but the extensive agricultural improvements lately effect- 
ed have substituted a purer air " for the putrid effluvia of the large 
moss to the eastward ;" doubled the husbandman's return not " in 
late" but in seasonable harvests, and rendered " early frost in Au- 
gust and September, which oft-times formerly destroyed the crop 
in one night" of late years almost unknown. That the climate of 
this parish has been meliorated, and that agricultural improvements 
have operated to a certain extent in that result, cannot be denied. 
That the seasons are milder is also probable, and may be partly 
accounted for. But how in the time of the Romans this country 
should have been so much warmer than France, as to ripen vines, 
when in Gaul they could not be cultivated ; how trees of enor- 
mous dimensions grew of old spontaneously where the ingenuity 



DOLPIIINTOX. 51 

of man can scarcely rear them to the tenth part of the size, or 
keep them alive beyond the age of their youth ; how wheat should 
have been anciently paid as a tithe to the neighbouring priory of 
Lesmahago, from lands where, under the present economy, oats can 
scarcely be ripened ; how the mark of the plough, like that of a 
field which has been under active culture, is seen much farther up 
the hill than it is now carried ; how farms in this vicinity, fitted 
out for the ancient wappingshaws three times the number of men 
and horses now maintained on them ; and how our very moors 
at present support less stock than they did at the date of Charters 
still extant, are important facts, never well accounted for ; the in- 
vestigation of which might discover the means of still farther reme- 
dying the defects and improving the advantages of our northern 
climate. * 

Hydrography. It is interesting to mark the local agents by 
which nature secures for her whole family an impartial distribu- 
tion of moisture, and to see how far the winds carry and mountains 
attract water to supply the animal and vegetable creation in every 
quarter. Notwithstanding that Dolphinton is distant fifty miles from 
the nearest point of the great reservoir of fluidity to Scotland, yet 
we have nine-tenths of our rain from the Atlantic Ocean. To se- 
cure this indispensable requisite, our hills run in ranges almost pa- 
rallel from the western to the eastern shore. Along the interven- 
ing valleys, as if through so many funnels, the watery clouds rush 
before the wind, dropping their golden showers. For twenty or thirty 
miles from the Ayrshire coast, the hills tower in regular succes- 
sion each above another, till they reach the western boundaries of 
Lanarkshire. The lofty ridge of the Lowthers overtops Cairntable 
by nearly 1000 feet ; and therefore not only draws up but breaks the 
clouds, and thus renders them lighter for the distant voyage east- 
ward. On this side of the Crawford mountains, and in the shel- 
tered vale of the Clyde, the atmosphere being much denser, buoys 
up the clouds, and. conveys them as if along an aqueduct by Cul- 
ter-fell and Tinto, till Walston-mount and Dolphinton-hill get 
them in charge. Here, as was often observed in the extreme 
drought of summer 1826, when for four months every dark spot 

* Polybius describes the climate of Gaul and Germany as a perpetual winter. Di- 
odorus Siculus says, that such was the piercing coldness of the air in Gaul, that it 
produced neither vines nor olives. Caesar and Tacitus both testify that our climate 
w.is milder than that of Gaul. And it is well known that the Romans obtained li- 
berty from one of their emperors to plant vineyards and make wine in Britain. 



5'2 LANARKSHIRE. 

in the sky was anxiously watched in vain, they diverge into three 
portions. One goes towards the south and east down the vale of 
the Lyne; a second crosses in the opposite direction by Dunsyre and 
Midcorset; while the third and greater portion keeps the original 
tract by Mendick along the Pentlands. At the summit of Car- 
nethy, the highest hill of this range, a similar partition takes 
place. One division is carried towards Dalkeith, a second across the 
Forth, while the main body moves over Edinburgh by Arthur 
Seat. When moisture comes from the east, it is either in a 
creeping haar, or in a storm, which, whether it be of rain or snow, 
usually lasts for three days. As a certain prognostic of a change 
of weather, it deserves to be mentioned, that in the memorable 
drought already referred to, the springs of water which had been 
long dried up, again gathered strength for several days before a 
drop of rain fell. This singular phenomenon is probably refer- 
able to the same law of nature which in frost causes rheum to ooze 
from stone, earth, and trees, prior to any other sign of thaw. The 
average quantity of rain, so far as it has been ascertained by a guage 
lately kept at the manse, may be about 27 inches yearly. 

With the exception of the moisture from the north side of the 
parish, which falls in streamlets into the south Medwin and Clyde, 
the waters of Dolphinton are carried in one small rivulet called 
Tairth, into the Lyne and Tweed. In the northern extremity of 
the parish, above Garvald House, the Medwin is separated into 
two portions. The one of these finds its way eastward into the 
Tweed, the other by keeping its natural course to the west, runs 
into the Clyde. It is said that salmon and salmon fry, but no 
pars, have been killed in the Clyde above Lanark. As these could 
never ascend the falls, fishers have been puzzled by the fact. But 
it may perhaps be accounted for, from the topographical cir- 
cumstance here mentioned. The fish may go up the Tweed, 
Lyne, and Tairth, into the Medwin by its southern extremity; 
and in going down the water, they may, from accident or design, 
take the western stream into the Clyde. Whether they are, in 
thus returning to the sea, dashed to death over the Corra Linn, 
or whether they succeed, by this new north-west passage, in ex- 
changing the German for the Atlantic Ocean as their home, can- 
not well be ascertained. 

Geology and Mineralogy. The principal mineral in nine-tenths 
of the parish is whin or trap-rocks. These form a portion of the ex- 
tensive Phonolitic range, which runs from the confines of Ayrshire, 



DOLPHIN TON, 53 

by Haukshawhill, eastward by Tinto, and the Pentlands. The 
whole of these hills, from their saddle-back shape, indicate to the 
first glance of the geologist, that they are composed of trap-tuff, or 
what is popularly styled rotten whin. It is said to be intermediate 
between the two classes of volcanic rocks, the basaltic and trachy- 
tic ; and to be composed chiefly of felspar and zeolite. It is not 
found here in beds, but has a massive form, so brittle as to fall 
into small pieces when dug up. In this parish it is mostly of a 
brown colour, and on the top of Dolphinton-hill it has much the 
appearance of burnt limestone before it is reduced to powder, by 
the application of moisture. Even the most adhesive portion of it, of 
which some of the dikes have unfortunately been built, when ex- 
posed for a few years to the atmosphere, first cracks, then falls 
down like a lime-shell, and is finally reduced into mud. But it 
stands the weather better when pointed with lime. In the south 
side of the strath, beginning at the brook behind the manse, a stra- 
tum of sandstone, at first mixed with brittle trap and quartz, but after- 
wards much freer, appears. Its dip is towards the east and north, at 
a small angle. In the centre of our valley, to the north of the free- 
stone range, and to the south of that of the trap -tuff, an amygdaloidal 
ridge traverses the parish from east to west ; and a curious clink- 
stone porphyry is found in the quarry near Lockhead. Some ap- 
pearances of lead induced the proprietors of Newholm to make 
search for it ; but the attempt was ultimately abandoned. A vein 
of it probably stretches from Candy Bank eastward through this 
and the parish of Linton by Silver Holes. A sort of tilly substance 
is found in the south corner of the parish, which forms excellent 
oven-stones. 

Soil. It is said that in warm climates the Phonolitic districts 
are extremely fertile and well adapted to the culture of the vine ; 
and it is affirmed that this fertility arises from these rocks impart- 
ing to the soil during their decomposition a great quantity of al- 
kali. But in higher latitudes, such alluvial formations are general- 
ly meagre. In this parish the soil resting on these rocks is re- 
markable neither for its fertility nor sterility. In general, it is a 
dry friable earth or sandy loam, in some situations abundantly deep, 
but in others rather shallow. Our soil is more fertile towards the 
hill than in the plain below. A sort of clay-soil of a rusty iron 
colour abounds in the parish, and the subsoil is mostly of this na- 
ture. In a few low situations an imperfect moss earth has been 



54 LANARKSHIRE. 

formed by stagnant water over the original soil, but in general it is 
free from damp. 

Botany. The soil covering rotten whin is said to produce in 
this county only ling (Calluna vulgaris,) and similar plants equally 
worthless; but in this parish all the common grasses and other rural 
plants are found on the arable lands in abundance, and the swamps 
have their full proportion of marsh plants. Perhaps our hills, al- 
though clothed with grass almost to the top, are deficient in the 
variety of alpine vegetation. Genista Anglica, Newholm plantations ; 
Ribes alpinum, west from Craft Andrew,- Myriophyllum spicatum, 
in a ditch near town foot ; Equisetum hyemale, at Nine Wells, are 
the rarest plants hitherto noticed in the parish. Hippuris vulgaris 
and Primula farinosa, one of the rarest and prettiest of plants, may 
be found in three different habitats on the eastern confines of Dol- 
phinton. The few following plants are mentioned as inhabitants 
of this district, not because they are rare, but as they afford 
a botanical index to the nature of our soil and climate, as connect- 
ed with the physical distribution of the vegetable creation. In 
the meadows, buckbean, sun-dew, orchis, meadow-sweet, marsh 
marigold, cotton-grass, louse-wort; on the hills, tormentil and 
foxglove ; in the plantations and fields not under cultivation, saxi- 
frage, wood-anemone ; and of the grasses, there are, in most abun- 
dance, bent, hair, sedge, foxtail, Timothy, fescue, and cocksfoot ; 
by the way side, stone-crop, ragged- Robin, self-heal, and most of 
the crow-foot varieties. Several of the fields at Garvaldfoot are, 
in spite of many judicious attempts to extirpate them, white in July, 
as if covered with snow, from the astonishing abundance of the 
ox-eye, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

There are no forests in the parish, but the trees in it show 
what may be produced. The heritors are still gradually extend- 
ing their plantations. As the parish is sheltered by nature from 
every quarter but from the windy west, two or three broad stripes 
stretching across the valley would be of essential service. 

II. r CiviL HISTORY.* 

Historical Notices. Till the epoch of the revolution, Dolphin- 
ton belonged to the diocese of Glasgow, and deanery (or, after 
the year 1585, the presbytery) of Lanark. In 1644, when the 

* For the Civil and Ecclesiastical History of the Parish^ see Chart. Paisley, No. 

333, 342 MS. Rental-Book, 11 Privy Seal, Reg. xxxvii. 49, 51 Tnquis. Spec. 

257,260, 393 Hamilton of Wishaw's MS. Account, 51 And Caledonia, iii. La- 
narkshire, passim. 



DOLPHINTON. 55 

presbytery of Biggar was erected, this parish was included in its 
jurisdiction, and became part of the synod of Lothian and Tweed- 
dale. In the time of the sycophantish Baliol, and also after the 
disastrous defeat of David II. at Durham, when the English boast- 
ed that their marches were from Soutray to Carlops and Cross- 
cryne, Dolphinton was a border parish. And, had the geographi- 
cal circumstances of the district been the rule by which parishes 
were originally classed, it would have belonged to Peebles-shire. 
The names of places, habitations, fosses, and sepulchres still 
extant, prove that the parish was anciently inhabited by the native 
Britons ; but no traces of the Romans now remain. The marks of 
the Romanised Britons have, from their original similarity, been long 
confounded with those of the British Gauls ; and even the foot- 
steps of the Saxons who, after the subversion of the Celtic domi- 
nion occupied this district, are few and indistinct. The dawn of 
our history as a separate parish begins with the acquisition of it 
by Dolfine. How long his descendants retained the territory has 
not been ascertained. But it is certain that the manor and pa- 
tronage of the church became an early pertinent of the baronial 
territory of Bothwell, and with it underwent the stormy changes 
of its brave proprietors. During the reign of Alexander III. Dol- 
phinton belonged to Walter Olifard, Justiciary of Lothian, who 
died in 1242. It next passed, by marriage probably, to Walter de 
Moray, the progenitor of Sir Andrew, who was the faithful part- 
ner in command with Wallace, the veteran champion with Bruce 
in all his victories, and the Regent of Scotland in the minority of 
David II. Edward I. gave it to Aymer de Vallence, Earl of 
Pembroke, when guardian for Scotland. In 1370, Johanna, only 
child of Sir Thomas Moray, carried it to the grim Archibald 
Douglas, Lord of Galloway, who, after the battle of Otterburn, 
became Earl of Douglas. In 1440, after the young Douglas was 
served at dinner in Edinburgh Castle with the ominous dessert of 
a bull's head, James Earl of Avondale became proprietor of our 
manor. In 1455, when a single battle at Abercorn might have 
raised Douglas to the throne, but when his own indecision, and 
the desertion of Hamilton sunk him to an exile, Dolphinton re- 
verted to the crown. In 1483, James III. conferred it on Sir 
James Ramsay, one of the ablest of his favourites. After the as- 
sassination of James at Beaton's mill, Ramsay lost it by forfeiture, 
and Dolphinton was, in 1488, given by James IV. to the masterof his 
household, Patrick Hepburn, Lord Hailes. In 1492, when the 



56 LANARKSHIRE. 

treasonable connection of the Earl of Angus with England became 
apparent, with a view to remove him from the command of the 
border passes and forts, Hepburn gave him Dolphinton and other 
centrical lands in exchange for Liddesdale, and the strong castle 
of Hermitage ; but the superiority was retained till 1567, when it 
was forfeited by the restless James Earl of Bothwell, whose crimes 
caused Queen Mary's cruel fate, and his own imprisonment for 
ten years in a Norwegian dungeon. In 1581 this property was 
granted to Francis Stewart, who, in his turn, was created Earl 
Bothwell; but in 1593 it was escheated to the crown by his at- 
tainder. Soon after this period the ancestors of the present noble 
family of Douglas acquired this manor. Chalmers says, in Caledo- 
nia, Vol. iii. that, during the seventeenth and part of the eighteenth 
century, the lands of Dolphinton were held in property by the fa- 
mily of Brown, but on a stone in front of the burying-aisle for the 
predecessors and successors of William Brown of Dolphinton, the 
date 1517 is quite legible. In 1755, Kenneth Mackenzie, advo- 
cate, succeeded the Browns by marriage ; but Lord Douglas still 
retains the patronage, and most of the superiority. Exposed to 
the havock of border raids, and Annandale lifters, and thus identi- 
fied with the most memorable revolutions of the nation, it is pro- 
bable that in early times but a small proportion of our parishion- 
ers died in their bed. 

Eminent Men. Major Learmont, an officer of skill and courage, 
was an elder of our congregation, and proprietor of Newholm, 
which is not situated in Peebles-shire, as stated in Sampson's Rid- 
dle, and in the Parliamentary records of the time, but in this pa- 
rish. In 1666, when the accidental scuffle in Galloway drove the 
Covenanters to arms, Learmont, Colonel Wallace, and Veitch, who 
lived at the hills of Dunsyre, went to Ayrshire to collect their 
friends. In Echard's History of England, and Law's Memorials, it 
is stated that Learmont was a tailor,: and Wodrow, instead of cor- 
recting the averment, merely rebuts the inference, by arguing that 
even a tailor may become eminent in the art of war. At the battle 
of Pentland-hills, he, as commander of the horsemen, led on the 
second attack, in which he carried every thing before him, and al- 
most captured the Duke of Hamilton. But when Dalziel brought 
up his whole left wing of cavalry, there being three to one against 
Learmont, he was borne down. He had his horse shot under him 
when drawing off his men. But he started back to a fold dike, 
killed one of the four dragoons who pursued him, and, mounting 



DOLPHINTON. 57 

the dead man's horse, he made good his retreat in spite of the 
other three. After this unfortunate affair, the major's life and for- 
tunes were both forfeited in absence. The Laird of Wishaw, his 
brother-in-law, by paying a composition, obtained the property for 
the interest of Learmont's family.* Notwithstanding the share 
he had in these civil wars, he survived the revolution, and died at 
Newholm in 1693, in the 88th year of his age. Near the door of 
our church, under a rustic flat stone, without even the initials of his 
name, the mortal remains of the pious soldier now sleep in the 
still and peaceful bed where the weary are at rest, and where the 
prisoner hears no more the voice of his oppressor, f 

Parochial Registers. The parochial registers commence in 1693, 
and have been but indifferently kept. A poem, in Latin, by Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden, is the only ancient paper relating to the 
parish. 

Antiquities. The remains of a camp are yet in a tolerable state of 
preservation, on the top of Keir-hill ; and there are others a few hun- 
dred yards above the church, at Chesterlees, and also at Ash-hill, 
and on the farm of Newmill. The British words caer and chesters, 
both signifying camp, show by whom these stations were occupied. 
A tumulus of stones, to the height of four or five feet, with a regular 
ring of larger stones, nearly sixty paces in circumference, on the 
height, about three quarters of a mile south-west of the rnanse, 
points out either a place of sacrifice under the Druids, or an en- 
closure of the summer residence of the native Britons. A short 
way east from this station, an ornament of fine gold, resembling the 

* For sixteen years every endeavour was made to secure the major's person, but 
he had a vault dug under ground, which long proved the means of safety- to him. It 
entered from a small dark cellar which was used as a pantry, at the foot of the inside 
stair of the old mansion-house, descended below the foundation of the building, and 
issued at an abrupt bank of the Medwin, forty yards distant from the house, where 
a feal dike screened it from view. When the noise of the cavalry reached the major's 
attentive ear, the blade of the tongs was applied to a small aperture fitted for the pur- 
pose of raising a flat stone, which neatly covered the entrance to the vault ; and be- 
fore a door was opened, the Covenanter was safe. Tradition says that the man-ser- 
vant was three times led out blindfolded to be shot, because he would not betray the 
secret. Learmont having again taken the field at Bothwell Bridge, exposed himself 
anew to the fury of the persecutors. By the treachery of a maid-servant, he was at 
last apprehended, and ordered for execution ; but the sentence of death was commut- 
ed into imprisonment on the Bass. 

f As these accounts, handed down for a century and a-half, had become confused, 
this detail was submitted to an intelligent lady, who was born at Newholm upwards of 
ninety years ago. She states, that the stones of the vault were, at an early period, 
taken to build the garden wall ; therefore rfo trace of the retreat was found when Ncw- 
liolrn house was last rebuilt. 



58 LANARKSHIRE. 

snaffle-bit of a horse's bridle, with about forty gold beads, having 
the impression of a star, was found. Stone coffins have been laid 
open in various parts of the parish, and there are innumerable ap- 
pearances of sepulchral remains; but whether they are those of 
Druidical victims sacrificed at their feasts, or of men slain in battle, 
cannot well be ascertained. 

III.' POPULATION. 

In 1755, the population was 302 

In 1791, 200 

In 1801, .-- 231 

In 1811, 268 

In 1821, --- 236 

In 1831, - - 275 viz. 129 malts and 146 females.* 

In 1831 the number of births was, 

of deaths, 

of marriages, - 6 

of persons under 15 years of age, 

upwards of 70, 6 

of unmarried men and widowers upwards of 50 years of age, 6 

of unmarried women upwards of 45, 

Number of families in the parish, 56 

The average number of children in each family, - 5 

The number of families chiefly engaged in agriculture, - 35 

in trade and manufactures, 6 

Comparing the population with the extent of soil, there may be 
about 8| acres of arable land, and nearly 3J acres of moor pasture 
to every individual. 

The people are generally industrious, sober, contented, and in- 
telligent. The tenants have every qualification necessary for car- 
rying on the most improved courses of husbandry of which the 
district is susceptible. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture, or the mechanical arts connected with husbandry, 
form our only branches of industry. The number of Scots sta- 
tute acres which have been cultivated is about 2000 ; uncultivat- 
ed 900, of which 200 or 300 might be reclaimed. There may be 
upwards of 300 acres in plantation. 

Rent of Land. Rent may vary from Is. to L. 4 per acre. Ave- 
rage of arable land and meadows, L. 1 per acre. Average rent of 

* The actual population at the taking of the last Government census was 305, but 
the difference between the two numbers was owing to a contingent population being 
engaged at the time in making a new road. 



DOLPHIN TON. 59 

grazing, L. 3 petf cow; L. 1, 10s. for a two-year-old; L. 1 for a 
one-year-old ; and 5s. for a full-grown sheep pastured for the year. 

The valuation of the parish of Dolphinton is L. 850. Of this 
amount Richard Mackenzie, of Dolphinton, Deputy-keeper of his 
Majesty's Signet, has L. 640 ; Charles Cuningham of Newholm, 
one of the city clerks of Edinburgh, has L. 180 ; and John Allan 
Wardrope of Garvaldfoot, has L. 30. In 1755, when Dr Webster's 
census was taken, the real rental of the parish was near L. 400 
Sterling. In 1792, when the last Statistical Account was drawn up, 
it was about L. 600, and it is now about L. 1700. 

Rate of Wages. Labourers' wages, 10s. weekly : Artisans, 2s. 
6d. per day. 

Breeds of Live Stock. The sheep, of which there may be 1000, 
are, with the exception of a few Cheviots, of the black-faced breed. 
The cattle, of which there may be 200 milch cows, and 100 young, 
were formerly of an inferior kind, and kept chiefly for breeding and 
fattening ; but for some time past the dairy breed of cows have 
prevailed. In general, they are partly the Ayrshire breed trans- 
ported, and partly the native breed improved, by better feeding 
and a skilful crossing. 

Husbandry. In few parishes has the state of husbandry been 
more improved within the memory of man than in Dolphinton. 
The era of its agricultural revolution may be dated from the ac- 
cession of Kenneth Mackenzie. Before his time, both the land 
and its occupiers were proverbially in a wretched condition. The 
houses were built of mud, and covered with turf. The outfield 
land was miserably flayed for the supply of fuel, and otherwise en- 
tirely neglected. The crofts were held in runrig, and under the 
servitude of sheep-pasturage during the winter. Even after the 
rest of the country had adopted the turnip and sown grass hus- 
bandry, the tenants here paid their rent mainly by driving lead to 
Leith, and purchasing south country meal at Peebles, and carting 
it to Carnwath. But Mr Mackenzie had the estate parcelled out 
by two intelligent neighbours into farms, so as to render each the 
most commodious for profitable occupancy, and given not to the 
highest offerer, but to the applicant who might in all respects be 
best qualified to stock and farm the lands, according to the stipu- 
lations. Dolphinton was in consequence much improved in a few 
years ; and the condition of the live-stock, of the implements of 
labour, and of the farmers, their families, and servants, have all 
made rapid advancement. Nor are these improvements now by 



60 LANARKSHIRE. 

any means stationary. Enclosing, planting, draining, levelling, 
and liming are yet carried on by all the proprietors. Wet lands, 
formerly not worth half-a-crown an acre, yield, by being convert- 
ed into water-meadows, 200, 300, or 400 stones of valuable hay. 
Till of late years the water-courses were narrow and crooked ; but 
now they are widened, deepened, and made strait. One cut alone 
for the Medwin, from Newholm to Walston Mill, cost near 
L. 1000, and afforded the means to the different proprietors inte- 
rested of laying dry 600 Scotch statute acres, which it was former- 
ly impossible to drain. In a word, every encouragement is given 
to improvement by the proprietors : and no proprietors in this dis- 
trict are adding more every year to the value of their estates. 

Produce. The gross amount of raw produce yearly raised in the 
parish, as nearly as can be ascertained, is as follows : 

Grain of all kinds, 3500 bolls, at 16s. - : L. 2800 9 

Potatoes, 2400 bolls, at 6s. 720 

Turnip, 1250 tons, at 4s. . 250 

Clover hay, 20,000 stones, at 6d. - - 500 

Meadow hay, 20,000 stones, at 4d. - 333 
Pasture, rating it at L. 3 per cow, and allowing 2 acres for each cow, 

200 cows, 600 

1000 sheep, at 5s. each, 250 
Young cattle raised, young horses bred, grass seeds, swine, and other 

articles of which no particular account can be had, sold annually, say 500 



* L. 5953 

* At first sight, a landlord might reasonably be startled at receiving only L. 1700 of 
rental from nearly L. 6000 worth of produce, but from this amount there falls to be 
deducted, 

For fee and maintenance of 50 servants, say only at L. ] 5 each, L. 750 

For keep of cattle, young and old, 300, at L. 5 each. 1500 

For seed-corn, 700 bolls, at 16s. - - 560 

For horse's feed, equal to seed, - 560 

For seed-potutoes, at 4 bolls per acre, for 60 acres, 70 

For rent, . _ : . _ 1700 

L.5140 

There thus appears to be a very small sum, indeed, for carrying the surplus pro- 
duce of the whole parish to market; keeping up houses, offices, fences, harness, ploughs, 
barrows, carts, &c for maintaining, clothing, and educating children, for sustain- 
ing all losses by death of live-stock, failure of crop, fluctuation of markets, and bank- 
ruptcy of dealers, for interest on capital sunk, and remuneration for work done by 
both husband and wife. Of old, when farming was profitable, three rents was the 
rule by which land was taken, one to the landlord, one to the farm, and the other to 
the servants, smith, wright, saddler, &c. But now that a rise has taken place in fees 
of servants and wages of mechanics, little less than four rents will enable a farmer to 
" pay day and way." 



DOLPHINTON. HI 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Markets Means of Communication. In 1693 an act of Par- 
liament was obtained for holding a weekly market and two annual 
fairs in Dolphinton ; and formerly there were corn, lint, and waulk- 
mills, with an inn at both ends of the parish ; but now there is no 
markets, fairs, village, post-office, public-house, mill, or manufac- 
tory of any kind. There may be two and a-half miles of turnpike- 
road, and five miles of parish-roads. The communication between 
Glasgow and Berwick might be much facilitated by avoiding the 
ridges of Ellsrighill and Corsoncone, and by bringing the road up 
the Tairth and down the Medwin. 

Ecclesiastical State. The church is too small for the congrega- 
tion, and of a homely exterior, but it is comfortable within. Our 
records bear that, prior to 1650, the glebe was far from the church 
and " the gate to it foul," and that there was no manse for the mi- 
nister, who had flitted five times in the memory of man. A manse 
and glebe of eight acres were then designed at the kirk style. Soon 
after they were moved to Bankhead, and in 1718 to the present 
site. The present manse was built in 1770, and repaired and en- 
larged in 1814, and again in 1828, so that it is now one of the 
best in the country. 

The glebe contains fourteen imperial acres. * In 1275, the whole 
spiritual revenues of Dolphinton were estimated at L. 3, 6s. 8d. 
Sterling. In 156 J, they were let at L. 4, 3s. 4d. At this, the pe- 
riod of the Reformation, the stipend paid to the officiating minister 
amounted to L. 1, 3s. Ofd. Sterling. Prior to 1729, it was about 
L. 30 ; but it was soon after augmented to L. 47, 4s. 5d. ; and by 
the Government it is now raised to L. 150, and L. 8, 6s. 8d. for 
communion elements. 

The parish seems from 'the earliest period to have been sup- 
plied with a church and priesthood, conformable to the existing 
establishment. John de Saint Andrews, rector of this church, wit- 
nessed two charters,. granted by Allan Bishop of Argyle at Paisley 
in September 1253. John Silvester, parson of Dolphinton, La- 
narkshire, swore fealty to Edward L at Berwick, in August 1296. 
At the reformation from popery, John Cockburn, brother of Sir 
James Cockburn of Skirling, was rector, and had been presented 
to the living by the well known Earl of Bothwell. In February 
1561-2, Cockburn reported that the revenues of the parsonage 

* In Bagemont's roll, Dolphinton is taxed L. 4, being a tenth of the estimated 
value of its spiritual revenues. 



62 LANARKSHIRE. 

were then let at L. 50 yearly, from which there were paid L. 13, 
8s. 8d. Scots yearly to the minister who served in the church, 
and L. 3, 6s. 8d. Scots, to the Archbishop of Glasgow, for pro- 
curations and synodials. At the second reformation, viz. from 
prelacy, Alexander Sommerville, minister of this parish, acted a 
prominent part. At the earliest stage of the struggle, he with 
Henderson and others, resisted the orders of their archbishops to 
use the liturgy. When charged to obey on pain of imprisonment 
and ejection as a rebel, he supplicated the privy-council, and got 
the diligence suspended. He was appointed moderator of the La- 
nark presbytery in the place of the constant moderator for the 
bishops. He was also nominated one of the commissioners to at- 
tend the tables at Edinburgh. In 1638, he represented the pres- 
bytery at the memorable Glasgow assembly, and opened the busi- 
ness by preaching before an immense congregation, all armed with 
" whingers." The presbytery of Biggar was, through his influence, 
erected in 1644. He died about the year 1649, and was succeed- 
ed, on 1st April 1650, by James Donaldson, who was ejected from 
his living in 1663 for nonconformity to prelacy. Immediately after 
the suspension of Donaldson, William Dogood officiated as an 
Episcopalian clergyman. He was succeeded by Alexander Dou- 
glas on the 28th September 1675. He went to Douglas, and was 
succeeded on the 24th April 1679 by Andrew Hamilton. He was 
succeeded by James Crookshanks, who was instituted 17th May 
1684, and deposed for profane swearing. Donaldson was reinstated 
in 1688. John Sandilands was ordained January 1693; John San- 
dilands, his son, October 1711 ; John Bowie, May 1717 ; Thomas 
MacCurty, November 1770 ; James Ferguson, August 1773; John 
Gordon, March 1781 ; Robert Russell, March 1815; John Alton, 
April 1825. 

There were formerly four dissenting churches within reach. Of 
these two are totally deserted, and the other two had been long 
without any stated pastors till of late. The average number of 
communicants is about 130, and of attenders on public worship 
100. During the last seven years there have been five charitable 
collections, amounting in all to about L. 30. 

Education. The school and dwelling-house are very comfort- 
able and commodious. The salary is L. 26, and the wages yield 
about L. 15. William Brown, about 1658, mortified four acres of 
land, now worth L. 8, for behoof of the schoolmaster, and 1000 
merks, the interest of which is paid him for educating poor scholars. 



DOLPHINTON. (33 

He mortified 200 merks, the interest to be paid to the poor. 
He also mortified two acres of land to the minister, which has not 
been possessed by him since the revolution. Mr Bowie laid out 
8000 merks for the lands of Stony'path ; and in 1759 he mortified 
them to the minister and kirk-session, to be disposed of as follows : 
100 merks to the schoolmaster for educating 20 scholars; 100 
merks for educating any lad of a bright genius, to be allowed for 
six years, whom failing, to pay apprentice-fees ; 50 merks, either 
to be distributed among the poor 6T the parish, or to be laid out 
in buying books for the poor scholars ; and 50 merks to the mini- 
ster, with all the other profits arising from the lands, to compen- 
sate for his trouble as factor. 

Poor. There are 4 paupers, who receive at present L. 17 
per annum. The whole yearly expenditure of the kirk-session is 
not less than L. 25. In 1755, the average of the ordinary collec- 
tions on Sabbath was Is. In 1792 it was Is. 6d. ; and for the last 
ten years it has averaged nearly 3s. .10d. The interest at four per 
cent, of L. 250, invested on bond, yields L. 10. These sums, to- 
gether with 11s. Id. being interest on Brown's mortification, and 
what is derived from proclamations and the use of the mortcloth, 
may amount to about L. 21. 

Library. In summer 1825, a parochial library was established, 
which, by liberal contributions in aid of the funds, now contains a 
considerable number of useful and well-read books. 

March 1834. 



PARISH OF DUNSYRE. 

PRESBYTERY OF BIGGAR, SYNOD OF LOTHIAN AND TWEEDDALE. 

THE REV. MR WILLIAM MEEK, MINISTER.* 
GEORGE C. RENTON, ASSISTANT. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name and Boundaries. VARIOUS etymologies have been given 
of the name. The most probable is, that it is compounded of Dun 
and Seer, the hill of the prophet. The place seems to have been 
originally the site' of a Druidical temple. 

The summit of the water-level, at the upper end of the parish, 
where the stream, by a single turf, might be sent either to the Clyde 
or the Tweed, to the Atlantic or the German Ocean, is 735 feet 
above high water at the Broomielaw at Glasgow. The parish is 
bounded by Dolphinton and Walston on the south-east and south ; 
Linton on the east and north; West Calder on the north; and 
Carnwath on the west. The extent of surface is 17.25 square 
miles, or 11071 imperial acres. Its form is nearly a parallelogram, 
having its longest sides lying south and north. 

Topographical Appearances. The range of the Pentlands, which 
commences in the vicinity of Edinburgh, may be said to terminate 
with Dunsyre hill, after extending to the length of twenty miles. 
This hill is precipitous and rugged, composed of the same stone as 
Arthur Seat and Salisbury Craigs. It rises about 500 feet above the 
water level already stated; 1235 feet above high water at Glasgow. 
From it a range of hills verges towards the west, which gradually 
slopes into a flat towards Carnwath parish. In the valley betwixt 
Dunsyre and Walston ranges, runs the water Medwin, through a 
tract of flat ground about a mile in breadth and three in length, 
which in that distance falls only about nine feet. 

There is a very large cave on the hill Craigengar, on the north- 
eastern boundary of this parish, which is said to have been a chief 
rendezvous of the gipsies or tinkers in this part of the country. 

This Account was drawn up by the Rev. Mr Meek 



DUNSYRE. 65 

Meteorology. In summer, Fahrenheit's thermometer averages 
from 60 to 70, and in winter from 40 to 44 ; but in frost the 
range is from 22 to 34. It has sometimes been as low as 16, 
but very seldom. The general range of the barometer is betwixt 
29 and 30, so that the average may be stated at 29.5. It has been 
as high as 30.6, and as low as 28.5 ; but these are extremes which 
it rarely approaches. 

The valley of Dunsyre lies almost due east and west, having on 
each side a range of hills. The rainbow often exhibits a most 
beautiful and imposing appearance in this valley. This generally 
happens where the sun is in the west. Three irises are usually 
seen: I have beheld three entire, and the fourth imperfectly 
formed. The most prevailing winds in the parish are those from 
the west. They often sweep the valley with great violence, being 
confined by the ranges of the mountains. The soft freestone with 
which the houses are generally built becomes damp several hours 
and even days previous to a storm of wind and rain ; a certain in- 
dication of a change of weather. As a symptom of the dampness 
of the climate, the doors in the interior of the houses frequently 
stand covered with drops of damp, which run in streams to the 
floor. This must arise in a great measure from the extent of flat 
marshy ground on the banks of the river, where the water is al- 
most in a stagnant state, and renders the river in many places im- 
passable. Rheumatism consequently prevails, and there are very 
few who escape its excruciating ravages. Nervous disorders, pro- 
bably originating in the same cause, are also common. 

Hydrography. There is abundance of fine springs in this pa- 
rish. One which is in great esteem issues from a rock of whin- 
stone, on the face of Dunsyre-hill, and seems to be affected neither 
by summer drought nor winter rains. There is another very 
abundant spring on the glebe, called the Curate's welL It con- 
sists of two circular holes filled with soft sand, from which the 
water issues ; and all around, the ground is composed of the 
hardest clay and gravel. At intervals of five or ten minutes, it 
bubbles up at three apertures, as if it emitted air. There is ano- 
ther remarkable stream at Easton. It flows in great abundance, 
and if wood be left for any length of time in its waters, it becomes 
encrusted over with a white substance. It appears to issue from a 
red freestone rock, as this seems to lie in a thick bed all around, 
three or four feet from the surface ; or perhaps from limestone 
which may be below the freestone. There is another fine spring 

LANARK. E 



66 LANARKSHIRE. 

on the farm of Auston Park, consecrated to St Bride, and re- 
markable for the abundant flow and purity of its waters. It ap- 
pears to rise from a bed of sand, upon approaching a lower seam 
of clay and gravel. On the verge of the marsh, there are many 
springs deeply charged with iron-ore, and seeming to rise either 
"from that mixture or from coal. 

The only loch in the parish, the Craneloch, lies in an ele- 
vated situation in the moors, upwards of 300 feet above the water 
level. It is about a mile in circumference, surrounded with marshy 
grounds and skirted with heath. All around, nothing is presented 
to the eye but a bleak inhospitable desert. The water is of a 
dark mossy colour, of a pretty high temperature, and very deep. 
It abounds with pike and perch, which are allowed to enjoy their 
solitary waters unmolested. 

Medwin is the chief stream in the parish, and rises in the north- 
east corner of it, near the foot of the hill Craigengar. It pursues 
a southerly direction for about six miles, when it suddenly turns 
to the west. It is here joined by a stream, called West Water, 
fully as large as itself, which rises amongst the range of hills in 
the northern side of the parish. It continues to run at 'a very 
slow rate along the vale of Dunsyre, forming the boundary be- 
twixt it and Dolphinton, and then that of Walston. Its greatest 
width is about thirty feet, its greatest depth about ten. It runs 
shallow and rapid in some places, but in general, from the flat- 
ness of the ground, its motion is slow and inert. 

Geology and Mineralogy. Dunsyre-hill is composed partly of 
blue whinstone ^ partly of strata of freestone, dipping^ about an 
angle from 7 to 10 towards the north. The range which diverges 
from Dunsyre-hill contains deep beds of pure limestone, resembling 
gray marble; some of them eight and even sixteen feet deep. 
These beds are frequently cut across by dikes of clay, gravel, and 
loose blocks of the same material. In the channels of some of 
the streams which run down from the high ground are beds of what 
is denominated Coston limestone. This is apparently a mixture 
of sand and lime, which has been subjected to heat, and is extreme- 
ly hard. 

Some traces of iron-ore are to be found in these last-mentioned 

f rocks in close union with the stone ; and copper-ore in some places 

has been discernible. Coal has also been considered as lying 

under these strata, and attempts have been made to dig it, but 

without success. A fair trial has never been made. The line of 

3 



DUNSYRK. 67 

the seams -which run across the island passes through Dunsyre 
to the east. It has also been wrought about a'mile to the west, 
and runs on to Douglas, and passes through Ayrshire to the Mull 
of Cantyre. Calc-spar is discernible in many parts in the parish. 
There are various alluvial deposits in this parish. At the foot 
of those streamlets which descend from the high grounds are se- 
veral acres of fine soil carried upon the flat marshy land below. 
This soil is generally a mixture of clay and sand, of a reddish co- 
lour, and bears most excellent crops. The river has also, by being 
often flooded, deposited on its banks sand to the height, in some 
places, of two or three feet above the surrounding bog. This large 
flat is mostly composed of moss,- in some places eleven and even 
sixteen feet in depth. In digging down the one-half of that depth, , 
it is found to become soft, and the water and sludge rise to the 
mouth of the pit. It lies in a kind of basin, whose bottom is adhe- 
sive clay. Branches and trunks of trees are everywhere deposited in 
it, and these are generally composed of hazel, alder, and willow. 

Soil. The soil in this, parish, especially in the eastern part, may 
be said to be generally sandy, and the grounds appear to have been, 
at one time, traversed by currents of water. Towards the west, 
the subsoil seems to consist of the debris of various hills ; among 
which are found stones of all kinds mixed with sand and clay, and 
occasionally transparent pebbles. These stones appear to have 
been rounded by attrition. The light sandy grounds in a few years 
are covered with heath, if not kept clear by the plough ; and the 
other soils become foul with rushes, paddock-pipes, and the coarse 
bog grasses. In many places the Yorkshire fog, as it is called, 
covers all the surface, particularly if inclined to moss. 

Zoology. On this head, it may be only mentioned, that the 
gannet, or sea-gull, frequents this parish, especially when a storm 
of wind and rain is threatened. This appears rather singular in a 
parish situate nearly thirty miles from the sea coast. The lap- 
wing also migrates in flocks to this point during the summer sea- 
son, and has been known to continue during winter. The eagle is 
sometimes seen on the hills to the north of Dunsyre, particularly 
on Craigengar. There is plenty of grouse in these moors, and a 
few black game. The gray plover is everywhere to be seen. Wild 
ducks are numerous in the marshes ; and during a storm the parish 
is often visited with flocks of wild geese, to the amount of fifty or 
sixty in a covey. 

Medwin is a fine trouting stream. The trout are for the most 



68 LANARKSHIRE. 

part red, of a considerable size, and reckoned superior in quality 
to those of either Clyde or Tweed. Pike of a very large size is 
often found in the deep parts of the river. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Historical Notices. Many distinguished characters have befen 
proprietors in this parish. So early as the year 1147, William de 
Sommerville, the third of that noble family, afterwards Lord Som- 
merville, married Margaret, daughter of Gualter, who is designed 
of Newbigging, and Lord of Dunsyre. Sir Patrick Hepburn of 
Hales was, during his father's life, designed of Dunsyre, in the 
year 1450, who, on account of his great merit and fortune, was 
by King James III. created a Baron or Lord of Parliament, ante 
annum 1456. Adam Second Lord Hales succeeded his father, 
during whose life he had been designed Adam Hepburn of Dun- 
syre. His successors were created Earls of Bothwell on the 5th of 
October 1488, and the last of the family was created Duke of 
Orkney by Queen Mary, whom he had afterwards the honour to 
marry. 

Archibald the Sixth Earl of Angus exchanged his castle and 
lands of hermitage in Liddesdale, with Hepburn Earl of Bothwell, 
for the castle of Bothwell in Clydesdale ; and hence this property 
fell into the hands of the Douglases. It has since belonged to va- 
rious individuals. 

Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath, Ba- 
ronet, is now proprietor of almost the whole parish. The valua- 
tion of the parish, as fixed in 1733, amounted to L. 1450 Scots 
money; of which Sir Norman Lockhart has L. 1383, 13s. 4d., and 
the remainder L. 66, 6s. 8d. belongs to the Rev. Mr Aiton, which 
was bequeathed by the late Rev. Mr Bowie, minister of Dolphin- 
ton, to the minister serving the cure of that parish. 

Parochial Registers. The earliest registers of the parish are 
dated June 7, 1690. By minute of that date, Mr Robert Skene, 
curate of the parish, is required to give up the kirk-box and key. 
They have been regularly kept till the year 1712. An interval 
then occurs till 1760 ; after which they are regularly kept to the 
present day. 

Antiquities. The castles generally denominated fortalices, 
which were stationed in the valley of Dunsyre, establish the fact 
that the parish was well inhabited in early times. At Easter Sax- 
on there were no fewer of these than five. At Todholes, in the west 



DUNSYRE. 69 

end of the parish, stood one of considerable strength, with a fosse 
around it. There were castles of the same construction at Westhall 
Hills, Auston; and about 300 yards from the church stood the castle 
of Dunsyre. It had a vault on the ground story, with two apart- 
ments above, which were approached by a circular staircase at one 
of the corners. About eighty or a hundred years ago, the Baron 
baillie held his courts in this tower, and in the vault were kept the 
.thumbkins and the boots for torture. On the death of the last 
baron, who is represented to have exercised a tyrannical sway, the 
people of the village met, and destroyed these odious engines. 

Many Roman reliques have been found here. The line by 
which the army of Agricola reached the camp at Cleghorn lies 
through the parish of Dunsyre, and the route can be traced up the 
county of Tweeddale. The entrance to the glen or valley where 
Dunsyre is situate is called the Garvald or Garrel ; it forms the 
most natural and easy communication betwixt the east and west of 
the plain. Through this rugged pass lies the Roman line, mark- 
ed out by a dike of earth. Several cairns occur here and in the 
neighbourhood ; in some of which urns have been found. One of 
these is about 6 inches in diameter. It is composed of burnt 
clay, and rudely carved over. Its under part is narrow, of the 
shape of the human heart, and projects from the depth of 7 inches 
about 2^ towards the mouth.* 

Among the many places to which the champions of the Refor- 
mation fled for safety, Dunsyre was one of the chief. On the con- 
fines of this parish, where it borders with Lothian and Tweeddale, 
is a deep ravine, in the centre of which there is a large collection 
of stones. This deep rugged spot bears the name of Roger's Kirke, 
which, in all probability, it received from one of the covenanting 
ministers. 

Covenanters. One of the most celebrated preachers, Mr Wil- 
liam Veitch, was tenant in Westhills, which he was forced to aban- 
don after the battle of Pentlands in 1667. He was the person de- 
puted by the council of the covenanting army, while they were lying 
at Colinton, to go to Edinburgh to learn some intelligence of im- 
portance. He accomplished this mission with great difficulty, but 
without securing the slightest advantage. On returning, he was ac- 
cidentally surrounded by a troop of the enemy's cavalry, from which 
he escaped with difficulty, and fled to Dunsyre. Mr Veitch after- 

* Several other ca'rns and urns are noticed in the original MS. 



70 LANARKSHIRE. 

wards escaped to England; and after the Revolution became minis- 
ter of Peebles, and thereafter of Dumfries. * 

In 1669, Mr Donald Cargill, one of the most distinguished friends 
of freedom, whose persecutions were as remarkable as his conduct 
was courageous, preached his last sermon on Dunsyre common. He 
went, though contrary to the ad vice of his friends, to Andrew Fisher's, 
at Covington Mill, where next day he was seized by Irvine of Bon- 
shaw. He was treated in the most ignominious manner; his back 
was turned to the horse's head, his feet tied below its belly; and in 
this manner he was led through the streets of Lanark. He was 
afterwards hanged in the Grassmarket of Edinburgh, his head 
struck off and fixed on the Netherbow port. 

There are several places in the moor which still go by the name 
of preaching holes, and which formed the retreat of the persecuted 
preachers. Into these they generally retired, while the congrega- 
tions dispersed at the approach of the persecutors. 

III. POPULATION. 

By the return made to Dr Webster about 1750, the population was 359 

In 1783, - - ... 400 

1791, 360 , 

1815, according to census taken by minister, -^ - 312 

1821, - - - I 290 

1831, 335 

The decrease has been owing to the union of small farms, and 
the dislike which the farmers entertain towards what are generally 
denominated cottars. 

1. Number of families in the parish, - 57 

of families chiefly employed in agriculture, - 26 

chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 19 

2. Number of unmarried men, bachelors or widowers, upwards of 50 years of age, 13 

of unmarried women, including widows, upwards of 45, - 13 

3. The average number of births yearly, for the last 7 years, . . 6 

of deaths, ----- 3 

of marriages, _ . v . 25 

4. The number of persons at present under 15 years of age. ' *// - 105 7 

upwards of 70, - .>" f 7 

No nobility, nor families of independent fortune reside in the pa- 
rish. There are only two proprietors, and both their properties are 
worth upwards of L. 50 annually. 

See notice of Major Learmonth in Account of Dophinton. 



DUNSYRE. 71 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture and Rural Economy. 

There are in the parish, cultivated and occasionally in tillage, upwards of 3000 acres. 
Constantly in pasture, many of which are waste and of very little value, 8000 
Capable of being improved by a judicious application of capital, 2000 

Under wood, - 30 

Undivided common, 

All the wood has been planted ; and, from being constantly cut 
without any new plantation, will very soon cease to exist altoge- 
ther. The trees are Scotch fir and larch. 

Rate of Wages. Farm men-servants receive for summer and 
winter, being generally hired by the year, from L. 8 to L. 12, be- 
sides bed and board : females during the summer, L. 3, and dur- 
ing the winter from L. 2 to L. 2, 10s., bed and board. If the men 
are married, they generally receive about L. 10 wages, and a free 
house, with a certain quantity of fuel driven. Masons' wages are 
about 2s. 6d. a-day, and a carpenter's nearly the same. 

Breeds of Live Stock. Considerable attention has been paid 
to the breeds of sheep and cattle. The Cheviot are bought in 
some instances when hogs, and afterwards fattened on the turnips. 
The black-faced are the staple breed, of which there are no fewer 
than 150 scores in the parish. They are also reared for fatten- 
ing on turnips. The Ayrshire breed of cattle is generally culti- 
vated, and a cross-breed of heavier stock is annually reared for 
draughting and feeding on turnips. 

Particular attention has' been paid to the dairy. The number 
of milch cows kept by the farmer is generally betwixt 20 and 30. 
The milk-houses are fitted up in the neatest manner, so as to pre- 
serve the milk fresh and clean. The usual method is to make 
butter, which is salted and sold about Martinmas. Of the skim- 
med milk, cheeses are made, which are sold about the same time. 
Dunlop cheeses are also made, and rival any from Ayrshire. 

Husbandry. The fourth rotation is that which is generally 
practised, as the soil will scarcely admit of a heavier cropping. 
Turnips are reared in great abundance, and few parishes can boast 
of so fine crops. 

The Medwinhas lately been straightened, and will thus afford a 
facility for draining the surrounding bog. Draining has been car- 
ried on to a considerable extent; and irrigation was first practised 
in this parish in the upper ward of Clydesdale, and has been im- 
proving constantly for the last twenty years. The late William 



72 LANARKSHIRE. 

Brown, tenant at Mains, was the first to introduce the improved 
system of husbandry into this parish. 

Leases are- granted for nineteen years. The farm-buildings are 
in general commodious, and in good repair. But the enclosures 
are few, and in a very indifferent condition. 

Produce. The average gross amount of raw produce raised in 

the parish, as nearly as can be ascertained, is as follows : 

Produce of grain of all kinds, whether cultivated for food of man or the domestic 

animals, - - L. 3864 

Of potatoes, - 270 

Of turnips, - 1940 

Of hay, whether meadow or cultivated, - - 750 
Of land in pasture, rating at L. 3 per cow or full-grown ox grazed, 

or that may be grazed for the season, 078 
Of land in pasture, rating at 5s. per ewe or full-grown sheep pastured, 

or that may be pastured for the year, - 1250 

Total yearly value of raw produce, L. 9052 o 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Market-Towns, fyc. The nearest market -towns are Carnwath 
and Biggar : the former, about 6 miles from the village of Dun- 
syre, where there is a weekly market held on Friday, which may 
be said to be the chief resort for farm produce from this parish. 
Biggar is about 8 miles distant, and is attended from this parish 
principally for seed-corn in spring on Thursday, every week, and 
its fairs are frequented for horses, cattle, and lambs. Linton, 
however, in Tweeddale, which is about 6 miles distant, constitutes 
the principal sheep and wool market. 

Village. Dunsyre village consists of a population of about 50 
souls, chiefly composed of tradesmen, for the accommodation of 
the parish smiths, masons, wrights, tailors, shoemakers, &c. 
There was once a considerable village at Weston. But now the 
remaining cottages are chiefly inhabited by the servants and fami- 
lies belonging to the farms of that name. 

Means of Communication. Dunsyre keeps up a weekly commu- 
nication with Edinburgh by means of carriers ; and the parish is 
traversed three or four times a-week by carriers from the vicinity 
of the metropolis. They purchase butter, eggs, and fowls, which 
are generally sold at the Saturday market. 

There is no post-office in the parish. Carnwath is the chief 
post-town for Dunsyre. A runner from the post-office at Linton 
to Roberton, in Dolphinton, might be had twice a-week for L. 2 



DUNSYRE. 73 

yearly. This arrangement would serve three parishes, and pay back 
more than the outlay. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church stands on a tumulus 
or mound, on the northern banks of the Medwin, and is quite con- 
veniently situate for the inhabitants. At what time the church 
was built is uncertain. About 1750 it was thatched with heath ; 
as it then appears to have received for the first time a slate roof. 
At the Reformation, it had been built of the barn construction 
with the materials of an old Gothic building. In 1820 it under- 
went a complete repair; and a Gothic tower was erected at the 
east end, and on each side is a lofty Gothic window. It is seated 
to accommodate betwixt 240 and 250 sitters. The seats are all free. 
The heritors divided them amongst their tenants in proportion to 
their rentals ; and allotted a certain proportion to the village. 

The manse was built in 1756, and was pretty well repaired in 
1815. It has now, however, become ruinous, and requires either 
to be rebuilt, or very thoroughly repaired. There is also a defi- 
ciency in the accommodation of office-houses. 

The glebe consists of fifteen English acres, exclusive of the 
site of the manse, and offices, and garden. It was subdivided and 
enclosed with stone dikes, and hedges, and rows of trees, by the 
present incumbent, and, being well drained, may be worth L. 30 
or L. 40 annually. 

The church or living was gifted to the Abbot and Convent of 
Kelso, betwixt the years 1180 and 1199, by Helias brother to 
Jocelyne, bishop of Glasgow, and held by that Convent from the 
twelfth century till the Reformation. This parish was a rectory 
of the monks of Kelso ; but the revenue they drew from thence 
till the year 1316, was not above L. 5, 6s. 8d. annually. At the 
Reformation the revenue increased to L. 20. In 1791-2 the sti- 
pend was L. 100, exclusive of manse and glebe, which last was es- 
timated at L. 10 a-year. In 181 1, when the Legislature augmented 
the livings below L. 150 to that sum, the living of Dunsyre on an 
average of the seven previous years was worth L. 114, 17s. H T 9 2 d. 
inclusive of L. 8, 6s. 8d. for communion elements. As the seven 
years average was taken when grain was very high, the deficiency 
in succeeding years became great ; and another act of Parliament 
was passed in 1824 to remedy the evil. Still, however, although a 
small addition was then made, it seldom happens, from the reduced 
price of grain, that the stipend rises to L. 150. It may be worth 
while to mention, that the minister was titular of the teinds, and still 



74 LANARKSHIRE. 

continues to receive annually 15s. 2d. as feu-duty from the, lands 
called Kirklands. 

There are no chapels or dissenting-houses in the parish ; and 
hence the parish church is generally well attended. The average 
number of communicants is about 170. 

The yearly average of collections for the last seven years, in- 
cluding fines, mortcloth, interest, &c., is L. 19, 2s. 6|d. 

Education. There is only one parochial school in the parish. 
Latin is taught. The salary is about L. 28. The schoolmaster 
has the legal accommodation, though it is supposed there is defi- 
ciency of garden or glebe. There are no individuals in this parish 
who have not been taught from their infancy to read and write. 

Friendly Society. A friendly society was instituted about the 
year 1799 : it continues, and has for its object to support the sick 
or disabled members, and to assist in the funeral expenses of hus- 
band or wife. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The average number of persons re- 
ceiving parochial assistance for the last seven years is 5f , and the 
sum annually allotted to each is about L. 6. The funds arising 
from collections, fines, mortcloths, proclamations, and interest of 
money lent out to the road trustees at five per cent., in general 
cover the expenditure ; but when found insufficient, recourse has 
been had to voluntary contributions. There was at one time an 
extreme aversion to receive parochial aid, and there are still many 
in necessitous circumstances who would feel degraded by accept- 
ing it. But the spirit of independence is gradually wearing away, 
and many consider it not only as not degrading, but talk of it as a 
right given to them by the law of the land. 

Alehouses. There are no houses of this description in the pa- 
rish. 

Fuel. The fuel generally, used is coal, which is driven from a 
distance of twelve miles, and costs about 12s. a ton. A great deal 
of peat is dug. In the moors or in the marsh on the banks of 
the Medwin, it is to be had in great abundance, but coal is consi- 
dered more profitable. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

When the former Statistical Account was published, the modern 
system of husbandry was little known, and as little practised. Nay, 
those who had the genius or the hardihood to deviate from the old 
beaten path were branded as visionaries. This, however, is not 



DUTsSYRE. 75 

the case in the present day : the farmers are active, industrious, 
and prosperous. 

The great want in this parish is shelter, the farms, for the 
most part, being quite exposed to the sweep of the east and west 
winds. There is also a great deficiency in draining. About two 
years ago the Medwin, which ran in innumerable windings, was 
straightened for the distance of three miles. This work, however, 
has not been sufficiently done, as the water, at the under part of 
the cut overflows its banks, in consequence of a mill-dam, which 
keeps back the water. This should be entirely removed to render 
the straightening effectual. Were the flat through which the cut 
runs sufficiently drained by ditches into the river, there would be 
recovered not less than 400 acres of the best land in the parish, 
all of a deep rich water-borne soil, composed of decayed vegetables, 
and likely to be worth more than one-half of all the land under 
cultivation. 

At present the principal road runs from the one end of the pa- 
rish to the other nearly parallel with the river, at the distance of t 
half a mile, and at the east end joins the public road from Edin- 
burgh to Biggar by a very circuitous route. Whereas, were it to 
be continued straight east through the Garvald, to join the same 
road near Linton, it would open up a most advantageous commu- 
nication. 

Revised April 1&34. 



PARISH OF CARNWATH. 

PRESBYTERY OF LANARK, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. JAMES WALKER, MINISTER. V 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name, Extent, Sfc. THE parish of Carnwath is situated in the 
upper ward of Lanarkshire, 27 miles S. E. of Glasgow, and 25 
miles S. W. of Edinburgh. In some of the old writings belong- 
ing to the family of Lockhart of Lee, who is now the proprietor 
of the estate, I find it frequently written Cairnwath. The name 
is descriptive of the situation of the place, as there is a cairn im-v 
mediately west of the house and village of Carnwath,^ which will 
be noticed more particularly afterwards,) and near the bottom of 
that cairn there is a wath, which, as my predecessor remarks, means 
in the Saxon language a, ford. Such is probably the derivation of 
the name. The oldest people in the place report, that the wath 
or ford at the cairn was almost the only pass across the burn of 
Carnwath at all practicable before it was confined by a cut being 
made within a narrower space, and bridges thrown over it. The 
parish is very extensive, being 12 miles from south to north, and 8 
from east to west. Its form is pretty regular, (an oblong square,) 
and it is bounded on the west by the parish of Carstairs ; on the 
east by Dunsyre ; on the south by the parishes of Libberton and 
Pettinain ; and on the north by West Calder. 

Topographical Appearances. There are no mountains, or even 
hills, which deserve the name, though there are two ranges of high 
ground which run through the parish, but which, even at their 
highest point, do not exceed 1200 feet above the level of the sea. 
The low and flat lands consist either of flow-moss, of which we 
have still a large extent, or holm, which stretches along the banks 
of Clyde and Medwin, marking the south boundary of the parish. 
The climate is such as is experienced throughout Scotland at the 
same altitude above the level of the sea, about 600 feet being 
the lowest elevation of any part of the parish ; and though there 
are still cases of rheumatism to be found among the inhabitants, 
they are certainly fewer than they were, owing, no doubt, to the 
drainings which have been executed to a great extent in every 



CARNWATH. 77 

part of the parish within the last forty years. * No distemper, 
indeed, seems to prevail more than another, or can be attributed 
to the influence of the climate. 

Hydrography. There are several mineral springs in different 
parts of the parish, but I am not aware that any of them have 
been analyzed, or have attracted particular notice. The only loch 
worthy of notice is what is called the White Loch, immediately 
west of the village of Carnwath. It covers about 30 acres, is of 
considerable depth in some places, and finely wooded on the south 
and west sides. It is more than a mile in circumference. A small 
kind of perch is the only fish found in it, and it is chiefly remark- 
able as the great rendezvous of the curlers of the district around. 
Besides eight or nine rinks, as they are called, each rink consist- 
ing of eight individuals, whom the parish supplies, and who are 
to be seen contending with each other in generous rivalship, the 
curlers from other parishes also frequently meet here to decide 
the contest, and sometimes upwards of 200 combatants have been 
arrayed against each other on the slippery bosom of the loch, f 

Mineralogy. On the north side of Dippool, coal, iron, and lime- 
stone are all to be found. The ridge of ground immediately north 
of its banks is chiefly filled with limestone, which is wrought exten- 
sively, and is the great depot from which this useful manure is sup- 
plied to the surrounding country for many miles. It rises gradually 
from the moss on the north bank of the above rivulet, and which 
is generally improved to the extent of half a mile ; and the whole 
of the south acclivity from Westshiel to Eastsidewood has been par- 
tially wrought. The metals on this side are disposed as under : 
After a tirring, as it is called, of from 20 to 27 feet, comes the lime- 
stone, generally about 6 feet in thickness, and under it, again, is 
found a seam of coal of 18J inches, which is generally sufficient for 
burning the limestone. All these dip towards the north or top of 
the ridge, while on the opposite, or north side, from the top of the 

I have observed more cases of cancer in the lip than of any other disease ; but 
these are not to be ascribed to any thing peculiar to the climate, but to the smoking 
of tobacco, and, especially, to the manner which I have seen that done. I once went 
into a house where a man was in the last stage of a disease of the kind. He was 
still able to take his pipe, and, to my horror, I saw him hand it, when done, to one of 
his friends, who again handed it to another ; and both seemed to enjoy it as much 
as if it had never come in contact with such a disease. 

f In the end of the year 1832, a curling club was founded in the parish, un- 
der the auspices of Alexander Macdonald Lockhart, Esq. It consists of sixteen 
members, all resident, or born within the barony of Carnwath. The club can, by 
means of its members, have two games going on at once, each member playing two 
stones. This is not the common way of playing the game in this country, where 
each player appears upon the ice with only one stone. Sixteen people are thus 
brought into close contact ; but the noise and confusion thus created are far from 
adding to the beauty or interest of the game. 



78 LANARKSHIRE. 

ridge to Cleugh-burn, where the limestone shows itself, in great 
abundance, the dip is to the south. Troubles, as they are here 
called, frequently show themselves in the limestone, and add greatly 
to the expense of working it. These troubles are from 4 to 6 feet in 
thickness, imbedded in the limestone, and they frequently cut it off 
altogether, but make no change in the coal or sandstone : and when 
cut out, which is done with great labour and expense, the lime- 
stone is found of equal quality with what was formerly obtained. 
They are formed of a substance here called Sklut, which, though 
unable to withstand the influence of the sun or the action of the 
atmosphere, which soon crumbles it to pieces, resists the opera- 
tion of fire : hence they are generally employed for building the 
sides of the kilns in which the lime is burned. To give some idea 
of the disadvantage arising from these troubles, it may be mention- 
ed, that the range of working at one of the most extensive lime- 
works on the south side of the ridge is about forty yards, and in 
that space one or more of these troubles are always met with. 

On the north side of the ridge above-mentioned, down to Cleugh- 
burn, presenting an extent of ground greater than the south side, 
the limestone is equally abundant, but, being unaccompanied with 
coal, has probably from this cause never been wrought to the same 
extent. 

On crossing Cleugh-burn, an immense field of coal presents itself, 
and from thence to the northern boundary of the parish, it is be- 
lieved that an inexhaustible store of this, as well as other minerals, 
is laid up. The coal has been wrought for time immemorial, but 
only partially, till about fifty years ago, when two brothers of the 
name of Wilson, Swedish merchants in London, commenced an 
iron foundry near a place called Forkens, and in a few years Wil- 
son town rose into existence. 

Wilsontown Iron-works. In the year 1779 the Messrs Wilsons 
commenced their preparatory operations for the iron-works, and, 
in 178081, began the manufacture of pig iron. The difficulties 
they had to contend with were numerous and various. The coal, 
where previously wrought, was found not well adapted to their pur- 
pose ; and though they had a sufficient supply at a greater depth 
of the very best kind, yet, from the quantity of water in the pits 
opened, and which (from the direction of the strata and the nature 
of the surface rendering it impossible to obtain a level) could only 
be cleared away by means of horses, they were forced to give up the 
attempt, and to return to the coal where they first started. With 
the supply which this field afforded, the work went on with varied 



CAHNWATH. 79 

success, till in 1787 another furnace was built, and another blowing- 
engine of greater power was set agoing. In 1788-89, a steam- 
engine was erected to draw off the water from the minerals, and a 
large field of coal, extending both ways along the bearing of the 
strata, was thus obtained. The work was now carried on with spirit, 
the weekly produce of the furnace increased, and, occasionally, 
a second furnace was set to work not only pig-iron, but great 
quantities of ballast for ships, and of shot, from 4 to 18 pounders 
inclusive. Pipes of various kinds, &c. were made. In 1790-91, 
an extensive forge for the manufacture of blooms was erected; but 
this had not been at work above one year, when, unhappily, a mis- 
understanding arose among the partners, and a law-suit took place, 
the issue of which was a dissolution of the copartnery ; and, under 
the authority of the Court of Session, there was a sale of the works, 
lands, &c. which belonged to the Company. John Wilson Senior, of 
London, one of the former partners, became the purchaser. During 
the dispute the forge had been stopt, and only one furnace was 
kept going; but after the sale in 1798, the forge was again put to 
work with an addition of two hammers, and the two furnaces again 
brought into full operation. In a little time, too, a rolling-mill, on 
a most extensive scale, and fitted to roll and slit all kinds and sizes 
of iron, was built, and set to work ; a powerful blowing engine was 
erected ; and the weekly produce of the furnaces, which before this 
seldom exceeded twenty, was now increased to forty tons. A lease 
of Climpy coal was also at this time obtained, and a village built 
there, for the accommodation of the workmen. A chapel, con- 
nected with the Relief, was built in the middle of that village, and 
a minister ordained by the Relief presbytery ; in a word, in every 
department prosperity seemed to smile. The coal and iron-stone 
mines, the furnaces, the forges, the rolling-mill, the shops of smiths, 
carpenters, engineers, and mill-wrights, all were crowded with 
workmen. At the census taken in 1807, there were depending on 
the work for their support upwards of 2000 souls, and the monthly 
payments to the various work-people were not less than L.3000. 
This seeming prosperity, however, soon vanished ; for in 1807-8 
the company became embarrassed, a severe depression in the iron 
trade increased this embarrassment, and made it fatal ; and, in 1812, 
the works were stopt, and the whole population turned adrift upon 
the world. From that period, till 1821, they continued unoccu- 
pied, the machinery, of course, rusting, and the houses falling into 
ruins, when they were purchased by Mr Dixon of the Calder iron- 
works, whose son, Mr William Dixon, is now the proprietor. 



80 LANARKSHIRE. 

The failure of the Wilsontown iron-works gave a dreadful blow 
to the prosperity of that part of the country in which they are si- 
tuated, and was felt not only in this parish, but in all the parishes 
around. It closed a market to the proprietors and tenants for al- 
most every kind of produce they had for sale, and which they found 
ever ready and convenient. Many of the labourers, too, had all 
their hard-earned savings embarked with the company, and were 
in a moment reduced to a state of beggary ; and of the old and 
infirm, many who hoped to spend their old age in comfort and in- 
dependence, were added to the paupers' roll. Even to this day, 
indeed, the parish feels, in this way, the effect produced by the 
failure ; for though many of those who were thus ruined in their 
circumstances are dead, yet not a few still remain to swell our as- 
sessment. In a word, it may fairly be questioned whether the erec- 
tion of Wilsontown iron-works was advantageous to the parish or 
the contrary. They no doubt gave an impetus, while they flourish- 
ed, to improvements, which probably otherwise would never have 
been made; but there can be as little doubt that they have brought 
burdens on the heritors which they would never have been called 
to bear. As happens in most cases, where such a population has been 
collected, the morals of the people have also suffered severely, and the 
religious character of the former inhabitants has been exchanged 
for indifference and lukewarmness^ But of this hereafter. 

The advantageous situation of Wilsontown as an iron work will 
best appear from a sketch of the minerals connected with, and be- 
longing to it. 

The Wilsontown coal-field lies in the form of an elliptical bason 
or trough, bearing east of north to west of south about three miles. 
The dip is at right angles to the bearing, and is in general about 
one to se/en or eight. 

The main coal, called the " four feet coal," is the lowest ; above 
it are several thinner seams, one of which, resting on a stratum 
of fire-clay, is about two feet in thickness, and has been wrought 
occasionally, both for. the use of the works and for sale. The ac- 
companying strata are numerous and various, sandstone or free- 
stone of different texture and hardness, fakes of various colours, 
blaes, (bituminous shale and slate-clay,) fire-day, small ribs of 
ironstone, &c. Above these, and about thirty fathoms above 
the main coal, there is a stratum of limestone of excellent qua- 
lity. It is five feet thick, and from it has been taken the whole 
supply for the use of the furnaces, and all the numerous and va- 
rious erections since the commencement of the works. About 



CARNWATH. 81 

fourteen fathoms below the majn coal are strata of blaes, va- 
rying in thickness from fourteen to twenty feet, while on the top 
of these lies the great freestone rock, from which have been taken 
all the stones for furnace hearths, and for building both works and 
village. A few feet under this rock are several strata of ironstone 
about three or four inches thick, which, when stript of the blaes, 
are to be seen lying in the form of parallelograms and squares, "and 
which, though in close contact with each other, do not adhere ; 
and, though of different sizes, present the appearance of a regular 
laid pavement. In the lowest part of the blaes are several strata of 
ironstone, all wrought together in one mine. The uppermost of 
these, seldom exceeding three inches thick, is called the " spotted 
stone" from its being mixed with small shells of a yellowish colour. 
Next is the ball stone, which do not always lie in close or even 
continued succession, are sometimes large and sometimes small, 
and have sometimes gone out altogether, but are generally, in this 
case, succeeded by a close stratum of spotted stone. Two feet 
below this, there is a thin stratum, called from its colour the black 
band ; and two feet, or little more, below it, lie the great bands. 
This is the strongest of them all, being six or seven inches thick, 
lying also in the form of pavement. In some of the hitches or 
leaps of this stratum pieces of lead have been found. Ten or 
twelve fathoms below this, is a stratum of excellent light or candle 
coaly which, in the old company's time, was wrought to some ex- 
tent. It varies in thickness, being on the north-east border of the 
field, near the boundary of the county, not above sixteen inches, 
while on the south-east, at Tashy-burn, it is two feet thick. 

The Climpy field of coal lies on the west side of the Wilson- 
town, the crop of the one nearly approaching the other. It is 
undoubtedly of great extent. Its general bearing is the same as 
Wilsontown, stretching to the south-west into the lands of Bir- 
nie-hall and Abbey, in the parish of Carstairs ; and to the north 
into the lands of Muldren, in the parish of West Calder. There 
can be little doubt but the Wilsontown, Cleugh, and Climpy fields 
of minerals are only successive continuations of the same strata ; 
and it may be worthy of remark here, that the same strata make 
their appearance a great way to the, east. On the farm of Mosshat- 
burn-foot, they are to be seen cropping out, apparently stretching 
away towards the lands of Wester and Easter Mosshat. At Moss- 
hat-burn-foot, indeed, the Wilsontown company wrought a consi- 
derable quantity of the same kind of stone, with the spotted stone 
at Wilsontown ; and it is not unlikely that the limestone formerly 

LANARK. " F 



82 LANARKSHIRE. 

wrought at Easter Mosshat and Urates (or Wolfrod) may be the 
same with the Climpy and Wilsontown, though perhaps differently 
modified. 

There are no dikes, properly so called, in the Wilsontown coal 
field, but there are several slips or hitches, as they are here called, 
of some consequence. The second, from the south-west, jnay be 
distinctly seen in the Burn, a few yards above the bridge at Cleugh. 
It throws the strata a long way down to the north-east ; and a sec- 
tion of the strata between the main coal and the Wilsontown spot- 
ted stone is at the above place finely displayed. At a considerable 
distance farther east, another slip or hitch up shows itself to from 
eighteen to twenty feet, and here may be seen an instance how 
slips sometimes derange the strata; for while on the south-west, 
or low side, the distance betwixt the main coal and the craw coal, 
next above, is in general about fourteen feet ; on the north-east, 
or upper side, the space is only about two feet. Still farther east, 
a fourth slip throws the strata again up, perhaps even more than 
the last ; and here another instance of derangement presents itself, 
and that in the stratum of coal itself. Throughout the field to the 
south-west of this, there is a thin stratum of black stone in the 
coal, about eight or ten inches above the pavement, on the top of 
what is called the ground coal. This ground coal differs in appear- 
ance from the coal above it, called the wall coal. It is of a clear 
shining black, of a loose texture, and breaks into small cubes; where- 
as the wall coal is of a much firmer texture, of a splinty nature, 
and much of it of a rough fracture. Besides these, there is be- 
twixt the two slips a very little above the black stone, a stratum 
of very good candle coal, from four to five inches thick ; but after 
passing the last mentioned slip, none of these are to be seen, while 
a stratum of blackish stone, of a foot to eighteen inches, shows it- 
self, dividing the bed or seam of coal into strata of nearly equal thick- 
ness, and without increase or diminution of quantity upon the whole. 

Thejfissures or veins are not what practical men call direct, but 
sometimes incline to the rigKt, and sometimes to the left. The 
second and third formerly mentioned incline to each other, and 
will at last meet, unless, indeed, they are partially deranged, or cut 
off altogether by the twisting and bending of the strata at the hol- 
low of the trough, which, indeed, there is reason to suspect, as 
they have not been seen in the Climpy field. 

From what has thus been stated respecting the minerals laid up 
at Wilsontown and in the neighbourhood, it will readily be seen 
how advantageous the situation is for an iron-work. Every thing 



CARNWATH. 83 

required is here brought together ; and in such quantities too, that 
I find it reported by a person employed in 1797 to examine the 
state of the minerals, that, " from what he had explored, 40,000 
tons of iron might be made annually for the space of ninety years ! 
that the supply of ironstone is inexhaustible," &c. * 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Antiquities. There are few antiquities in the parish worthy of 
notice. The cairn or moat at the west end of the village, to which 
reference has been already made, is 'evidently artificial, but at 
what time it was raised, or for what purpose, I have been unable 
to ascertain. It is of a form somewhat elliptical, the diameter 
from east to west being longer than from north to south. There 
is a hollow on the top, where, it is said, there was the entrance to a 
rude stair that reached to the bottom. This has suggested the idea, 
that the moat was intended as a burying-place, though tradition 
speaks of it as a place of concealment for the plate, &c. belong- 
ing to the family of Carnwath, in the troublous times of Bruce 
and Baliol. It has evidently been a place of strength, as it is sur- 
rounded by a deep ditch, and large mound, f though for what pur- 
pose it was raised must remain unknown. The present proprietor, 
Sir N. Macdonald Lockhart, Bart., has, during the last season, 
encircled it with a ditch and hedge, and planted it with hard wood, 
the Scotch fir never having thriven well upon it. These trees -a 
colony of crows has now taken possession of, and seems determined 
to destroy, by the load of nests, having, it is worthy of remark, 
returned only lately, after an absence of forty or fifty years. 

North and west from the cairn, on the other side of the moss, 
are the ruins of Couthalley Castle, formerly the residence of the 

* The above was communicated to me, in so far as the minerals of Wilsontown 
are concerned, by Mr James Mcason, formerly a clerk at the works, and now teach- 
ing a small school in the village of Forth. 

The distance of Wilsontown from the sea is no doubt a great drawback on the 
works, the iron having to be conveyed to Borrowstounness, a distance of eighteen 
miles. This the Union Canal will, perhaps, in some measure remedy. 

f The Sommerville papers mention this mound as a memorial of the first Baron 
Sommerville's firm adherence to the " Brucean interest," in opposition to the " Bal- 
liol faction." Thus, after stating, that " during all the days of his life he was a con- 
stant follower of King Robert Bruce, and ane adherer to his sone King David's in- 
terest when it was in the most desperate condition," they thus proceed : " Witnes 
his casting up a quantitie of earth, of his lands upon the south-west of Carnwath 
toune, which makeing a little hill, 'tis called yet, omnis terra. This was the cus- 
tome of these tymes, by which homage they that held the King of Scotland supreme 
under God wer distinguished from the Balliol party, or such as owed any homage to 
the King of England." 

Of such a custom we have no trace, so far as I know, in Scottish history and the 
name omnis terra, I never heard applied to the mound in question and perhaps, af- 
ter all, it may be regarded only as a look-out station, connected with Couthalley castle, 
as it commands an extensive view of the country around, and is distinctly seen from 
the opposite side of the moss, where the remains of the castle stand. 



84 LANARKSHIRE. 

ancient family of Sommerville, one of the most opulent and power- 
ful families in this part of the country, about the middle of the 
twelfth century. Hither James the Sixth seems frequently to have 
repaired, perhaps to enjoy his favourite sport of hunting, and here 
he seems also to have sometime spent a considerable portion of 
his time, v as some of the charters granted by him are dated at 
Couthalley.* The castle is now a complete ruin, though its extent 
may yet be marked ; and, from its situation, surrounded on every 
side by a deep ditch and earthen mound, with a drawbridge on the 
west, it must have been a place of very great strength. It is situated 
on the property of John Wilson of Westsidewood, but Sir N. Mac- 
donald Lockhart, Bart, is the hereditary Keeper of it. 

But the most perfect piece of antiquity which is presented in the 
parish is the aisle which we have already mentioned, and which, 
though built in 1424, retains much of its original beauty and gran- 
deur. It is a Gothic structure, covered with freestone flags; and 
the north window especially appears to have been a beautiful piece 
of workmanship. It has, successively, been the burying place of the 
Sommerville family, of the Dalziels, Earls of Carnwath, and now of 
a branch of the Lockhart family. The church, to which, no doubt, 
it was attached, and of which it formed a part, was founded in 1386, 
and endowed by the existing Lord Sommerville in 1424, with some 
lands, which the relict of one of his successors in vain endeavoured 
to resume. It was founded for a provost and six prebendaries, and 
there was at the same time, and by the same person, provision made 
for the maintenance of eight poor old men ; but when or how this 
provision ceased is now unknown. 

III. POPULATION. 

1. Population in- 1755, * - . - 1 - - 2390 

1821, '> -- - - _ 2888 

1831, . . 3505 

Numbers in villages, - _ 1858 

2. Average of births for the last seven years, but many of the dissenters are 

not registered, and consequently are not reckoned here, -'< .; -F^V 90-J- 

Average of deaths for the last five years, - 45 

Do. marriages do. - - - : - 2?4- 

3. Number of families, - 757 

families chiefly employed in agriculture, 169 

chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 185 
Average number of persons in each, (nearly) . 41 1 

4. Number of inhabited houses, . _ 707 
Do. not inhabited, > ' -." - - - 181 

* The castle of Couthalley, according to the Sommerville papers, was burned down 
in 1320, and there is no record, so far as I have been able to ascertain, when or by 
whom it was rebuilt. It was burned, no doubt, during some of the inroads of the 
English, which were so frequent at the time, and led to the building of what is called 
in the above-mentioned papers " the double tour in Carnwath towne." Of this " double 
tour" not a vestige remains, though the situation of it is marked ou>t by certain lands 
being still called Castle Sommerville. 



CARNWATH. 85 

The number of uninhabited houses arises from the breaking up 
of the Wilsontown iron-works, which, though begun again, are 
carried on upon a very different scale. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture and Rural Economy. According to Forrest's map, 
there are 25193 acres Scotch measure in the parish. Of these 
not more than one-third are in cultivation. 

The number of Scotch acres which remain constantly uncultivated, - 1 2000 

That might be cultivated with a profitable application of capital, though a 

great outlay of money would be required, probably 4400 

In undivided common, - - 70 

Under wood, - - 400 

Husbandry. Irrigation is carried on to a considerable extent in 
many parts of the parish, though in very few scientifically, most 
of the farmers and proprietors seeming to imagine that there is no 
difficulty in laying out and managing a water meadow. The general 
duration of leases is nineteen years. The state of farm-buildings 
is improving : the byre, the stable, and the barn all seem to oc- 
cupy the chief attention in rearing a steading in this country ; and 
though on the estate of Carnwath there are now a number of ex- 
cellent dwelling-houses, yet, generally, the accommodation of the 
farmer's family seems to have been only a secondary consideration. 

The systems of agriculture pursued in the parish are different 
in different situations. On one side there is strong and wet clay, 
and on another a light gravelly soil ; in one part a deep black 
loam, and in another little else but moss. The same rotation, 
therefore, and the same mode of management cannot be pursued. 
From Dippool, a small rivulet which divides the parish into nearly 
equal portions, to the north boundary, clay and moss generally 
prevail ; and though great improvements have been made on both, 
the close retentive bottom of the one, and the immense depth of 
the other, baffle the attempts of the husbandman. South from 
Dippool to the Clyde and Medwin, the soil and climate are very 
different ; and though there are in this part also immense fields of 
moss, yet the most approved systems of agriculture are generally fol- 
lowed. Little wheat is, indeed, sown, but there is a great extent of 
turnips and potatoes, barley and oats, hay and pasture on every farm. 

The rotation followed in this part of the parish is generally as 
follows : 1st, Oats after hay, or two years' pasture. 2d, Turnips 
or potatoes, the turnips either shawed and rooted, and carried 
home to the feeding stock and cows, or ate off by sheep. 3d, Bar- 
ley or oats, sown down with grasses of various kinds, viz. ryegrass, 
red, white, and yellow clover. The four-course shift, as it has 



86 LANARKSHIRE. 

been called by agriculturists, was followed here for a course of 
yearsj and is in some cases still retained, but it has been found by 
our experienced farmers far too severe, and has been given up. 
The introduction of bone dust for raising turnip forms a new era 
in the history of the agriculture of this district, and promises to 
be of essential consequence to the farmer. It was introduced on- 
ly about five years ago by one of our oldest and most enterprising 
farmers, and there is hardly any one of capital on this south side 
of the parish who does not use it. The turnips raised by it are ge- 
nerally ate off by sheep, and thus, while the sheep pay well, the 
field is left in the very best order for barley, with grass seeds. By 
the use of it, too, the manure made at the steading by the cattle 
fed there, and the cows kept, which are both numerous, can be 
applied to other grounds, or the farmer is enabled to extend his 
quantity of green crop. The bone dust has been confined here 
chiefly to the raising of turnip ; but Sir Norman Macdonald 
Lockhart, Bart, when factor on the estate of Carnwath, applied 
it to top-dressing, and with every promise of success. A very dif- 
ferent mode of culture is followed in the northern part of the pa- 
rish. Oats are chiefly raised ; and only as many turnips as will 
keep a few cows giving milk through the winter, while the quan- 
tity of potatoes is generally restricted to what is necessary for fa- 
mily use. This is caused by the nature of the soil, which is ge- 
rally a wet clay, lying on a close bottom of till. Some most suc- 
cessful attempts have been made, however, of late to introduce a 
much greater extent of green crop into this part of the parish ; 
and in a few years as great a change may be expected on the 
clayey, as has already been made on the mossy grounds. 

The latter, however, have occupied the chief attention of the 
farmer in this quarter for a number of years back ; and I may 
state, that within the last thirty years there has been taken out of 
moss, and brought into crop, from 800 to 1000 acres. The greater 
part of this ground was unproductive, being saturated with mois- 
ture, and incapable of being pastured. Where any thing like grass 
was produced, it was generally cut in the month of August, and 
converted into a kind of meadow hay, but of so coarse a kind that it 
was of little use, except for litter. In places, however, where this 
used to be the only produce, we have now most luxuriant crops of 
oats and hay, and even of rich pasture. The mode followed in 
operating this wonderful change has generally been the following : 
The field is first laid dry, dug, limed, and dunged, and two crops 
of oats taken. It is then sown down with rye-grass, Yorkshire 



CARNWATH. 87 

fog, and white clover, and left to lie some years in grass. At the 
end of this period it is taken up again, and one or two crops, as 
before, are received from it, when it is again laid down, dung be- 
ing applied with the crop, among which the grass-seeds are sown, 
and, if well enough broken, the field is left to be as permanent pas- 
ture. The great expense of digging has prevented 'many addi- 
tional acres within the bounds of the parish from being cultivated 
in the same way ; but an improvement has been introduced of late 
years which promises to obviate in some measure this difficulty. 
Wedge-draining has been followed in some places to a considera- 
ble extent, and with complete success. By the use of it fields of 
moss, which, in common language, would not carry a sparrow, 
have been so completely dried, that the plough has been introdu- 
ced, and done its work as successfully as on any other part of the 
farm. In almost every corner of the parish improvements of the 
above descriptions have been in progress, within the last twenty 
years especially, and most successfully on the properties which lie 
on the banks of Dippool, Medwin, and Cleughburn. 

Dairy System. The dairy system is carried on almost on every 
farm to a great extent, and with great success. Some of the far- 
mers keep twenty cows, and the prizes awarded by the Highland 
Society to the district for the best managed dairy, and the best made 
cheese, have, in almost every instance, found their way to this pa- 
rish. The cheese is of the kind called Dunlop, and most of it is 
carried to Edinburgh, where it is sold at from L. 2 to L. 3 per cwt. 
Rent of Land. The rent of land per acre is very different, ac- 
cording to circumstances and situation. Thus, immediately around 
the village of Carnwath, L. 4, and even L. 5 are paid for an acre, 
and four guineas is the common grass mail for a milk cow, while 
not much more than a mile from the same village, a hundred acres 
will not bring much more than any of these sums. In the upper 
part of the parish the same disparity prevails, but it may be men- 
tioned, that, after the most minute investigation, the present in- 
cumbent, in 1822, gave in the rental to the Court of Teinds at 
L. 14,000 a-year. Since that period he has no reason to think 
that it is lessened, though the liberality of Sir C. Macdonald Lock- 
hart's deductions to his tenants have been such as to reduce it some- 
what, so far as he was concerned. 

Rate of Wages. The wages of a good ploughman are from L.6 
to L. 8 a half year ; of a female servant, from L. 3 to L. 4 for the 
same time; of a labourer, from Is. 6d. to 2s. a day, in summer; 
of a shearer (man) L. 2, of a woman 35s. 



88 LANARKSHIRE. 

Breeds of Live Stock. It can hardly be said that there is a flock 
of sheep in the parish, though we have them of all kinds, as black- 
faced, Leicester, and Cheviot. The first are bred on the moor- 
land and high part of the parish; the second fattened on some of 
our best farms ; and the third only are bought in, to eat off the 
turnip in winter. The breed of cattle is chiefly what is called the 
Ayrshire. The cows are almost universally Ayrshire, as these are 
accounted best for the dairy; and while the quey calves are reared 
in numbers, and with the utmost care, the bulls are fattened and 
sent as veal to the Edinburgh market. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Village. The village of Carnwath is much changed for the better 
within the last twenty years. Formerly its streets were encumbered 
with dung-hills and peat-stacks, which are now all swept away ; and 
even the old houses now present an appearance of comfort and clean- 
liness. Many of the new houses are handsome ; and should Sir 
Norman Macdonald Lockhart, Bart, succeed in his plans of feu- 
ing, which he has already done to a considerable extent, the next 
twenty years will do more for its improvement than even the last. 

Means of Communication. The roads throughout the parish 
are in a far better state than formerly ; and there is one change 
which deserves to be particularly marked, as by it the neighbouring 
parishes are in a manner brought nearer to each other, and a new 
thoroughfare is opened to the country at large. The Clyde, which 
is the boundary of the parish on the south and south-west, often over- 
flows its banks, and even long before it does so becomes impassable 
by the fords. For at least nine months in the year the parishes of Pet- 
tinain and Carnwath were thus separated by 8 or 9 miles. To this 
I have been exposed even in the month of July, while the distance 
betwixt the one place and the other was not above 2-J miles. This 
led the proprietors on both sides to think of some means of commu- 
nication more direct and convenient ; and about five years ago a 
boat or float was erected, and has ever since continued to ply on 
the river, to the immense comfort and accommodation of the in- 
habitants on both sides, as well as of the country in general. The 
float is large, running upon a chain, and two or even three loaded 
carts can pass on it at a time. Thus a new outlet for the lime 
and coal of the parish is opened up, and were the roads on each 
side more improved, they would obtain a sale much more extend- 
ed than ever they have yet done. The Clyde is, indeed, still im- 
passable during some of the winter floods, the holms on each side 

3 



CARNWATH. 89 

being so extensive ; but this continues only for a few hours, and 
were the south pier raised a few feet, which the proprietors talk 
of doing, the river will be impassable for even a shorter period. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church is most inconveniently 
situated for the great body of the parishioners, being placed at the 
south and west end of the parish. There are, indeed, only two fa- 
milies immediately to the west, and not above ten or twelve on the 
south of the church. Many families are thus placed six and seven 
miles from the enjoyment of public ordinances, and in a high coun- 
try such as this is, it is not to be expected that in winter the in- 
habitants of the upper districts are to attend regularly. Of them 
in general, however, I am happy to speak in terms of high commen- 
dation, and many a day their pews may be seen filled, while many 
who are within hearing of the Sabbath bell obey not the summons 
which it sends forth. The church was built in 1798, and is neither 
elegant nor commodious. * Being set down close beside the aisle 
of the old one, which, though built in 1424, still remains a hand- 
some Gothic structure ; the contrast only serves to indicate the 
different spirit in which these things were gone about in the fif- 
teenth and in the eighteenth century. 

It is seated for 1100 people, and is, of course, too small for our 
population, and were it not for the accommodation afforded by dis- 
senters, many of the parishioners would have no opportunity of re- 
ceiving religious instruction. At our communion, indeed, a large 
body of the communicants are obliged to be without doors alto- 
gether. The seats erected for the communion table were, till 
within these few years, appropriated to the use of the poor, but one 
of them is now occupied by an heritor and his family, of course, 
with the consent of the other heritors. 

The manse was built in 1817, and is, upon the whole, substan- 
tial and convenient. The glebe consists of ten acres, lying imme- 
diately round the manse, and since the improvements made upon it, 
by ditching, draining, and levelling, is not unproductive. It is 
worth L. 2 per acre, though the land in the crofts around the vil- 
lage brings a much higher price, people paying for convenience, 
rather than going to market for every thing they need. The 
amount of stipend is 16 chalders, 8 of meal, and 8 of barley, and 
L. 10 for communion elements. 

* The church was last year very much improved, both internally and externally. 
The ceiling, which was very much broken, was completely renewed ; the whole in- 
terior white-washed, and a stove erected. I have little doubt, but in a few years, 
this last improvement will repay itself, for in addition to the comfort which it yields 
to the congregation, it has extracted all the damp from the wood and walls, which 
must have otherwise accelerated their ruin. 



90 LANARKSHIRE. 

There are no chapels of ease, though, from what has already been 
stated respecting distance, and considering that the population of 
Wilsontown,* Forth, and the corner of the parish beyond them, 
amounts to nearly 1000, there is certainly much need for a chapel 
of some kind. In former years this was in some measure remedied 
by the Relief chapel already mentioned at Climpy, and by means 
of a chaplain in communion with the Established church, kept and 
paid by the Wilsontown Company, when in its prosperity. Climpy 
chapel, however, like the houses around it, is fast falling into ruins, 
and Wilsontown chapel, though in good order, is seldom opened for 
divine service, f 

About three miles north from this, on the road to Wilsontown, 
there is a Burgher New Light chapel, which has been of consider- 
able service in providing accommodation for our redundant popu- 
lation ; and there is no other dissenting house in the parish. The 
minister has for stipend, L. 90, with a house and a few acres of r 
land. The chapel was built and seated for 400 people, but was 
contracted some years ago, and there are now betwixt 200 and 
300 joined members. $ 

The attendance on the Established church is highly creditable 
to the parishioners ; for on an average there are upwards of 1100 
communicants. This, with the accommodation originally pro- 
vided, rendered our service at the Sacrament of the Lord's Sup- 
per very protracted, there being fifteen tables. For two years back, 
however, we have contrived to shorten the service, by obtaining 
accommodation for forty additional communicants, at each table, 

* The villages are Carnwath, containing upwards of 800 inhabitants, the great body 
of whom are employed in weaving, and dependent on Glasgow for employment ; 
Newbigging 200, entirely weavers ; Braehead a mixed population of 120, weavers 
and labourers ; Forth 300, chiefly miners, as being close upon Wilsontown ; and 
Wilsontown 400, miners and labourers of all kinds belonging to the works. 

f One of these chapels might easily be procured, could a stipend be obtained for a 
minister. Climpy is, indeed, now at a distance from the great body of the popula- 
tion, while Wilsontown is almost in the centre, of course the latter would be by much 
the more desirable situation. If Government, therefore, would allow even L. 50, so 
as to procure a preacher there, it would be of immense consequence, not only to the 
parish, but to the outskirts of West Calder, and Carstairs. Since the above was writ- 
ten, I am happy to find, that the present company at Wilsontown have resolved to 
employ a preacher of the Establishment to teach and preach at the works. They in- 
tend to carry on the works to a much greater extent than they have been wrought 
for many years, which necessarily implies a great addition to the population, and 
renders the appointment of a chaplain the more necessary. 

f Since the above was written, a schism has taken place in this congregation, which 
has led to the building of another chapel, in the village of Carnwath, in connection 
with^the same body. The consequence of this has been increased difficulties to each 
of the congregations. The portion of hearers in the village of Carnwath, being per- 
haps the wealthiest, brought the former minister from Braehead to labour among 
them; but, on what account I know not, he soon found it necessary to embark for 
America with his family. The minister at Braehead, I am told, has now only L. 60, 
and his congregation is, of course, minus, by the portion belonging to this village. 



CARNWATH. 91 

by means of pews at each end of the church, and joining thern to 
the original communion table. We have thus reduced our num- 
ber of tables to ten. 

The amount of collections in the church has fallen off very 
much within the last seven years, in consequence, chiefly, of the 
increase of assessments laid on the parish for the support of the 
poor. This falling off has been from L. 80 a -year to no more than 
L. 40. The heritors have now to provide from L. 144 to L. 186 
of assessment. 

Education. There are at present eight schools in the parish ; 
seven besides the parochial school, which, like the church, is most 
inconveniently situated for the general population of the parish. 
The parochial teacher has the maximum salary, and is otherwise 
well provided with an excellent school and dwelling-house ; but the 
others have no salary, and in some cases have even to provide a 
school-house for themselves. The parochial teacher receives yearly 
from school fees about L. 37 ; and his other emoluments amount 
to L. 14. 

The people are in general anxious to obtain education for their 
children, and the heritors laudably pay for the families of paupers ; 
perhaps there are no persons in the parish who are unable to read. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. There are 46 regularly enrolled 
poor, and 16 occasional. The average sum allotted to each is 
from L. 2, 10s. to L. 3 per annum. 

Library. There is a subscription library in the village of Carn- 
wath. 

Fairs, fyc. There are five fairs in this village in the year, and 
a weekly market, which is devoted solely to the sale of meal and 
barley. One of these fairs, which is held in July, is chiefly for 
hiring shearers, and for the sale of cows and young horses. In 
another, about the middle of August, lambs form the staple com- 
modity, though there are a great number of young horses also ; 
and on the day after the fair a foot race is run, which deserves 
mention, as it is one of the tenures by which the property of 
Carnwath is held by the Lockhart family. The prize is a pair 
of red hose, which are regularly contended for, and the old people 
in the village tell me, that, fifty years ago, the laird used to have a 
messenger ready, whenever the race was finished, to communicate 
the intelligence to the Lord Advocate of Scotland. This prompt 
information is now, I suppose, dispensed with ; but I can testify 
that the race has been regularly run for the last twenty 7 five years. 



92 LANARKSHIRE. 

The day is indeed regarded as a holiday by the people for many miles 
round, and the scene has been made still more attractive by the 
present proprietor, Sir N. Macdonald Lockhart, Bart, who, in addi- 
tion to the red hose, gives prizes for leaping, throwing the hammer, 
putting the stone, playing quoits, &c. The day is finished with a 
steeple chase on foot. Other two of the fairs, one in February, and 
the other in October, are hiring fairs, as they are called, than 
which, a worse system for obtaining servants never was introduced 
into a country. The evil, however, will, I believe, soon cure itself, 
for as masters have already begun to feel the consequences of hir- 
ing servants, without knowing any thing of their character, so few 
servants of character will go to a fair for the purpose of being hired. 

Alehouses, fyc. The number of alehouses or rather whisky- 
houses is by far too great ; and, of course, they have the most de- 
teriorating effect on the morals of the people. This is an evil, 
however, which it must be difficult to remedy, so long as the trus- 
tees on roads have the power of granting licenses ; because each 
is anxious to secure to his own particular toll-house that by which 
the rent is augmented. Hence there are six tolls in the parish, 
and to the keeper of each a license is granted, and that in some 
instances within a very short distance of a licensed inn. 

Fuel. Our fuel, though peats are in abundance, consists chiefly 
of coal, which we have at a very reasonable rate ; a cart load of 12 
cwt. costing about 2s. 6d. Reasonable as this rate is, however, 
many of the people still lay in a store of peats, which every house- 
holder has a right to cast in some one of the mosses which are 
so abundant in the parish. 

May 1834. 



UNITED PARISHES .OF 

WISTON AND ROBERTON. 

PRESBYTERY OF LANARK, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. CHARLES WOOD, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name, Boundaries, $c. THE parishes of Wiston and Rober- 
ton were united in the year 1772. Roberton was probably so cal- 
led from some eminent person of the name of Robert, or, from some 
opulent family having conferred it as a portion upon a son of that 
name. Two derivations are given of the name of Wiston. By 
some it is supposed to have been originally Woolstown, or rather, 
in the Scotch language, Woostown, in course of time corrupted 
into Wiston, and to have been so called from its having been in 
former times a great market for wool. It is certain that there is 
still, about the middle of the village, a mound or small rising 
ground, pointed out by the old inhabitants as the cross or place 
where that market was held. By others, again, it is supposed to 
have been originally Wisetown, thence easily contracted into Wis- 
ton, and to have been so called from its having been the property 
of a man of the name of Wise. The Place, the name of a farm 
close upon the village, seems to indicate that it was at one time 
the seat of the proprietor. Neither derivation is unnatural, though 
which is the correct one it may not be easy to determine. 

The united parish extends about 6 miles in length, and 4 in 
breadth, exhibiting *very nearly the form of a parallelogram. It 
is bounded on the east by the parish of Symington ; on the north 
by the hill of Tinto ; on the west by the parish of Douglas ; and 
on the south by the parish of Crawfordjohn and the river Clyde. 

Topographical Appearances. Tinto, the Hill of Fire, which 
forms the northern boundary of the parish, is upwards of 2000 feet 
above the level of the sea, and commands in every direction a most 
extensive view. The principal points seen from it are Hartfell, 
Queensberry Hill, Cairntable, Goatfell, Isle of Arran, the Bass, 
the hills in the north of England, and even in the north of Ireland. 
Directly opposite, and almost in the centre of the parish, is Dun- 
gavel, a hill with two tops, presenting in its appearance a perfect 



94 LANARKSHIRE. 

contrast to its neighbour of Tinto ; the one being mild, green, and 
beautiful ; the other, craggy, bold, and frowning. 

There is no disease peculiar to the parish, and, from the recent 
improvements in agriculture, and the increasing attention to the 
accommodation of the people, counteracting to a certain extent 
the natural influence of the climate, even the distempers which 
formerly prevailed are now very much decreased. 

Geology. The soil is very different in different districts of 
the parish ; it may be described as principally gravelly and black 
loam ; great part of it, however, is exceedingly marshy. It is ge- 
nerally supposed that there is coal in the parish. Some years ago 
an attempt was made for it, which was suddenly and unaccounta- 
bly abandoned, and has not since been repeated. At present, and 
for several years past, there have been lime-works in full opera- 
tion. The direction of the strata is from south to north ; the dip 
14 feet; the inclination 1 in 7. One principal dike of whinstone 
runs in a slanting direction along the west side of the layer. In 
breadth it is 20 feet. There are also several clay dikes running 
in irregular directions. Corals, branches of trees, nuts, shells of 
various kinds, are frequently met with among the limestone strata. 
A deer's horn, not petrified, was lately found in the alluvium ; and 
a year or two ago, a fossil tree, found in these limestone quarries, 
was sent to Edinburgh, and, on inspection, it appeared that none of 
the kind had been seen before. 

The hill of Tinto in this parish^ according to the accurate and 
comprehensive description of the Rev. Dr Macknight, published in 
the second volume of the Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural His- 
tory Society, rises in a district where greywacke and superimposed 
old red sandstone occur. The mountain itself in its lower part 
presents rocks of old red sandstone conglomerate, but the predo- 
minant rocks are of plutonian origin, chiefly claystone and felspar 
porphyries, with subordinate masses of greenstone. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Land-owners. There are seven heritors, all of them proprie- 
tors of land upwards of the yearly value of L. 50. The two prin- 
cipal are Lord Douglas, and Lockhart of Cleghorn. The only 
resident heritor at present is Thomas Gibson, Esq. of Eastfield. 
Macqueen, late Lord Justice- Clerk, bought the estate of Har- 
dington, or Bagbie, as it was then called, which he very much im- 
proved, and where he occasionally resided. Hardington House is 
at present occupied by his grandson, Robert Macqueen, Esq. 
Younger of Braxfield. 



WISTON AND ROBERTON. 95 

Parochial Registers. The books belonging to the kirk-session 
of the old parish of Roberton have unfortunately been lost, and 
no trace of them can be discovered. The earliest of those belong- 
ing to the old parish of Wiston bears the date of 1694, and with 
occasional, but trifling interruptions, they are extant from that pe- 
riod to the present. 

III. POPULATION. 

The return to Dr Webster in 1755, the earliest account of the 
population of the parish that we have been able to discover, gave 
from Wiston 591, and from Roberton, 511, in all 1102. From 
a census taken by the writer in the month of February last, it ap- 
pears that the present population of the united parish is 949, or 
153 less than it was about eighty years ago. In 1791, the popu- 
lation was only 740, or 362 less than it was about forty years be- 
fore. This large decrease was easily accounted for, from the cir- 
cumstance, that beween the years 1755 and 1791, the system had 
come into vogue of throwing several small farms into one large 
farm, and, as a matter of course, driving the small tenants, with 
their families, out* of the parish ; and the very gradual increase 
which has since taken place is as easily accounted for on merely na- 
tural principles. There are three villages in the parish, Roberton, 
Wiston, and Newton of Wiston. And from the census taken in 
February last, it appears that there were then residing in the vil- 
lage of Roberton, 235 ; in the village of Wiston, 123 ; in the vil- 
lage of Newton, 56 ; and in what may be called the country parts 
of the parish, 535. 

There is no register of deaths kept in this parish. The births 
average from 15 to 20, and the marriages about 7 a year. 

1 . Number of families in the parish, - 189 

of families chiefly employed in agriculture, - 80 

chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 48 

2. Numbejr of unmarried men, bachelors or widowers, upwards of 50 years of age, ] 7 

of unmarried women, including widows, upwards of 45, 49 

3. The number of persons at present under 15 years of age, 358 

betwixt 15 and 30, - - 262 

30 and 50, - . 161 

50 and 70, - - 151 

upwards of 70, - 24 

Perhaps it may be worth mentioning, that a week or two ago, 
an aged couple, who, for upwards of half a century had trode 
the path of life together, died within a few days of each other ; 
the husband at the advanced age of 82, and the wife ten years older. 

Customs, fyc. of 'the People. Not very many years ago, cock-fight- 
ing and foot-ball were favourite amusements in this district, and 
were frequently made the subject of a trial of strength between two 



96 LANARKSHIRE. 

rival parishes. They are now sunk into merited oblivion, and their 
place is well supplied by the not less interesting, and far less ex- 
ceptionable amusement of curling. In their domestic character 
and habits the people generally are manifestly improving; and 
though there is still ample room for amendment, it is evident that 
the indolent, slovenly, " canna' be fashed" system of the last cen- 
tury is fast falling into disrepute, and yielding to a taste for neat- 
ness, and a habit of cleanliness, both as to their houses and their 
persons, the effects of which are already apparent. The farmers 
are active, intelligent, and hospitable. Equally removed, on the 
one hand, from the conditions and character of the mere serf, and, 
on the other, from that of the gentleman farmer, they are, some 
of them, wealthy, and all of them able to make a respectable ap- 
pearance, enjoy in abundance the necessaries of life, and are be- 
coming daily more alive to its comforts and its elegancies. The 
lower orders are in general comfortable in their circumstances, and 
contented with their lot; honest, industrious, and sober; inferior 
to no peasantry in Scotland in point of intelligence, and unstained 
by the prevalence of any particular vice, poaching, perhaps, ex- 
cepted, which, in the eyes of some, seems to possess an attraction 
absolutely irresistible. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture and Rural Economy. There are about 2183 acres 
in this parish in constant rotation ; about 1600 occasionally in til- 
lage ; about 5388 which never have been cultivated, and which re- 
main constantly waste, or in sheep pasture; and at least 1500 
which, with a profitable application of capital, might be added to 
the cultivated land of the parish, whether that land were afterwards 
to be kept in occasional tillage, or in permanent pasture. There 
is no land in this parish in a state of undivided common. There 
are only about 200 acres under wood, none of it indigenous ; of 
these nearly one-half have been planted within these few years on 
the property of Lockhart of Cleghorn. The wooded grounds are 
judiciously laid out, and are carefully attended to. The wood thrives 
remarkably well, and promises, ere long, to give a new face to 
this part of the parish, and holds out every encouragement to the 
other proprietors to beautify and improve their properties in a simi- 
lar manner. It consists, in general, of larch and Scotch fir, with 
a sprinkling of hardwood, in the proportion, perhaps, of twenty of 
the former to one of the latter. 

Rent of Land. The land in this parish is of such various value, 
some of it being worth, perhaps, L.4 per acre, and some of it 



WISTON AND ROBE11TON. 97 

scarcely 4d., that it is difficult to say what is its average rent. Of 
the land constantly in rotation, perhaps L. 2, 1 Os. may be taken as 
a pretty fair average; and of that which is only occasionally in til- 
lage, perhaps 15s. The average rate of grazing is L.3 for an ox 
or cow, and 5s. for a ewe or full-grown sheep pastured for the year. 

Rate of Wages. The rate of labour, winter and summer, for 
farm-labourers is Is. 4d., and for country artisans, 2s. 6d. per day, 
victuals included ; for a man-servant, L. 12, and a woman-servant, 
L.5, 15s. per annum. 

Live-Stock, fyc. There are about 185 scores of sheep in the 
parish, chiefly of the black-faced Linton breed ; about 366 milk 
cows, principally of the Ayrshire breed, though a new species has 
lately been introduced, and found upon trial to be of superior qua- 
lity, viz. the Lanarkshire newly improved breed, crossed by Ayr- 
shire cow and short-horned bull, or vice versa ; and about 76 
horses employed in agriculture, of the Clydesdale breed. There is 
an evident growing attention to the improvement of the breeds of 
sheep and cattle, to which, perhaps, the various cattle shows in the 
neighbourhood have not a little contributed ; and, indeed, the cha- 
racter of the husbandry in general has of late very much improved, 
and is still improving, particularly as to the reclaiming of waste 
land, draining and liming. As a proof of which, I may state that 
one of our farmers, Mr Muir, Hardington Mains, obtained this 
year the silver medal given by the Highland Society for the re- 
claiming of waste land ; and I believe that another, Mr Wilson, 
Hillend, would have been equally successful had he chosen to ap- 
ply. It is right to add, that the merit of whatever has been done 
in this respect is almost entirely due to the tenants themselves, 
who receive in general but too little assistance from their respec- 
tive proprietors. 

Produce. The average gross amount of raw produce raised in 
the parish cannot be exactly ascertained; bufit is believed that the 
following is nearly correct : 

Produce of grain of all kinds, L. 3370 

Potatoes and turnips, - - 1456 

Hay, meadow and cultivated, 2548 

Grazing, at rate of L. 3 per cow, and 5s. per ewe or sheep, 250 

Lime-works, rated at 18,000 bolls per annum, Is. 6d. per boll, - 1350 

Miscellaneous produce, including dairy, c. 2923 



Total yearly value of raw produce raised, - L. 11,897 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 
Villages. Biggar, about seven miles distant, is our nearest post 



LANARK. 



98 LANARKSHIRE. 

and market-town. As already stated, there are three villages in 
the parish, Roberton, Wiston, and Newton of Wiston. 

Means of Communication. The turnpike road from Stirling to 
Carlisle runs through the whole length of the parish, and has in 
various respects been of vast advantage to it. There are no bridges 
of any consequence ; the fences are deficient, but such as we have 
are tolerably good. 

Ecclesiastical State. The present church is that of the old pa- 
rish of Wiston. It was enlarged after the annexation of the two 
parishes, has since been repaired, and is at present in a very to- 
lerable state. It is situate within a mile and a-half of the eastern, 
and fully four miles and a-half from the western, extremity of the 
parish. But though not exactly centrical, as even the private roads 
in the parish are now generally good, those at a distance have no 
great reason to complain ; nor do they seem to feel it any incon- 
venience, for few attend church with greater regularity. It is seated 
for 355, not the legal provision ; but by means of forms and fold- 
ing seats, accommodation has lately been provided for about thirty 
morej and these newly provided sittings are free. The manse was 
built in the year 1750, and during the present incumbency, up- 
wards of twenty years ago, a considerable addition was made to it. 
There are two glebes, the glebe of the old parish of Roberton, and 
that of the old parish of Wiston. The former is sixteen acres in 
extent, and is let at present for L.25; the latter is about seven acres 
and a-half, including the garden and site of the manse and offices, 
and would let, I suppose, for about L.20. The glebes are more 
than two miles distant from each other, and though it is strongly 
recommended in the decreet of annexation " to exchange the glebe 
and yard of Roberton for lands lying contiguous to the glebe of 
Wiston, ' the recommendation has not yet been attended to. The 
teinds are exhausted, and by a decreet of modification and locality, 
1816, the stipend was fixed at L. 191, 11s. 8d. money, and one 
chaldron meal. 

There is a Relief chapel in the village of Roberton. It was built 
about thirty-three years ago, and is seated for 377. The minis- 
ter's salary, I believe, depends entirely on the produce of the cha- 
pel ; what that may exactly amount to I cannot tell, for, of course, 
I have no official communication on the subject, but I rather think 
it will not exceed L. 40 per annum. It has been in a declining 
state for several years ; nor is its decline to be ascribed to any cir- 
cumstances of an accidental or extraordinary nature. There are 1 50 
families attending the Established church, and 42 families attend- 



WISTON AND ROBERTON. 99 

ing different dissenting chapels, particularly the Relief one already 
mentioned. There are 766 persons of all ages belonging to the 
Establishment, and 183 of all ages belonging to dissenterism. 
There are 405 in communion with the church of Scotland, and 
102 in communion with dissenting bodies. 

Education. There are three schools in the parish, two paro- 
chial and one private and unendowed. The branches generally 
taught are, English, writing, arithmetic, and occasionally Latin. 
The salary of the schoolmaster of Wiston is L.25, 13s. 3d., that 
of the schoolmaster of Roberton, L. 30. The fees in the school 
of Wiston are, English, 2s., English and writing, 2s. 6d., English, 
writing, and arithmetic, 3s., English, writing, arithmetic, and Latin, 
4s. per quarter. In the school of Roberton the fees are, English, Is. 
6d. English and writing, 2s. 6d. English, writing, and arithmetic, 3s. 
6d. per quarter. At the annual examination in March, there were 
attending the parochial school of Wiston, 64 ; the parochial school 
of Roberton, 56 ; and the private school in Roberton 32. Both 
parochial teachers have the full legal accommodation. In no- 
thing, perhaps, has there been such a decided improvement of 
late years, as in the system of parochial teaching; and in no parish 
with which I am acquainted are the people more alive to the bene- 
fits of education, nor do they evince a keener interest in the subject. 
This is apparent from the fact, that in the poorest hamlets in the 
most distant parts in the parish, you will not find a child six years 
of age who has not been at school, as well as from the great turn 
out of parents on the day of annual examination, and the eager- 
ness with which they listen to the proceedings. 

Libraries. There are two public libraries in the parish, one a 
subscription library, consisting of books of every description, the 
other a Sabbath school library, consisting exclusively of religious 
works, but not limited in its circulation to the children attending 
the school. Both are well supported. 

Friendly Society. A friendly society was instituted a consider- 
able time ago, though in what year it is impossible to say, as the 
original books have been lost. The earliest record in the pos- 
session of the society bears the date of 1782. We regret to add, 
that it is not quite so flourishing as it once was ; and we can ascribe 
its decline ( temporary we hope) to no circumstance, so much as 
to the almost general extinction of that spirit of honest independ- 
ence by which the inhabitants of Scotland were at one time so 
remarkably and honourably distinguished; nor can we think of 
any thing more likely to revive the prosperity of the society, than 



100 LANARKSHIRE, 

for the heritors and other influential individuals connected with the 
parish to give it their countenance and support, by enrolling them- 
selves as members, and taking an interest in its proceedings. For 
their own sakes, as well as for the sake of the community at large, 
they ought to do so, as it is now, in this parish at "least, the only 
remaining bar against the inroads of pauperism. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The average number of persons 
receiving parochial aid is from 15 to 20, exclusive of occasional 
paupers ; the sum allotted to each individual is of course regulated 
by circumstances. The least that is given (and truly it is as little 
as can be given) is 4s. per month, and the most 15s. In 1832, 
the total amount of money received in behalf of the poor was 
L. 119, 11s. Hd. The church collections amounted to L. 12, 13s. 
4d. and, with the exception of the interest of L. 100, and a few 
other inconsiderable items, the remainder of the sum arose from 
the regular assessment, at the rate of lOd. Sterling, on each 
pound Scotch, one half paid by the proprietor, the other by the, 
occupier. 

Inns. There are no fewer than four inns or public houses in 
the parish, while one would be quite sufficient. Their effect, as 
might be expected, is decidedly bad. 

Fuel. The fuel is coal from the neighbouring parishes of Douglas 
and Carmichael. The price is 8d. a-load at the pit, and lOd. a-load 
for driving. The distance is about six miles. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

In the Statistical Account of 1792, it is stated, " there is, strict- 
ly speaking, no poors' roll. It is sometimes necessary to press aid 
on the necessitous, such is their modesty." From the foregoing 
account, it will be seen that matters are in this respect lament- 
ably altered. Various causes have no doubt contributed to this 
effect. The dissenting chapel at Roberton, by thinning for some 
time the attendance at the Established church, necessarily diminish- 
ed the amount of church collections, whilst the enlarged scale on 
which the lime-works came to be wrought, by introducing into the 
parish a poor and thoughtless population, added to the number of the 
necessitous, without providing any supply for their relief. These 
two circumstances combined gave rise to the necessity of a legal 
assessment, and that in its turn, and as its necessary consequence, 
has extinguished the spirit of independence, increased the number 
of the poor, and dried up almost every source of voluntary contri- 
bution for their support. 

May 1834. 






GLASGOW. 103 



wl^re the ancient town was situated. In the landward parts of the 
suburban parishes the soil is highly cultivated, and produces plen- 
tiful crops. 

Climate.* Climate commonly denotes the nature of the weather 
usually prevalent in any particular district or country. Northern 
climates are more favourable to health and longevity than tropi- 
cal regions. The alternate change of seasons produces a variety, 
which cheers the mind and acts upon the animal frame. Healthi- 
ness in the mass of the people constitute an essential part of na- 
tional prosperity, because without it labour cannot be performed. 
Salubrious air and fertile soil contribute to produce an industrious 
peasantry. 

As Glasgow has taken the lead in the formation of tables for exhi- 
biting the probability of human life in large towns, we have felt it 
right to give a particular account of the climate. In the second 
edition of Cleland's folio Statistical work, pp. 102 to 109, the year- 
ly quantity of rain is given for thirty years, as ascertained in the 
Macfarlane Observatory, by Dr James Couper, Professor of Astro- 
nomy in this University, showing an yearly average of 22.328 
inches. The least quantity in any one year during that period 
was 14.468 in 1803, and the greatest 28.554 in 1828. The quan- 
tity of rain which falls at Glasgow is less than at Edinburgh : this 
may be accounted for by the circumstance, that the former place 
is nearly twenty miles inland from the west coast, and is therefore 
beyond the immediate influence of the Atlantic, which renders some 
parts of the north-west of England so rainy, while its distance from 
the east coast, and the high land between it and Edinburgh, screen 
it from those violent rains, when the east wind blows, which are so 
common in Edinburgh. The distance of the hills from Glasgow 
is greater than from Edinburgh, and it is in some degree screened 
by high ground, both on the east and west. 

The state of the thermometer and atmospheric appearances is also 
given in the work alluded to, every morning throughout the year 

* " The two seas by which Scotland is bounded, in consequence of their difference 
of temperature, have a remarkable effect on its climate. The German Ocean, which 
stretches along the east coast, being of small extent and of no considerable depth, is 
easily affected by the changes of the seasons on the adjacent continent, in so much 
, that it is three degrees colder in winter and five degrees warmer in summer than the 
Atlantic, which, without any material interruption, occupies the western coast of the 
kingdom." 

! " In summer, therefore, in consequence of the high comparative temperature of the 
German Ocean, a copious evaporation takes place throughout its whole extent, which 
produces those easterly haars, as they are called, or thick mists, which are seen at a cer- 
tain period of the day to arise from the sea ; and which are not only dangerous to na- 
vigation, but advancing upon the land render the eastern coast often highly disagree- 
uMe '' Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Analysis of Scotland, p. 9">. 



104 LANARKSHIRE. 

at nine o'clock ; but here we have been enabled, from knowing the 
state of the thermometer every hour, day, and night during the 
year 1834, to give the average monthly for the year. This has 
been obtained through the politeness of Mr Mackain, the scienti- 
fic manager of the Glasgow Cranstonhill Water- Works Company. 
Mr Mackain suspended one of Crichton's Fahrenheit thermometers 
in an open well about twenty feet diameter, cradled with stone, in a 
position apart from the rays of the sun, and gave in charge to the 
day and night engineer, who are in constant attendance, to mark 
the hourly state of the thermometer in a book; and from that book 
Mr Mackain constructed a table, exhibiting the temperature hourly, 
daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. The following is an abstract 
from that laborious and most important document. 

1834, Jan. 24, greatest heat, 44.37 Jan. 29. least heat, 33.12 average, 40.58 
Feb. 18, 46.08 Feb. 13, 32.25 40.08 



March 12, 
April 24, 
May 27, 
June 2, 
July 4, 
August 3, 
Sept. 18, 
Oct. 4, 
Nov. 5, 
Dec. 6, 



49.95 March 20, 35.45 

52.16 April 11, 38.25 

59.95 May 1, 45.41 

63.45 June 13, 5233 

67.33 July 19, 56.87 

67.83 August 28, 49.75 

61.45 Sept. 13, 48.79 

56.33 Oct 24, 36.95 

52.29 Nov. 24, 30.70 

52.16 Dec. 19, 26.37 



42.32 
45.37 
54.70 
57.91 
62.04 
59.37 
53.17 
48.19 
41.59 
39.63 



The greatest height of the thermometer in June was 72, and 
the lowest 46. In July 78 and 54. In August 78 and 49. 
These extremes are applicable only to a few hours in the respec- 
tive months. Average temperature at the Cranstonhill Water- Works 
during two years, viz. from 1st January 1833 to 1st January 1835, 
48.43. 

The mean heat of Glasgow was formerly determined by Professor 
Thomas Thomson to be 47. 75 X , while that of Edinburgh, as deter- 
mined by Professor Playfair, was 47 7'; but it is presumed that these 
eminent philosophers had not the advantage of hourly inspection. 

In 1834 and 1835 the winters were so mild that ice was im- 
ported from Iceland to Glasgow. This may account for the dif- 
ference of temperature, as ascertained by Professor Thomson. 

Hydrography. The city is bounded on the south by the Clyde, 
and that river bounds the Gorbals on the north. The Barony pa- 
rish is bounded on the west parts by the river Kelvin. The Forth 
and Clyde, and the Monkland Canals, run through a considerable 
part of it, and it contains the Hogganfield and Frankfield lochs, 
which act as feeders to the town mills. 

Mineralogy. The suburbs contain large quantities of coal, iron- 
stone, limestone, freestone, whinstone, fire and potters clay, and 



GLASGOW. 105 

other valuable minerals. Kilpatrick and Campsie hills abound 
with a great variety of curious and valuable minerals, but as these 
belong to neighbouring parishes, they are not noticed here. 

II. CIVIL AND ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The following facts, collected from the records of the town- 
council, the Presbytery, and kirk-session of Glasgow, the Bishops' 
Cartulary, and other authentic documents, by Dr Cleland, convey a 
pretty accurate account of the state of society in Glasgow at the 
periods referred to. 

See of Glasgow. Although Glasgow was an early seat of the 
Church, historians do not agree as to the time when the See was 
founded. That it is next to St Andrews in point of antiquity 
is beyond all doubt. With regard to its founder, Kennet, in his 
Parochial Antiquities, says, it was instituted by Kentigerri or St 
Mungo, in the year 560.* Dr Keelyn, speaking of the see of St 
Asaph in Wales, observes, " that the see was founded by St Ken- 
tigern, a Scot, in 583," and that " St Kentigern was then Bishop 
of Glasgow." From these authorities, it may be inferred that St 
Mungo founded the See of Glasgow, and became the first bishop, 
and that when a cathedral of sufficient grandeur was finished, it 
would be dedicated to St Mungo. Baldrade, St Mungo's disciple, 
who founded a religious house at Inchinnan, is said to have suc- 
ceeded him in the bishoprick. There is no record of the See for 
more than 500 years after this period. This great blank cannot 
be accounted for with any degree of certainty. Among other con- 
jectures, it is said that the church was destroyed by the ravages 
of the Danes, who murdered or drove off the religious who had 
settled in Glasgow. 

In the year 1115, David, Prince of Cumberland refounded the 
See, ancl having, in 1124, succeeded his brother Alexander I. to 
the throne of Scotland, he promoted his chaplain, John Achaius, 
to the bishoprick in 1129. In 1133, the cathedral was solemnly 
consecrated in presence of the King, who endowed it with the lands 
of Partick. In 1165, Pope Alexander III. issued a bull command- 
ing the faithful to visit the cathedral of Glasgow. In 1176, Bishop 
Joceline enlarged the cathedral, and rebuilt a part of it in a style 

" The city and castle of Glasgow have long been the seat of the bishops and 
archbishops of Glasgow. St Mungo, to whom the cathedral was dedicated, is esteem- 
ed the first bishop of Glasgow. He was of great birth, great piety, and great learn- 
ing. Much that is written of him depends upon the credit of the authors. He lived 
in the sixth certury. There is a bull of erection and confirmation of the bishoprick 
soon after the i'ope's authority was owned in this kingdom." Description of Ihc She- 
riffdom of f. fulfil k, by William Uaniiltnn of Wtshaw, compiled about the beginning of 
tin: last cctitttry, and recently printed by the Maitland Club, pp. 4, 5. 



106 LANARKSHIRE, 

more magnificent than it had ever been. In the same year, Wil- 
liam the Lion, King of Scots, granted a charter to the town for 
holding a market on Thursday. In four years thereafter, Glasgow 
was erected into a royal burgh, and, " in 1190, the town received 
a royal charter for holding a fair every year, for ever, from the 8th 
of the Apostle Peter, (29th June,) and for the space of eight days 
complete." The fair commences on the second Monday of July, 
and continues the whole week. In 1210 the Gray friars Monas- 
tery was at the foot of the Deanside Brae. Little more is known of 
it, than that the citizens of Glasgow, at that date, went in a body 
on the last day of the fair to pay their respects to the Abbot of 
Melrose, who lived in the monastery, and had been instrumental 
in procuring the fair. 

In 1270, the religious fraternity of Blackfriars was patronized 
by Sir Matthew 7 Stewart of Castlemilk, who granted an an- 
nuity from his estate, " on condition of their saying mass for ever 
for the souls of him, the said Matthew, and for his mither and 
bairns of our place, progenitors, and successors, and all Christian 
souls perpetually." This ancient family has always been respect- 
able. In 1398, Sir Walter Stewart of Castlemilk, brother to Sir 
John Stewart of Darnley, was named one of the sureties on the 
part of Scotland, in a treaty of peace between England and Scot- 
land. 

In 1300, Edward I. of England took upon him to appoint An- 
thony Beik to the see of Glasgow. Earl Percy, at the same time, 
usurped the military government of the western part of Scotland, 
and took possession of the Episcopal palace in Glasgow.* Sir 

* The ancient castle of Carstairs was originally a Roman station or fortification, 
and was given by King David, or St David, as he was called, in 1126, to the Bishop 
of Glasgow for his country palace. The following curious information is from the 
Rotuli Scotia?, in the Tower, published by the Record Commission. 

" Wheri Edward I. was at Berwick in 1292, deciding on the claims of Bruce and 
Baliol, he was in possession of all the fortresses in Scotland. At that period the 
King granted a license to Robert Wiseheart, Bishop of Glasgow, to finish the Castle 
of Carstairs, which had been begun without leave. The following is a copy of the 
license: * The King and Sovereign Lord of the kingdom of Scotland, to all his 
bailiffs and faithful men to whom these shall come, greeting, Whereas a venerable 
father, Robert, Bishop of Glasgow, at his manor of Carstairs, in the county of Lanark, 
a certain castle of stone and mortar, after the death of Alexander of blessed memory, 
late King of Scotland, without any license, began to build. We, to the same bishop 
a special grace, being willing to have granted in this part to him, for ourselves, and 
for our heirs, that he the said castle so begun, may finish and fortify with kernals, 
and the same so finished and turreted, or kernallated, may hold to him and to his 
successors for ever. Nor wish we that the said bishop or his successors, by occasion 
of the said castle being begun without our licence or will, as aforesaid, is by us or our 
heirs, or our bailiffs or servants whatsomever, be quarelled, or in any way aggrieved. 
Witness the King at Berwick-on- Tweed the 15th of July." 

It is remarkable that in 1292 the castle and manor of Carstairs was possessed by 
one of our most public-spirited and benevolent bishops, and that, after a lapse of more 



GLASGOW. 107 

William Wallace, who was then at Ayr, determined on ridding his 
country of the English usurpers, and, accompanied by Wallace of 
Richardtown, the Laird of Auchinleck, his friend James Cleland, 
and others, gave battle to the usurper in the High Street, nearly 
where the college now stands, when Sir William cleft the head of 
Earl Percy with one stroke of his sword, on which the route of the 
English became general. On 28th August in the following year, 
King Edward offered oblations at the shrine of St Mungo, in the 
cathedral church of Glasgow, for the good news of Sir Malcolm 
de Drummond, a Scottish knight, being taken prisoner by Sir John 
Seagreave. 

It appears from the Bishop's Cartulary that the plague raged 
furiously here in the years 1330, 1350, 1380, 1381, 1600, 1602, 
1604, and in 1649. 

In 1387, the great wooden spire of the Cathedral of Glasgow, 
which was covered with lead, was destroyed by lightning. In 
1392, a mint-house was erected in the Drygate, where coins were 
struck with the motto, " Robertus Dei Gratia Rex Scotorum, vil- 
la de Glasgow, Dominus Protector." 

In 1420, there was a convent for Grayfriars somewhere about 
the west end of the Grayfriars' Wynd. The friars were patroniz- 
ed by. the celebrated but unfortunate Isobel Duchess of Albany, 
cousin to James, afterwards I. of Scotland, who, on 18th May 
1431, at Inchmurran, mortified the lands of Ballagan to the con- 
vent of the Grayfriars at Glasgow, for the express purpose of " the 
salvation of our souls, and that of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, of 
worthy memory, our dear husband ; and also of Duncan Earl of 
Lennox, our father, and of Walter, James, and Alexander, our 
sons." It is worthy of remark, that this pious lady received from 
the King, her cousin, as a present, the heads of her husband, her 
father, and her sons, Walter and Alexander ; James having fled 
into Ireland. 

In J426, Bishop Cameron, soon after his induction, established 
the Commissariat Court, and increased the number of the prebenda- 
ries of the cathedral to thirty-two. In 1441, St Enoch's Church 
was built within St Enoch's gate, and dedicated to the blessed Vir- 
gin and St Michael. It had a principal, eight prebendaries, and 
a large bury ing-ground. There is no vestige of the bury ing- 
ground, and there seems to be no record when the church was 

than 500 years, the magnificent mansion and extensive manor of Carstairs is possess- 
ed by a citizen of Glasgow, Mr Henry Monteith, alike distinguished for public spi- 
rit and active benevolence, whether engaged in mercantile enterprise, in the senate, 
or in honourable retirement. 



iOS LANARKSHIRE. 

taken down. In 1450, Bishop Turnbull obtained a charter from 
James II., erecting the town and patrimonies of the bishoprick into 
a regality. 

In 1456, St Nicholas' Hospital was founded and endowed by 
Bishop Muirhead, for the maintenance of twelve poor laymen 
and a priest. The Hospital was situated on the west side of Kirk 
Street, near where the Bishop's palace stood. Its ruins were 
taken down in 1808; the ground on which it stood now forms part 
of the Gas Work premises. Its revenues, now reduced to about 
L. 30 per annum, arise from ground annuals in the neighbourhood 
of the hospital, Lindsay's Middle, or New Wynd, &c. The Town- 
Council lately conferred the patronage on Provost Dalgleish. In 
1484, the Collegiate Church of St Mary (Tron) was built, and 
dedicated to the blessed Virgin. In 1488, the see of Glasgow was 
made archiepiscopal, during Bishop Blackadder's incumbency. 
The Bishop, along with the Earl of Bothwell, negotiated a mar- 
riage between King James IV. of Scotland and the Lady Marga- 
ret, eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, which they brought 
about to the mutual satisfaction of both kingdoms. This union 
laid the foundation of the title of the Scotch Kings to the English 
throne; which, in right of proximity of blood, King James VI. of 
Scotland succeeded to, on the demise of Queen Elizabeth. In 
1496, the Chapel of St Roque, belonging to the Blackfriars with- 
out the Stable Green Port, had an extensive burying-ground, 
where great numbers of those who died of the plague in after 
years were buried. In 1527, Jeremiah Russell and John Kennedy 
were burned alive in Glasgow for adhering to the principles of the 
Reformation. Gavin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow, and the 
Bishops of Dunkeld, Brechin, and Dunblane, &c. were present at 
the trial, and agreed to the sentence, which was read in the me- 
tropolitan church on the last day of February. 

The revenues which had been granted from time to time in sup- 
port of the splendour of the see of Glasgow were very great. The 
archbishops were lords of the lordships of the royalty and baro- 
nies of Glasgow ; besides, there were eighteen baronies of land 
which belonged to them within the sheriffdoms of Lanark, Dum- 
barton, Ayr, Renfrew, Peebles, Selkirk, Roxburgh, Dumfries, and 
the stewartry of Annandale, including 240 parishes. There was 
also a large estate in Cumberland within their jurisdiction, which 
was named of old the Spiritual Dukedom. When the see was made 
archiepiscopal, jurisdiction was given over the Bishops of Gallo- 
way, Argyle, and the Isles. At the Reformation in 1560, Arch- 



GLASGOW. 109 

bishop Beaton retired to France, taking with him all the relics, 
documents, and plate which pertained to the see and the arch- 
bishoprick. Since the renovation of the see, there have been twen-' 
ty-six Roman Catholic bishops ; the first, John Achaius, elected 
in 1129, and the last, George Carmichael, in 14W3, and four 
Roman Catholic archbishops, the first, Robert Blackadder, in 
1488, and the last, James Beaton, in 1551. From the Reforma- 
tion till the Revolution, the church in Glasgow was governed by 
fourteen Protestant archbishops, the first, James Boyd, elected in 
1572, and the last, John Paterson, in 1687. 

State of Society, fyc. Prior to the Reformation, the inhabitants 
of this city and neighbourhood were governed by churchmen, who 
kept them in a state of ignorance and superstition truly deplorable. 
At that period, the principles of the glorious Reformation began 
to be acknowledged, when it pleased God to raise up powerful 
agents in Edinburgh and Glasgow in the persons of Knox and 
Melville. In 1560, when the Reformation took place, and for a 
considerable time after, the great body of the people retained their 
fierce and sanguinary disposition. This is strikingly marked by 
their being constantly armed : even the ministers in the pulpit were 
accoutred. The number of murders, cases of incest, and other 
criminal acts, turned over to the censure of the church, but too 
plainly point out the depraved character of the people. 

In 1546, Glasgow, although only the eleventh town in Scot- 
land, in point of trade and importance, had some shipping ; the 
privy-council of Scotland having issued an order, that vessels be- 
longing to Glasgow should not annoy those belonging to Henry 
VIII. of England, the Queen's uncle. 

In 1556, during the minority of Mary Queen of Scots, James 
Hamilton, Earl of Arran, an ancestor of the noble house of Ha- 
milton, the second person in the kingdom, and nearest heir to the 
throne after Mary, was appointed Regent. This appointment hav- 
ing been opposed by the Earl of Lennox, and the Queen Dowager, 
an engagement took place at the Butts, where the weaponschaws 
used to be held, (now the site of the Infantry Barracks.) The ci- 
tizens taking part with Lennox, the Regent was defeated, which 
so exasperated him, that, rallying his troops, he entered the town, 
and gave it up to pillage ; which was so effectually done, that the 
very doors and windows of the houses were destroyed. 

In 1566, Henry Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, 
came to this city on a visit to his father, who resided in a house 
on the east side of Limmerfield, a little south from the new Baro- 



110 LANARKSHIRE. 

ny Church, a part of the south wall of which is still preserved. As 
the King was taken ill, the Queen came from Stirling to see him 
in this house, where she resided till he was so far recovered as to 
be removed to Edinburgh, in the neighbourhood of which he was 
soon after murdered. On 30th September 1578, Robert Stew- 
art Earl of Lennox, the immediate successor of Matthew, the fa- 
ther of Henry Darnley, was entered a burgess, and in the same 
year elected Provost of Glasgow. 

In 1581, the King appointed Mr Robert Montgomery, minis- 
ter of Stirling, to be Archbishop of Glasgow, with the understand- 
ing that he was to confer the title of hereditary lords of the Bi- 
shop's Castle on the Lennox family, with all the emoluments per- 
taining thereto, for the paltry consideration of L. 1000 Scots, some 
horse corn, and poultry. The people, considering the archbishop 
erroneous in doctrine and loose in morals, opposed his entry, by 
getting Mr Howie to preach at the time he was to be inducted. 
Sir Matthew Stewart of Minto, Provost of Glasgow, being desir- 
ous of obeying the King's commands, went to the church and de- 
sired Mr Howie to break off his sermon, which refusing, the pro- 
vost pulled him out of the pulpit. In the struggle some hair was 
drawn out of Mr Howie's beard, several of his teeth knocked out, 
and his blood shed. On this Mr Howie denounced the judgment 
of God on Sir Matthew, and his family. M'Ure, in his History of 
Glasgow, says, that in less than seventy years, this opulent family 
was so reduced that they subsisted by charity. The church con- 
sidering the transaction with the Lennox family illegal and dis- 
graceful, the archbishop was forced to resign the benefice. He 
afterwards became minister of Symington, and latterly of Stewar- 
ton in Ayrshire, where he died. At this period the church disci- 
pline was severe. On 16th August 1587, the kirk-session ap- 
pointed harlots to be carted through the town, ducked in Clyde, 
and put in the jugs at the cross, on a market day. The punish- 
ment for adultery was to appear six Sabbaths on the cockstool at 
the pillar, bare-footed and bare-legged, in sackcloth, then to be 
carted through the town, and ducked in Clyde from a pulley fixed 
on the bridge." The release from excommunication was as fol- 
lows : " A man excommunicated for relapse in adultery, was to pass 
from his dwelling-house to the Hie Kirk, six Sundays, at six in the 
morning at the first bell, conveyed by two of the elders or deacons, 
or any other two honest men, and to stand at the kirk door bare- 
footed, and bare-legged, in sackcloth, with a white wand in his 
hand, bare-headed till after the reading of the text ; in the same 



GLASGOW. 1 1 1 

manner to repair to the pillar till the sermon was ended, and then 
to go out to the door again, and stand there till the congregation 
pass from the kirk, and after that he is released." 

The presbytery admonished their ministers to be diligent in 
their studies, grave in their apparel, and not vain with long ruffles, 
and gaudy toys in their clothes. The brethren (Presbytery) inter- 
pret " the Sabbath to be from sun to sun ; no work to be done be- 
tween light and light, in winter, and between sun and sun in sum- 
mer." Subsequently, the brethren declared " the Sabbath to be from 
twelve on Saturday night till twelve on Sabbath night." The session 
directed that the drum should go through the town, to intimate that 
there must be no bickerings or plays on Sundays, either by old or 
young. Games, golfs, bowls, &c. were forbidden on Sundays ; 
and further, that no person go to Ruglen to see plays on Sundays. 
Parents who had bairns to be baptized were to repeat the Com- 
mandments distinctly, articles of faith, and the Lord's Prayer, or be 
declared ignorant, and some godly person to present their bairn ; 
with farther punishment, as the kirk shall think fit. That no pro- 
clamation of banns be made without the consent of parents ; per- 
sons who cannot say the commandments were declared to be un- 
worthy of marriage. Because of the many inconveniences by mar- 
riages on Sundays before noon, " the session enact that none be 
made till the afternoon." 

In 1588, the kirk-session appointed some ash-trees in the Hie 
Kirk yard to be cut down, to make forms for the folk to sit on in 
the kirk; women were not to sit upon the forms, but to bring stools 
with them. Intimation was made, that "no woman, married or un- 
married, should come within the kirk door to preachings or prayers 
with their plaids about their heads, neither to lie down in the kirk 
on their face in time of prayer ; with certification, that their plaids 
be drawn down, or they be raised by the beadle. The beadles 
were to have staffs for keeping quietness in the kirk, and comely 
order; for each marriage they were to get 4d., and 2d. for each 
baptism. All this for ringing the bell and rowing up the knock, 
and for setting the forms in the Hie Kirk, and in the Blackfriars 
Kirk, and also the New Kirk. The kirk beadles were to allow none 
to enter the steeple to trouble the knock and bell there, but to 
keep the knock going at all times, and the five hours bell in the morn - 
ing, and eight hours bell at even, and that for a long space. The 
minister gave the dead bellman a merk to buy a book, to enter 
the names of the dead with their age." 

" On 26th December 1588, the magistrates, considering the 



112 LANARKSHIRE. 

manifold blasphemies and evil words spoken by sundry women, 
direct the master of works to erect jugs, three or four steps up, 
that they may not be torn down. The town-council enacted that 
no market be kept on Sundays, and that persons blaspheming and 
swearing shall be punished according to law. Walter Prior of 
Blantyre, tacksman of the teinds of the parsonage of Glasgow, 
provided the elements for the communion, he was spoken to, to pro- 
vide a hogshead of good wine. The time of convening on the Sun- 
days of the communion was four o'clock in the morning. The 
collectors assembled on these occasions in the Hie Kirk, at three 
o'clock in the morning. At that period the town-council enacted 
that wine shall not be sold dearer than 18 pennies Scots, for a 
Scotch pint, and ale not to exceed 4 pennies Scotch, = one-third 
of a penny Sterling for two imperial quarts." 

" On 7th October 1589, there were six lepers in the Lepers' 
House at the Gorbals end of the bridge, viz. Andrew Lawson, 
merchant ; Steven Gilmour, cordiner ; Robert Bogle, son of Pa- 
trick Bogle; Patrick Brittal, tailor; John Thomson, tailor; and 
Daniel Cunningham, tinker." 

For a considerable time previous to 1604, very serious differen- 
ces had arisen between the merchants and trades' ranks, regarding 
precedency ; to put an end to which, and to restore peace in the 
burgh, a submission was entered into on 10th November 1604, 
which led to the letter of guildry. On 16th February 1605, at a 
meeting in the Council- House, Sir George Elphinston of Blyths- 
wood, provost, informed the meeting that the provost, bailies, 
and council being ripely advised, understanding the same first to 
redound to the honour of God, common weal of this burgh, have 
accepted, received, and admitted the said letter of guildry, and in, 
token thereof have subscribed the same. 

On 3d March 1608, the kirk-session gave intimation, that the 
Laird of Minto, a late provost, was accused of a breach of chastity. 
The session considering his age and the station he held in the town 
pass him with a reprimand. 

At this period the funds of the corporation must have been very 
low. At a meeting of the town-council, on 9th April 1609, the pro- 
vost informed the council, that the magistrates had been charged 
the sum of 100 punds, by the clerk register, for the book called the 
" Regium Majestatem," that they were in danger of horning for the 
same, and that, as the town was not stented, and as the council 
could not advance the money, (L. 8, 6s. 8d. Sterling,) he had bor- 
rowed it from William Burn, merchant burgess. 



GLASGOW. 113 

It would appear that the letter of guildry had only removed 
the burghal discontent, as on 19th May 1609, the provost inform- 
ed the council, that the Earl cf Glencairn, and the Lord Sempil, 
with their friends, were to be in this town on Monday next, conform 
to the ordinance of the secret council, for the purpose of compro- 
mising their deadly feuds ; " therefore for eschewing of all incon- 
veniences of trouble which may happen, (which God forbid,) the 
council directed that the number of forty persons, with one of the 
bailies, and the whole council, should attend upon the provost, 
and that one of the other two bailies, and threescore men, should 
attend at the lodgings of the said noblemen, all the foresaid per- 
sons to have long weapons, and swords, and to be in readiness to 
accompany and convoy the said noblemen, with their friends, 
in and out, in making their reconciliation, conform to the ordinance 
of the secret council, and the drum to pass through the town, to 
advertise and warn all the inhabitants, to be in readiness with 
their arms foresaid, and to meet the provost and the bailies on 
Monday next, at seven hours on the green, that the foresaid num- 
ber of persons may be chosen, and that under the penalty of L. 5." 
On 19th August following, the council granted a warrant to John 
Bernit, master of works, for 41 punds, 10s. as the expenses of wine 
and confections spent at the cross, upon the 5th day of July, the 
King's day, my Lord Bishop of Glasgow being present, with sun- 
dry other honourable men. 

On 6th October 1610, the town-council enacted, that there 
should be no middings (dunghills) on the fore streets, nor in the 
flesh-market, meal-market, or other market of this burgh, under 
the penalty of 13s. 4d. and that no timber lie on the High Street, 
above year and day, nor any turf, turf stakes, or lint, be dried upon 
the High Street, under the penalty of 13s. 4d, and that the fruit, 
kail, and onion crammies, stand betwixt the gutter and the house, 
and that each stand and flake be an ell in length and breadth. 

The council at the same time ordained, that the lepers of the 
hospital should go only upon the causewayside, near the gutter, 
and should have " clapperis," and a cloth upon their mouth and 
face, and should stand afar off while they receive alms, under the 
penalty of being banished from the town and hospital. 

On 22d December 1613, mortality bills were directed to be 
made in the city for the first time. 

In 1635, the magistrates purchased from the Earl of Glencairn, 
the manse of the prebendary of Cambuslang in the Drygate, which 
they fitted up as a house of correction for dissolute women, and 



114 LANARKSHIRE. 

such was the vigilance of the kirk-session, that they directed the 
women to be whipped every 'day during pleasure. 

The Laigh Kirk steeple was built in 1638. The Tron or pub- 
lic weights were kept in the under part of this steeple for a num- 
ber of years; hence the name Tron. The dues of the tron, which 
formerly belonged to the Archbishop, were conveyed to the Col- 
lege, which still draws a small sum from the town in lieu of them. 

The council agreed to license Duncan Birnet to teach music 
within the burgh, provided he takes no more " skolleges fra the 
bairns than James Sanderis was allowed. " They authorized the 
master of work now in Flanders, to purchase for the town's use 
fifty muskets with " stalfis and bandeleiris," and fifty pikes. On 
8th September they ordered " three score young men to be elected 
and trained to handle arms, the driller to have for his pains 40 
shillings each day for his coming out of Edinburgh, aye until he 
be discharged, with his horse hire hame and afield." 

On 25th September 1 638, the principal and regents of the Col- 
lege petitioned the town-council for help to build the new work 
within the said College. The council " condescended and agreed 
to give to the building of the said work 1000 merks when the work 
is going on, and another 1000 merks to buy books to the library, 
whenever they buy their books to make a library to the said Col- 
lege. The money to be advanced by the provost and bailies, who 
may be in office at the time." 

" On 8th October 1638, the provost, bailies, and council, un- 
derstanding that his sacred Majesty has been graciously pleased 
to indict a general free assembly to be holden in this city the 21st 
November next, to which it is expected that a great number of 
noblemen, commissioners from presbyteries, and other commis- 
sioners will repair hither, therefore it is statuted and ordained, 
that no burgess or inhabitant within this burgh shall set, or pro- 
mise to set, for rent or otherwise, or give to any friend any house, 
chamber, or stable, until they first acquaint them therewith, that 
the provost, bailies, and council may give a license thereto, to the 
end that every one may be lodged according to their quality and 
ability in this city, under the pain of 100 punds, and imprison- 
ment of their persons during the magistrates' will. And likewise, 
that those give obedience to this who are appointed to survey the 
houses within the city, and also that no inhabitant expect more 
rent for their houses, chambers, beds, and stables than shall be 
appointed by the said provost, bailies, and council, and ordains the 



pLASGOW. 115 

same to be intimated through the town by sound of drum, that no 
person may plead ignorance." 

On 3d November, the town-council, understanding that a great 
number of people will convene within this burgh at the ensuing 
assembly, they statuted and ordained, that there be a guard of 
men kept through the day, and a watch at night, under the direc- 
tion of the provost and bailies. On the 18th, the treasurer was 
directed to purchase for the town's use 100 muskets with " stalfis 
and bandeleiris," 30 pikes, 4 cwt. of powder, and 4 cwt. of match. 

On 21st November this famous assembly met in the nave of the 
Cathedral. During the preceding year, Laud, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, had ordered a service-book to be read in the Scotch 
churches, which the people thought savoured of the mass. This 
innovation afforded a fit opportunity for the friends of the Presby- 
terian form to exert themselves in the cause ; they therefore with 
great assiduity procured a numerous attendance at this assembly. 
The celebrated Marquis of Hamilton was Lord High Commis- 
sioner. The venerable Mr John Bell, minister of the Tron Church 
of Glasgow, preached, after which Mr Alexander Henderson was 
elected Moderator. The assembly was attended by a great propor- 
tion of the nobility and other persons of rank and consideration in 
Scotland. The Presbyterian party carried every thing their own way. 
The Commissioner protested and dissolved the assembly. After 
his Grace had departed, the assembly held twenty-six diets, when 
they decreed, 1st, The abjuration of Episcopacy; 2e?, The abo- 
lishing of the service-books and the high commission ; 3d, The 
proceedings of the six preceding assemblies during Episcopacy 
were declared null and void ; 4th 9 They deposed and excommuni- 
cated the Archbishops of St Andrews and Glasgow, and the Bi- 
shops of Galloway, Brechin, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Ross, Argyle, 
and Dunblane, and a number of other clergymen ; 5th, The Co- 
venant being approved of, was ordered to be signed by all ranks, 
under pain of excommunication ; and, Gth, Churchmen were in- 
capacitated from holding any place in Parliament. 

On 19th March 1640, intimation was made by the session, that 
all masters of families should give an account of those in their fa- 
milies who have not the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, 
Creed, &c. and that every family should have prayers and psalms 
morning and evening ; some of the fittest men to assist the elders 
in promoting this work. On 8th January in the following year, the 
kirk -session, in pursuance of an act of Assembly held at Aberdeen, 
enacted that the magistrates should cause all monuments of ido- 



116 LANARKSHIRE. 

latry to be taken down and destroyed, viz. all superstitious pictures, 
crucifixes, &c. both in private houses and in the Hie Kirk. Next 
day it was reported that they found only three that could be cal- 
led so, viz. the five wounds of Christ, the Holy Lamb, and a Pro- 
nobis. 

On the 19th June 1641, the council directed the treasurer to 
pay Mr Gavin Forsyth 162 punds for his bygone services in bap- 
tizing infants within this city, and visiting the sick in the time of 
the town's necessity, and for preaching God's word on Tuesdays. 
On 1st December, the council enacted that some Holland cloth, 
and Scotch linen cloth, with some plaids, as also two gallons of 
aqua vitce, and four half-barrels of herring, be sent as a present to 
Mr Webb, servant to the Duke of Lennox, as a testimony of the 
town's thankfulness to him for the pains he took in the town's bu- 
siness. The said day the Marquis of Argyle exhibited in presence 
of the town-council, a commission from the secret-council anent 
the transporting of 5000 men to Ireland, desiring the council to 
provide boats and barques for their transport. After much rea- 
soning, it was thought fit that the freight of each soldier should 
be 1 pund, 10s., and that the soldiers and boatmen should have 6s. 
in the day for victuals during the time they are at sea ; the whole 
to be paid by the community. 

On 13th April 1649, parochial sessions were first appointed ; 
but as these clerical courts assumed the power of censuring the 
measures of Government, his Majesty, Charles II. put them down 
by royal proclamation, and it was not till April 1662 that the legal 
restriction was removed. On 6th July 1649, the kirk session inti- 
mated that any person who knows any point of witchcraft or sorcery 
against any one in this burgh, shall delate the same to some of the 
ministers or magistrates. 

Oliver Cromwell having on 3d September 1650, got possession 
of Edinburgh, marched to Glasgow, and took up his lodgings and 
held his levees in Silver Craigs House, on the east side of the 
Saltmarket, nearly opposite the Bridgegate. 

" Cromwell having learned that Mr Patrick Gillespie, minister of 
the Outer High Church, had the chief sway in ecclesiastical affairs, 
sent for him, and after a long conference, gave him a prayer. On 
the following Sunday he went in state to the Cathedral Church. 
Mr Zachary Boyd, the distinguished paraph rast, having been ap- 
pointed to preach, took occasion to inveigh against Cromwell, on 
which Thurlow, his secretary, said he would pistol the scoundrel. 
No, no,' said the General, e we will manage him in his own way.' 



GLASGOW. 117 

Having asked the minister to dine with him, Oliver concluded the 
entertainment with prayer, which it is*' said lasted three hours. 

On 16th June 1660, the session having taken into their con- 
sideration the Lord's merciful providence in returning the King's 
majesty to his throne and government, do judge it their duty to set 
apart some time for public thanksgiving to God for the same. The 
Restoration took place on 29th May, and such was the persecuting 
spirit of the times, that on 14th July following, the privy-council 
sent an order to the magistrates of Glasgow, to desire Principal 
Gillespie to appear before them, which he did on the 17th Au- 
gust, when, for the favour he had shown to Cromwell, he was sent 
to Edinburgh jail, and was afterwards imprisoned in the Bass Island, 
along with a number of ministers. After a period of confinement, 
the Principal was brought before Parliament and liberated. 

Soon after the Restoration, an attempt was made to force Epis- 
copacy on the people of Scotland, and nowhere was this attempt 
more opposed than in Glasgow, where the great body of the people 
were Covenanters. The King having appointed Mr James Sharp, 
minister of Crail, to be Archbishop of St Andrews ; and Mr An- 
drew Fairfowl, minister of Dunse, to be Archbishop of Glasgow ; 
and two other ministers to be bishops, they were ordained in Lon- 
don, and on 10th April 1662, arrived in Edinburgh. The clergy 
and laity of Glasgow, with a few exceptions, having refused to con- 
form to Episcopacy, the Earl of Middleton, and a committee of 
the privy-council, came to Glasgow on 26th September 1662. 
The council met in the fore-hall of the college, when, after the usual 
preliminaries, Lord Middleton informed the committee, that the 
archbishop desired the royal order for uniformity to be enforced. 
This was agreed to by all but Lord Lee, who assured the com- 
mittee that the enforcement of that order would desolate the coun- 
try. In the face of this it was enforced, when upwards of 400 
ministers were turned out, and took leave of their flocks in one 
day, among whom were five belonging to Glasgow, viz. Prin- 
cipal Gillespie, Messrs Robert Macward, John Carstairs, Ralph 
Rogers, and Donald Cargill. Early in 1678, the committee of 
council returned to Glasgow, where they remained ten days. They 
sat on Sunday during divine service, administering a bond for pre- 
venting all intercourse with the exiled ministers ; and such was the 
terror which accompanied their proceedings, that Provost Camp- 
bell, Bailies Johnston, Campbell, Colquhoun, and others, to the 
number of 1 53 persons, signed the obnoxious bond. The council, 

LANARK. I 



118 LANARKSHIRE. 

the better to enforce their arbitrary measures, summoned to their 
aid some of the chieftains and clans, afterwards designated the 
Highland Host. These rapacious mountaineers, unaccustomed to 
discrimination, plundered the inhabitants of every thing they could 
lay their hands on. Under such an order of things, emigration to 
Holland or Geneva was the only safe alternative. On 2d Febru- 
ary following, the host left Glasgow for Ayrshire, and on their re- 
turn in small detachments, loaded with plunder, they were attack- 
ed by the students and other young men of the town, who recol- 
lecting their former practices, relieved them of their burthens, and 
showed them the way to the Highlands through the West Port. 

On 17th August 1669, the Presbytery of Glasgow directed that 
the day of preparation before the communion should be a day of 
fasting and humiliation. During the troubles in the latter end of 
the reign of Charles I. and the greater part of the reign of Charles 
II. the communion was but seldom administered in Glasgow, and 
not at all in the year 1646-47-51-52-53-58 and 59. From 1660 to 
1676, the communion was occasionally given once in the year; and 
from 1693 till the Union in 1707, it was regularly given once a- 
year ; and it has almost uniformly been given twice a-year since 
that period. 

In 1677, a great fire took place in Glasgow, when 130 houses 
and shops were destroyed. In 1684, a number of Covenanters 
were hanged in Glasgow, and their heads stuck on pikes on the 
east side of the jail. Their bodies were buried at the north side 
of the Cathedral Church, near where a stone with an inscription is 
placed, and still remains in the wall. 

In 1689, on the abdication of James II., the city of Glasgow 
raised a regiment of 500 rank and file, and sent them to Edin- 
burgh, under the command of the Earl of Argyle, to guard the 
Covenanters. This regiment then got the name of the Scotch 
Cameronians, and subsequently the 26th Regiment of Foot. Dur- 
ing this year the magistrates were elected by a poll vote of the 
burgesses; but in the succeeding year, an act of William and 
Mary empowered the magistrates and council to elect themselves. 

On 4th June 1690, the Presbytery of Glasgow, considering that 
" this is the first diet after the re-establishment of the Presbyterian 
form of church government," directed Mr Joseph Drew to go to 
Stirling, and preach to the people of Glasgow, who had been 
driven there on account of the troubled state of the kingdom. On 
2d May 1695, an act was read from the pulpits in the city, against 
buying or selling things on the Sabbath, also against feeding horses 



GLASGOW. 119 

in the fields, or hiring horses to ride on the Sabbath, except in 
cases of necessity, of which the magistrates are to be made ac- 
quainted. The ancient and laudable custom of elders visiting the 
families once a quarter was revived. 

On 12th March 1698, the magistrates of Glasgow granted an 
allowance to the jailor for keeping warlocks and witches imprison- 
ed in the tolbooth, by order of the Lords Commissioners of Jus- 
ticiary. The elders and deacons, two and two, were enjoined to 
search the change-houses in their proportions on the Saturday 
nights at ten o'clock, and to delate the drinkers and houses to the 
magistrates. 

In 1707, the union with England was effected. This measure 
was so inimical to the citizens of Glasgow, that the magistrates 
found it necessary to prohibit more than three persons from as- 
sembling together on the streets after sunset. 

In 1715, when the Rebellion broke out under the Earl of Marr, 
the city of Glasgow raised a regiment of 600 men at their own ex- 
pense, who marched to Stirling under the command of Colonel 
Aird, the late provost, and joined the King's forces. 

In 1717, the Convention of Royal Burghs passed an act pro- 
hibiting persons from trading in Glasgow, unless they resided eight 
months of the year within it. 

On llth November 1725, the kirk-session enacted, that the 
elders and deacons should go through their proportions, and take 
notice of all young women who keep chambers alone, especially 
those suspected of lightness, and warn them that they will be taken 
notice of, and advise them to get honest men, or take themselves 
to service. 

In 1736, the foundation stone of the Town-hall, and the first 
Assembly Rooms, was laid by Provost Coulter. The hall and As- 
sembly Rooms were opened in 1740. Although Deacon Corse 
was the master mason, his foreman, the celebrated Mungo Nai- 
smith, carried on the work, and carved the caricature heads on the 
key stones of the arches of the arcade, so justly admired. Till the 
Assembly Rooms were opened in 1740, the Glasgow assemblies 
were held in the Merchant's Hall, Bridgegate. These assemblies 
were usually well attended. The Duchess of Douglas, for several 
years, patronized them. 

The Rebellion of 1745 afforded the citizens of Glasgow an op- 
portunity of showing their loyalty to the Government, by raising 
two regiments of 600 men each, at their own expense. On the 
news of the American war reaching Glasgow, the magistrates cal- 



/ 



120 LANARKSHIRE, 



led a public meeting, when resolutions were entered into, to sup- 
port the Government. A corps of 1000 rank and file, afterwards 
the 83d Regiment of Foot, was raised at an expense of about 
L. 10,000.* To give countenance to recruiting, and to show their 
determination to oppose the Americans, above 500 of the princi- 
pal inhabitants formed, as it were, a recruiting party. Mr John 
Wardrop, a Virginia merchant, beat a drum ; Mr James Finlay, 
father to Mr Kirkman Finlay of Castle Toward, played the bagpipe; 
while other eminent merchants and citizens performed the duty of 
fifers, or carried broad swords, colours, or other warlike ensigns. Mr 
Cunningham of Lainshaw, Mr Speirs of Elderslie, and others, 
hired their ships as transports ; but Mr Glassford of Dugaldston, 
disapproving of the warlike preparations, laid up his ships in Port- 
Glasgow harbour. 

In 1787, the cotton manufacturers proposed to reduce the price 
of weaving, on which a number of weavers stopt work, and, after 
parading the streets on 3d September, burned and destroyed a 
number of webs in the Drygate and Calton. Provost Riddell cal- 
led out the military, under the command of Colonel Kellet, when 
the riot act was read ; the mob refusing to disperse, three men 
were killed near the Hangman's Brae, (north end of Barrack Street,) 
and several wounded. 

The revolutionary principles of France had made such rapid 
progress in this country during 1793-4, that an Act of Parliament 
was passed, authorizing his Majesty to accept the military services 
of such of his loyal subjects, as chose to enrol themselves as volun- 
teers, for defence of our inestimable constitution. The necessary 
arrangements had no sooner been made, than a number of the ci- 
tizens of Glasgow offered their services to Government, which were 
immediately accepted. During the war there were thirteen vo- 
lunteer corps raised, and when these were disbanded, there were 
five regiments of local militia formed. 

In 1799 and 1800, the failure of the crops was so great, that 
provisions could not be got through the usual channels. The cor- 
poratiofc, and a number of benevolent individuals, entered into a 
subscription, and purchased grain for the supply of the working- 
classes. The purchases amounted to L. 117,500. On the re- 
turn of plenty the concern was wound up, which showed a loss of 

* The Trades- House, the fourteen incorporated trades, and individual members, 
subscribed L. 5025 towards the expenses of the regiment. The corporation of the 
city voted an address to his Majesty, containing the tender of a regiment ; and the 
London Gazette, January 19, 1778, states, that the Hon. Robert Donald, Lord Pro- 
vost, and Duncan Niven, Esq. Convener of the Trades- House, who presented the ad- 
dress, were most graciously received, and had the honour to kiss bis Majesty's hand. 



GLASGOW. 121 

L. 15,000. As a large proportion of this came from the corpora- 
tion funds, a bill was brought into Parliament, for taxing the in- 
habitants for a part of the loss ; but it was so vehemently opposed, 
that the magistrates withdrew it. 

In the latter end of 1816, and beginning of 1817, the stagna- 
tion of trade was such, that the working-classes in the city and 
suburbs could not find employment. The distress of the workers 
was so great, that it was found necessary to raise money for their 
relief by voluntary subscriptions. From a large sum raised, the 
committee distributed L. 9653, 6s. 2d. among 23,130 persons. 

In 1818, the lower classes of this city and suburbs were severely 
afflicted with typhus fever. No sooner had the disease made pro- 
gress than L. 6626, 14s. Id. was raised for the relief of the afflict- 
ed sufferers by voluntary contribution. The accommodation in 
the Royal Infirmary being quite inadequate for the number of fe- 
ver patients, the subscribers built a temporary fever hospital at 
Spring Gardens, fitted to contain upwards of 200 beds. The hos- 
pital was opened on 30th March 1818, and closed on 12th July 
1819. Between these periods 1929 patients were admitted. The 
greatest number at one time was 212, and the deaths amounted to 
171. During the period of the disease, upwards of 5000 apart- 
ments in the city and suburbs were fumigated, 600 lodging-houses 
were examined, infected bedding was burned, and the owners sup- 
plied with new bedding. 

In 1819, the working-classes were again thrown into great distress 
from want of employment. The seeds of discontent which had 
been widely sown took deep root in this part of the country, and 
ended in what has been emphatically called Radicalism. At this 
alarming crisis, when thousands of workers paraded the streets, de- 
manding employment or bread, upwards of 600 persons were al- 
most instantly employed at spade work, or breaking stones for the 
roads. Exclusive of the exertions of the authorities, and individuals 
in the suburbs, the magistrates of Glasgow simultaneously employed 
upwards of 340 weavers at spade work in the green, nearly the whole 
of whom remained for upwards of four months under the direction 
of Dr Cleland ; audit is only justice to those individuals to say, that 
under his kind usage and vigilant superintendence, not one of them 
left their work to attend political meetings in the Green, although 
thousands marched past them with radical ensigns, accompanied by 
well-dressed females carrying caps of liberty. The distress and 
dissatisfaction continued during the greater part of 1820, when 
large distributions of clothing, meal, and coals were given to 



122 LANARKSHIRE. 

such persons as could not find employment. The distress was 
such that 2040 heads of families were under the necessity of 
pawning 7380 articles, on which they received L. 739, 5s. 6d. 
Of the heads of families 1943 were Scotch, and 97 English, 
Irish, or foreigners ; 1372 had never applied for nor received 
charity of any description ; 474 received occasional aid from the 
committee, and 194 were paupers. On the 30th August of that 
year, James Wilson was hanged and beheaded for high treason. 

In August 1822, when George IV. visited Edinburgh, the cor- 
poration of this city and the Merchants and Trades Houses sent de- 
putations with splendid equipages, and presented loyal addresses 
to his Majesty. 

Another period of mercantile distress occurred in 1826, and from 
8th April of that year till 31st October 1827, about L. 9000 were 
laid out for the amelioration of the working-classes, and from 12th 
March till 20th October 1829, there was expended on work for 
operatives the sum of L. 2950. 

Bills of Mortality. Bills of mortality are understood to contain 
a list of births, marriages and deaths, from parochial registers, at 
stated periods, in connection with the population. 

Glasgow Bills of Mortality. As the Glasgow bills of mortali- 
ty, from which the probability of human life in large towns, and 
other important results may be deduced, have met with more than 
ordinary approbation from political inquirers, we think it right to 
give a detailed account of the manner in which those bills have 
been prepared. The parochial register of births in Glasgow be- 
ing so defective that no reliance could be placed on it, Dr Cle- 
land, who had hitherto taken the whole charge of the bills, obtained 
the necessary information in the following manner : On the 6th of 
December 1829, he addressed a letter to each of the seventy-five 
clergymen and lay-pastors in the city and suburbs, who baptize 
children, requesting to be favoured with returns of the numbers 
they might baptize from the 14th of December 1829, to the 15th 
of December 1830, both days inclusive, being the year previous to 
the last Government census. The letter was accompanied by a 
book in which the sexes and the particular parishes in which the 
parents resided were to be inserted. He also requested the vari- 
ous societies of Baptists, the society of Friends, and Jews, and others 
who do not dispense the ordinance of baptism to infants, to favour 
him with the above particulars, relative to children born to mem- 
bers of their societies ; and in due time he had the satisfaction of re- 



GLASGOW. J23 

ceiving returns from the whole, as also an account of the children 
of parent?, who, while disapproving of infant baptism, did not be- 
long to any religious society. It appeared that in the city and su- 
burbs, there were 6397 children baptized or born to Baptists, &c. 
and of that number there were only 3225 inserted in the parochial 
registers, leaving unregistered 3172. 

Although in Scotland there is no marriage act as in England, 
restricting the solemnization of marriages to clergymen of the Es- 
tablished Church, the ordinance can only be regularly celebrated 
by persons duly called to the pastoral office, and not until a certi- 
ficate of the proclamation of banns has been produced. Persons 
irregularly married are deprived of the privileges of the church, 
till they appear before the kirk-session, acknowledge their fault, 
and be reponed. From this circumstance, in connection with the 
solicitude of the female and her friends, to have the marriage re- 
gistered, the marriage register of Glasgow and its suburbs may be 
held as correct for all statistical purposes. 

The deaths are ascertained by the number of burials. The 
burying-grounds in the city and suburbs are placed under the 
management of fourteen wardens. These officers, who attend 
every funeral, enter in a memorandum book at the grave, the name, 
age, and designation of the person buried, along with the amount 
of fee received, and the name of the undertaker. Having taken 
these, and other particulars, the wardens afterwards enter the 
whole in a book classified conformably to a printed schedule, drawn 
up by Dr Cleland. At the end of the year they furnish him with 
an abstract from their books, and it is from a combination of these 
abstracts that he ascertains the number of deaths at the various 
ages. The abstract includes still-born children, and the deaths of 
Jews, and members of the Society of Friends, who have separate 
burying places. 

Dr Cleland having been appointed to take the sole charge of 
conducting the enumeration and classification of the inhabitants of 
the city of Glasgow and suburbs, for the Government census of 
1831, he employed twelve parochial beadles, nineteen mercantile 
clerks, and one superintendent of police, to take the lists. Before 
the books were prepared, an advertisement was inserted in the 
Glasgow newspapers, requesting the inhabitants to favour him with 
their suggestions as to classification, and before the list-takers 
commenced their operations, bills were posted upon the public 



'. 
124 LANARKSHIRE. 

places and dwelling-houses of the city, informing the inhabitants 
of the nature of the inquiries, and that they had no reference to 
taxes, and moreover, that non-compliance, or giving a false return, 
subjected them to a fine. When the books were returned to him, 
the public, through the medium of the press, were requested to 
call at an office appointed for the purpose, and to correct any 
omission or error which might have been made in their returns. 
The list-takers having made oath before the Lord Provost, that 
the name of every householder in the district assigned to them, 
his, or her age, profession, religion, country, &c. had been faith- 
fully entered in a book, and a similar description of his or her fa- 
mily taken down, he proceeded to classification, and formed tables 
and abstracts for each parish, containing numerous details not re- 
quired for the Government digest. 

Glasgow Bill of Mortality for 1830. A general list of births, 
baptisms, marriages, and burials, within the ten parishes of the 
royalty, and the suburban parishes of Barony and Gorbals. 

Births and Baptisms. Males, Females. Total. 

Returns from clergymen and lay pastors, - 3281 3116 6397 

Add still-born from do. - - 246 225 471 



Total, 3527 3341 6868 

Of this number there were registered only, - 1678 1547 3225 



Number unregistered, exclusive of still-born, - 1603 1569 3172* 

The children were baptised as follows, viz. 

By clergymen of the Church of Scotland, 3123 

By do. of the Secession church, . ' - - - 664 

By do. of the Relief church, 671 

By do. of the Roman Catholic church, - - - 915 
By do. of the Scotch Episcopal church, Independents, Methodists, and 
other denominations, including births among Baptists, Society of 

Friends, Jews, &c. - - ; - -..-.- - - 1024 



Total, 6397 

Marriages engrossed in the registers of the City, Barony, and 
Gorbals: In the city, 857; Barony, 691; Gorbals, 371; to- 
tal, 1919. 

Burials engrossed in the registers of the City, Barony, and 
Gorbals burying grounds : 

* While the great importance of accurate parochial registers is admitted by all, it 
is astonishing how little they have been attended to in this country. In Edinburgh, 
the metropolis of Scotland, a city distinguished for its erudition, and for its nume- 
rous and valuable institutions, the baptismal register is miserably defective. It ap- 
pears from a printed report of a Committee of the Town- Council of that city, of date, 
20th February 1835, that in 1834, the baptismal register for the thirteen parishes 
contained only the names of four hundred and eighty children. 



GLASGOW. 



125 



Of -whom have died. 




Matt*. 


Females. 


Total. 






Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


January 


273 


268 


541 


Still-born, 


m 


246 


225 


471 


February, 


226 


223 


449 


under one 


year, 


463 


414 


877 


March, 


218 


207 


425 


1 and under 2, 


316 


307 


623 


April, 


208 


184 


392 


2 


5, 


263 


237 


500 


May, 


185 


175 


360 


5 


10, 


134 


119 


253 


June, 


200 


178 


378 


10 


20, 


144 


132 


276 


July, 


194 


182 


376 


20 


30, 


189 


145 


334 


August, 


232 


206 


438 


30 


40, 


169 


144 


313 


September, 


240 


229 


469 


40 


50, 


184 


164 


348 


October, 


236 


184 


420 


50 


60, 


177 


175 


352 


November, 


234 


189 


423 


60 


70, 


168 


171 


339 


December, 


255 


259 


514 


70 


75, 


109 


102 


211 










. 


75 


80, 


55 


58 


113 


Total, 


2701 


2484 


5185 


80 


85, 


48 


48 


96 










85 


90, 


24 


26 


50 










90 


95, 


9 


10 


19 










95 


100, 


3 


6 


9 










104 







] 


1 



Total, 2701 2484 



5185 



Ages of persons in Glasgow, and in the Suburban Parishes of 
Barony and Gorbals, in 1830. 





Under 


Five to 


Ten to 


Fifteen to 


Twenty to 


Thirty to 


Forty to 




Five. 


Ten. 


Fifteen. 


Twenty. 


Thirty. 


Forty. 


fifty. 


Males, 


15422 


13127 


10491 


8489 


15177 


12179 


8685 


Females, 


14855 


12580 


10720 


12256 


23008 


14240 


9329 



Total, 30277 



25707 



21211 



20745 



38185 



26419 18014 



Fifty to Sixty to Seventy to Eighty to Ninety to a 100 and Total. 

Sixty. Seventy. Eighty. Ninety. hundred, upwards. 

Males, 5549 3228 1090 260 26 1 93724 

Females, 6099 3692 1502 385 32 4 108702 



Total, 



11648 



6920 



2592 



645 



58 



202426 



About twenty years ago, the causes of death were announced 
yearly in a periodical along with the gross number of burials, but 
as no confidence could be placed in such statements, Dr Cle- 
land has since that period declined to publish a list of diseases ; 
but, being aware that, if a correct list could be obtained at the cen- 
sus of 1831, when the population, births, marriages, and deaths, 
were ascertained, it would be very beneficial in a medical point of 
view, he addressed letters to upwards of 130 medical gentlemen, 
in the city, and suburbs, requesting that they would favour him 
with a return of the diseases of which their patients died during 
the period in which he had requested the clergymen to give him 
a note of baptisms. As he only succeeded with a small portion 
of the members of faculty, the attempt became fruitless, and in 
all probability any future attempt will be unsuccessful, until a com- 
pulsory act of the legislature regarding parochial registers for births, 
marriages, and deaths, be obtained. Dr Cleland having also been 



126 LANARKSHIRE. 

entrusted with drawing up and classifying the Government popula- 
tion returns for 1821, took the same precautions as to births, mar- 
riages, burials, and population as in 1831, in the view of being 
able to ascertain the ages of the population, and the periods of 
life at which death ensued at particular epochs, when the popula- 
tion could be accurately ascertained. He states as the result of 
his experience, that in all the authentic bills of mortality he had 
ever seen, there were more males born than females, but, taking 
the population above fifteen years, the number of females prepon- 
derates. The following results for Glasgow are derived from the 
census of 1831. 

Births Males, \ - 3,527. Females, 3,341 excess of males, 186 

Males under five years, 15,422 Females, 14,855 excess of males, 567 

Males under ten years, 28,549 Females, 27,435 excess of males, 1,114 

Males under fifteen years, 39,040 Females, 38,155 excess of males, 885 

Males under twenty years, 47,529 Females, 50,411 excess of females 2,882 

Males under thirty years, 62,706 Females, 73,419 excess of females, 10,713 

Males entire population, 93,724 Females, 108,702 excess of females, 14,978 

Burials Males, - 2,701 Females, 2,484 excess of males, 217 

Probability of human life in England. The want of sufficient 
data for the formation of tables relative to the probability of hu- 
man life in this country is apparent from a report of a Committee 
of the House of Commons, (ordered to be printed on 15th Au- 
gust 1833,) on the evidence of persons distinguished by their 
knowledge in political science, such as George Mann Burrows, 
Esq. Doctor in Medicine ; John Bowring, Esq. M. P. Doctor in 
Laws; Stacey Grimaldi, Esq. Fellow of the Antiquarian Society; the 
Rev. W. Hale Hale, Chaplain to the Bishop of London, and others, 
that the public registers in England are so inefficient as to render 
it impossible to determine the law of mortality among the working- 
classes of the empire, either generally or locally. Mr John Tilley 
Wheeler, clerk to the Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks, stated, 
that in London, the returns for the mortality bill are made up in 
each parish by two old pauper women, who are utterly incompe- 
tent to give correct information, and frequently receive most falla- 
cious reports ; and John Finlaison, Esq. the Government Actuary, 
stated that no faith whatever could be put in bills of mortality as 
they are now prepared. In order to procure an approximation of 
the rate of mortality which prevails among the working-classes of 
this country, that distinguished political inquirer resorted to the 
public registers at Ostend in Flanders, where he made an observa- 
tion on the mortality of that town for a period of twenty-six years, 
ending in 1832. The result of his investigations was, that in a 



GLASGOW. 127 

population consisting of about 11,000 souls, the rate of mortality 
was as one in thirty-six and one-eighth. Mr Finlaison stated in 
evidence, that " he was enabled to determine that Ostend is (not- 
withstanding the opinion that prevails in England) a very healthy 
situation, and no doubt is equal to the average of England, at 
least the only knowledge of the law of mortality, as prevailing 
among the lower classes in England, on which he was able to de- 
pend, is derived from that which he obtained in Flanders." 

Probability of human life in Glasgow. That Glasgow is a place 
of average health for statistical purposes, may be inferred from the 
statement under the head climate. But more particularly the de- 
gree of health may be known, and tables formed for ascertaining 
the probability of human life, from a series of the mortality bills, 
where the ages of the living, and those of persons who have died, 
are stated in connection with the population, and a table of longe- 
vity for Scotland, which Dr Cleland prepared in 1821, by which 
it appeared that, on an average of all the counties of Scotland, 
there was one person eighty years of age, for every 143 1 9 o 2 of the 
population, whilst in the county of Lanark, with a population of 
316,790, including 263,046, who live in towns, viz. in Glasgow, 
202,426, and in other towns, 60,620, there was one such person for 
every 169. T 7 o 1 o, showing a degree of health in the population of 
Glasgow nearly equal to that of the whole of Scotland. 

The following results have reference to Glasgow and its su- 
burbs, which partake of a mercantile and manufacturing popula- 
tion, or something between Liverpool and Manchester, but more 
especially the latter, the town population being 198,518, and the 
rural, 3908. In 1831, the population was found to be 202,426, 
the burials 5185, and the rate of mortality consequently 39. T ^ 5 . 
The births being 6868, there is one birth for every 29 T V D per- 
sons. The number of marriages being 1919, there are 3 r y c births, 
to each marriage, and one marriage for every lOS^o persons, 
the number of families being 41,965 there are 4 T 8 /o persons 
to each family. It is very satisfactory to know that with the same 
machinery in 1821, the population being 147,043, the burials 
3686, the rate of mortality was 39 T 8 o 9 U5 or, in other words, as near 
as may be to the mortality of 1831. By reference to the bills of 
mortality between the years 1821 and 1831, similar results will be 
obtained. 

Thus it appears that the mortality in England in 1832 was as- 
sumed to be one in 36 J derived from data of about 11,000 souls 



128 LANARKSHIRE. 

resident in and belonging to a foreign country, while the mortality 
in Glasgow in the preceding year was only one in 39 T |o, as as- 
certained from a population of upwards of 200,000, whose avo- 
cations are narrated in the Government census; and as to the 
principle by which the amount of mortality is ascertained, Joshua 
Milne, Esq., the celebrated political inquirer, author of a Trea- 
tise on Annuities, the Law of Mortality, &c. and Actuary to the 
Sun Life Assurance Corporation, London, stated as his opinion, 
in reference to the Glasgow bill, published by Dr Cleland in 1831, 
having reference to former bills, that " the law of mortality in a 
large manufactuing town may now be determined, though it could 
not heretofore for want of the necessary data." It is therefore no 
small honour to Glasgow that it may fairly claim precedence in 
whatever relates to the formation of accurate tables for ascertain- 
ing the probability of human life in large commercial and manu- 
facturing towns. 

Although every one at all conversant with political science would 
place the utmost confidence in the testimony of Mr Milne, that 
testimony has been fully corroborated by the most distinguished 
political economists in this country, and on the continent : among 
others, by Mon. Jean Baptiste Say, the Adam Smith of France, 
Dr Speiker of Berlin, the German Professor Friedlaender, Sir 
John Sinclair, author of the original Statistical Account of Scot- 
land ; the Rev. Dr Chalmers, Professor of Divinity in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, &c.* 

* As an appendix to the bill of mortality, we have thought it right to give an ab- 
stract of a statement which was drawn up for the Board of Health respecting cholera. 

That dreadful epidemic, cholera morbus, showed itself in this city on the 1 2th Fe- 
bruary 1832, and continued to 1 1th November. During that period there were 6208 
cases, 3203 recoveries, and 3005 deaths, viz. males, 1289; females 1716; of whom, 
under 20 years of age, 368 ; 20 years and under 70, 2365 ; 70 years and under 90, 272. 

It was found that there had been three eruptions of cholera marked by the reduced 
number of cases happening about the 3d of June, the 16th September, and the llth 
November. Each eruption had a period of increase. In the first eruption, persons 
poorly fed, of irregular habits, and dwelling in the crowded ill-aired parts of the city, 
were chiefly affected. The second eruption was more severe, the attacks were more 
scattered over the town, and many healthy persons, and in easy circumstances, fell vic- 
tims to the disease. The last eruption was milder than the second, but still surpas- 
sing the first, both in the number of cases and in the healthy and good condition of 
many of the sufferers. 

The total number of cases, 6208, is one for about every 324 f the population. 

The total number of deaths, 3005, is one for about every 67 of the population. 

The progress of the disease was such as to have seized one victim for about every 
six, and to have occasioned one death for about every thirteen families. 

It became desirable, in a medical and statistical point of view, to ascertain the num- 
ber of burials during the existence of the cholera, namely, from 12th February to 1 Ith 
November 1832, as compared with the corresponding period in the preceding year, 
The following was the result : 

3 



GLASGOW^ 129 

III. POPULATION. 

There is no enumeration of the inhabitants of Glasgow that can 
be relied on before the year 1610 ; but there are grounds for sup- 
posing, that about the time of the Reformation, in 1560, the po- 
pulation amounted to 4500. 

In 1610, the Episcopal mode of government having been resum- 
ed in the church, Archbishop Spottiswood directed the population 
of the city to be ascertained, when it was found to amount to 7644. 

In 1660, at the restoration of Charles II., the population amount- 
ed to 14,678. 

In 1688, at the Revolution, the population had decreased to 
11,948. The civil wars are assigned as the cause of the decrease, 
and it is a curious historical fact, that the number fell off imme- 
diately after the restoration of Charles II., and that it required 
more than half a century to make up the defalcation. 

In 1708, immediately after the union with England, the popu- 
lation amounted to 12,766. This enumeration was made by direc- 
tion of the magistrates, to mark the falling off which they expected. 

In 1712, the population amounted to 13,832. This was made 
by order of the Convention of Royal Burghs, directing each of the 
burghs to make a return of its population on oath. 

In 1740, the population was ascertained by the magistrates to 
be 17,034. 

In 1755, the population had increased to 23,546, but this enu- 
meration included persons living in houses which had been built 
adjoining to, but without the royalty. At that period, the magis- 
trates directed returns to be made for the Rev. Dr Webster, then 
preparing his scheme for the Ministers' Widows' Fund. 

In 1763, the population amounted to 28,300. This enumera- 
tion was drawn up by Mr John Woodburn, the city surveyor. 

Burials from 12th February to llth November 1832, including persons who died of 
cholera, - 8124 

Deduct those who died of cholera, and were buried in the burying-grounds in 
the city and suburbs, including 161 persons who died beyond the boundary 
of the population district, - 3166 

4958 
Burials from 12th February to llth November 1831, - - 4862 

Increase of burials during the above period, after deducting deaths by cholera, 96 
It was very fortunate, in a statistical point of view, that the pestilence did not visit, 
this city when the Government census was taken, otherwise the data for ten years 
would have been rendered more indistinct and less suitable for the formation of tables 
for exhibiting the probability of human life in large towns. The paper, of which the 
preceding is an abstract, was prepared by James Cleland, LL. D. Member of the 
Board of Health, one of his Majesty's justices of the peace for the county of Lanark, 
and by James Corkindale, M. D., LL. B , Medical Secretary to the Board of Health. 



130 LANARKSHIRE. 

In 1780, the population had increased to 42,832 ; but in this 
enumeration the whole of the suburbs were for the first time in- 
cluded. 

In 1785, soon after the termination of the American war, the 
magistrates directed the population to be ascertained ; it then 
amounted to 45,889. 

In 1791, the population was ascertained for Sir John Sinclair's 
national statistical work. At that time, it amounted to 66,578, 
including 4633, being part of the suburbs which had been omitted 
in the return. 

Prior to 1801, the general results only of the different enume- 
rations were preserved, but in that year a census of the inhabitants 
of Great Britain was taken, for the first time, by order of Govern- 
ment, when the population amounted to males, 35,007 ; females, 
42,378 ; total, 77,385. But in this enumeration, a part of the 
connected suburbs, the population of which amounted to 6384, 
had been omitted, and which, added to the above, made the actual 
population of Glasgow at that time 83,769. 

In 1811, there was another Government enumeration of the in- 
habitants of Great Britain, according to which the population of 
Glasgow was as follows: males, 45,275; females, 55,474; to- 
tal, 100,749. But, in like manner, a part of the connected 
suburbs, the population of which amounted to 9711, had not 
been included in this enumeration, and which, added to the Go- 
vernment table, made the population of the city at that period 
110,460. 

In 1819, Dr Cleland, under the sanction of the public bodies, 
drew up the first classified enumeration of the inhabitants of Glas- 
gow, according to which, the population amounted to males, 
68,994; females, 78,203; total, 147,197. 

In 1821, there was another Government enumeration of the in- 
habitants of Great Britain, when the population of Glasgow was 
nrles, 68,119; females, 78,924; total, 147,043. 

fn 1831, there was a fourth enumeration of the inhabitants of 
Great Britain, according to which, the population of Glasgow was 
males, 93,724; females, 108,702; total, 202,426. 

IV. COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Glasgow is advantageously situated for commercial pursuits. 
Placed on the borders of one of the richest coal and mineral fields 
in the island, with which it communicates by the Monkland Canal, 
and by various rail-roads, and connected on the one hand with the 

4 



GLASGOW. 131 

Atlantic by the Clyde, and on the other with the North Sea and 
the German Ocean, by the Forth and Clyde Canal, and the 
river Forth, it possesses facilities peculiarly favourable for trade. 
Notwithstanding these local advantages, Glasgow was not remark- 
able for trade until a considerable time after the union with Eng- 
land. Its importance in a commercial point of view may be great- 
ly attributed to the improvements on the Clyde, and to the enter- 
prising spirit of its merchants and manufacturers during the last 
seventy years. In 1420, a Mr Elphinstone is mentioned as a 
curer of salmon and herrings for the French market ; and Princi- 
pal Baillie mentions that this trade had greatly increased between 
the years 1630 and 1664. As an encouragement to trade, then 
in its infancy, an act was passed, in which it was stipulated that 
the whole materials used in particular manufactures should be ex- 
empt from duty; and in the same Parliament it was enacted, 
for the better encouragement of soap manufacturers, that oil, pot- 
ashes, and other materials for making soap, should be exempt 
from duty. On 31st of January 1638, " Robert Fleyming and 
his partners made offer to the town-council, to set up a manufac- 
tory in the city, wherein a number of the poorer sort of the people 
may be employed, provided they met with sufficient countenance. 
On considering which offer, the council resolved, in consideration 
of the great good, utility, and profit, which will redound to the 
city, to give the said company a lease of their great lodging and back 
yard in the Dry gate, excepting the two front vaults, free of rent, 
for the space of seventeen years. On 8th May thereafter, the 
convener of the trades reported, that the freemen weavers were afraid 
that the erecting of the manufactory would prove hurtful to them. 
On which, Patrick Bell, one of the partners, agreed that the com- 
pany should not employ any unfree weavers of the town." 

Printing. Letter-press printing was introduced into Glasgow by 
George Anderson in the year 1638 ; and one of the first works print- 
ed by him was an account of the General Assembly, which met there 
the same year. Anderson came to Glasgow in consequence of a~i 
invitation from the magistrates. It appears from the records of 
the town-council, 4th January 1640, that the treasurer was direct- 
ed to pay him 100 punds, in satisfaction of his expenses " in trans- 
porting his gear to this burghe," and in full of his bygone salaries 
from Whitsunday 1638 till Martinmas 1639. It also appears from 
the records of the council, 10th June 1663, that Anderson was 
succeeded by his son, Andrew, as ordinary printer to the town and 



132 LANARKSHIRE. 

College, on condition of his " services as well, and his prices being 
as easy as others." Andrew, who had been a printer in Edinburgh, 
not finding matters to his mind here, returned to Edinburgh, and 
in 1671 he was made King's printer for Scotland. Anderson was 
succeeded in Glasgow by Robert Saunders, who styled himself 
printer to the city, and who was for many years the only printer 
in the west of Scotland. But his predecessor, now the royal ty- 
pographer, came to Glasgow, and by threats and promises prevail- 
ed on Saunders' workmen to desert him in the midst of an impres- 
sion of (he New Testament. This oppressive conduct brought 
the matter before the privy-council, which decided in December 
1671, that Saunders should be allowed to finish his book, and that 
any printer in Scotland had an equal right with his Majesty's to 
print the New Testament and Psalm Book in the letter common- 
ly called English Roman. Saunders died about 1696, leaving his 
printing establishment to his son Robert, better known by the de- 
signation " of Auldhouse," a property purchased from a younger 
branch of the family of Maxwell of Police. A few of the works 
first printed by him were tolerably executed ; but his latter pro- 
ductions are extremely paltry and inaccurate. Printing was now, 
and for some years afterwards, in the lowest state in Scotland. 
The exorbitancy of the royal grant to Anderson had produced the 
worst effects. No person appears to have been employed for the 
sole purpose of correcting the press ; and the low wages given to 
pressmen, with the badness of the machines themselves, also tend- 
ed to retard the improvement. 

The University, in the meantime, was not wanting in efforts to 
improve the printing in Glasgow. A paper, entitled " Proposals 
for erecting a bookseller's shop, and a printing-press in the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow," appears to have been presented to the faculty 
in 1713, in which it is mentioned, that they were " obliged to go 
to Edinburgh in order to get one sheet right printed." During the 
same year, Thomas Harvie, a student of divinity, engaged to fur- 
nish one or more printing-presses, and in the course of four years 
to furnish founts and other materials for printing Greek, Latin, 
and Hebrew, on condition that he should be declared University 
printer and bookseller for forty years, " with all the privileges and 
immunities which the University hath, or shall have hereafter, to 
bestow on their printer and bookseller." Although these terms 
were probably not ultimately accepted, they seem at least to have 
been under frequent consideration ; and the sketch of a contract 



GLASGOW. 133 

with Harvie is preserved among the University papers. Two years 
afterwards, " Donald Govane, younger, merchant in Glasgow, and 
printer," was appointed to the same office for seven years, but his 
name appears at few books. 

James Duncan, who printed M'Ure's History of Glasgow, con- 
tinued to print here till about the year 1750. Robert Urie and 
Company were printers in the Gallowgate in 1740; and, during 
the following year, executed several works for Robert Faulls, (im- 
properly termed Fowlis.) Urie is entitled to the credit of adding 
to the respectability of the Glasgow press. Amongst the finest 
specimens of his work, are his editions of the Greek New Testa- 
ment, and of the Spectator. But the art of printing was carried 
to great perfection by the Messrs Faulls, who introduced into 
Glasgow a style of printing which, for beauty and correctness, has 
never been surpassed in any country. A brief account of these 
distinguished persons cannot fail to be interesting. 

Robert Faulls, the eldest son of Andrew Faulls, maltster, was born 
in or near Glasgow, on the 20th of April 1707, and his brother 
Andrew on the 22d of November 1712. Robert was sent at an early 
period as an apprentice to a barber, and seems to have practised the 
art of shaving for some time on his own account. While in this 
situation, Dr Francis Hutcheson, then Professor of Moral Philoso- 
phy in the University, discovered in him the talent which was after- 
wards cultivated with so much success, encouraged his desire of 
knowledge, and suggested to him the idea of becoming a booksel- 
ler and printer. Although Robert Faulls did not receive a com- 
plete University education, he continued to attend for several jears 
the lectures of his patron ; but Andrew received a more regular 
education, and for some years taught the Latin, Greek, and French 
languages. . Having thus acquired a pretty accurate knowledge of 
books, Robert began business in Glasgow as a bookseller in 1741, 
and in the following year the first production of his press appear- 
ed. He was assisted in the correction of his press by George 
Rosse, then Professor of Humanity in the University, and by James 
Moor, at that time a tutor about the college, and afterwards Pro- 
fessor of Greek. To these advantages may be added the appoint- 
ment, on 31st March 1743, of the elder brother as printer to the 
University. In the same year he produced Demetrius Phalerius 
de Elocutioiie, apparently the first Greek book printed in Glas- 
gow, though George Anderson's printing-house had been nearly a 
century before supplied with Greek and Hebrew types. In 1744, 

LANARK. K 



134 LANARKSHIRE. 

appeared the celebrated edition of Horace, the proof sheets of 
which, it is well known, were hung up in the college, and a reward 
offered to any one who should discover an inaccuracy. By the 
year 1746, Faulls had printed eighteen different classics, besides 
Dr Hutcheson's class-book in English and Latin ; and Homer with 
the Philippics of Demosthenes, were advertised as in the press. 
The Homer appeared in the following year, both in a quarto and 
in an octavo form. The first of these is a very beautiful book, and 
more correct than the other, which was printed after Dr Clarke's 
edition. The success which had attended the efforts of the Faullses 
as printers, induced the elder brother to extend the sphere of his 
usefulness. After being four times abroad, he sent home to his 
brother a painter, an engraver, and a copperplate printer, whom he 
had engaged in his service, and returned to Scotland in 1753, and 
.soon afterwards instituted an academy in Glasgow for painting, 
engraving, moulding, modelling, and drawing. The University 
allowed him the use of a large hall for exhibiting his pictures, and 
several other rooms for his students ; and three Glasgow merchants 
afterwards became partners in the undertaking. The students, 
according to the proposed plan, after having given proofs of genius 
at home, were to be sent abroad at the expense of the academy. 
But the scheme, which was somewhat romantic, did not succeed, 
and was attended with considerable loss to all concerned. In 
Faull's own words, " there seemed to be a pretty general emula- 
tion, who should run it most down.'* 

Letter-press printing has been carried on of late years to such 
an extent that it could not be accomplished without the aid of 
steam. Printing-machines were invented by Mr Nicholson, editor 
of the Philosophical Journal, about the year 1790, but they were 
first constructed, and put in operation, if not invented anew, by a 
German named Konig about twenty to thirty years ago, and set 
agoing in the printing of the London Times newspaper on 28th 
November 1814, steam being the propelling power. The ma- 
chines may be said to consist of two kinds, those which print only 
one side of a sheet of paper at a time, for newspaper work, and 
those which print both sides of the sheet, and are adapted for book 
work. Messrs Ballantyne and Company of Edinburgh were the 
first in Scotland who printed by steam. In 1829 or 1830, they 
fitted up a steam-press for printing Blackwood's Magazine, and 
the Waverley Novels. Soon after this, the Edinburgh, Leith, and 
Glasgow Advertiser was printed by steam, then the Edinburgh 



GLASGOW. 135 

Weekly Chronicle, Chambers' Journal, and the Farmers' Maga- 
zine. In 1831, the Aberdeen Journal was printed in this way; 
and in 1834, Mr Edward Khull, printer to the University, fitted 
up a steam-press for printing the Church of Scotland Magazine 
in this city. 

A copartnery for carrying on the whale fishery and making soap 
was entered into in this city on the 15fh of September 1674. Mr 
George Maxwell of Polloc, (created a baronet in 1682,) Provost 
William Anderson, and James Colquhoun, one of the bailies 
of the city, were among the original partners. The company em- 
ployed five ships ; and the Providence, built at Belfast, was sailed 
by Mr John Anderson, one of the partners. The company had 
extensive premises at Greenock for boiling blubber and curing fish. 
An advertisement appeared from them in the Glasgow Courant on 
the llth of November 1715, being the first advertisement in the 
first newspaper in the west of Scotland. It was in the following 
words : Any one who wants good black or speckled soap may 
be served by Robert Luke, manager of the soaparie of Glasgow, 
at reasonable rates." The soaparie was at the head of Candle- 
riggs Street, now the Commercial Buildings. 

The tnanufacture of ropes was commenced on the 17th of 
March 1696. Mr William Crawford of Jordanhill, and Mr James 
Corbet of Kenmure, were among the first partners. In 1698, 
an act of Parliament was passed for the further encouragement 
of the manufacture of ropes and cordage in Glasgow, laying a 
duty on all ropes imported from the Sound or east seas; and, 
in return, the company were to advance a capital of L. 40,000 
Scots, and to bring in foreigners to the work. It is probable that 
the company's first premises had gone into decay, as the buildings 
of what was afterwards known by the name of the Glasgow Rope- 
work Company, reaching between Stockwell Street and Jamaica 
Street, were not erected till the autumn of 1766. 

With regard to sugar-houses, although the colonies were not laid 
open to the Scotch until the Union, it appears that there were su- 
gar-houses in Glasgow long before that period ; for, in an action 
which the Crown brought against the sugar bakers in Glasgow and 
Leith, it was urged that they had not only enjoyed the exemption 
from the duties and customs on the import of materials for a great 
number of years, but also the duties of excise upon the spirits and 
other commodities manufactured by them. At length, in 1715, a 
process was raised against them for the bygone excise duties ; and, 



136 LANARKSHIRE. 

in 1719, the Court of Exchequer found them liable in the sum of 
L. 40,000 Sterling. As the trade could not pay any such sum, a 
compromise was suggested, and a clause added to an act of Par- 
liament, authorizing the treasury to treat with them; and, by another 
act, the sugar manufacturers were acquitted of the L. 40,000 on 
relinquishing their right of exemption from duties and customs. 
The statute is general, and seems to subject all other privileged 
parties to the general custom and excise of the nation. The only 
parties in Scotland at that time exempt from the importation du- 
ties were the Glasgow and Leith sugar companies, the Glasgow 
soap-work, the rope-work companies, and a pin manufactory; the 
three last made a claim as a compensation for the surrender of 
their private rights, which does not seem to have been attended to. 
The buildings of Stockwell Place are now erected on the site of 
the sugar-house. 

The tanning of leather seems to have been carried on in Glas- 
gow from an early period. The Glasgow Tan-work Company, 
whose extensive premises were at the head of the Gallowgate, com- 
menced soon after the Union. There seems to have been three 
sets of partners in this great undertaking. In 1780, the names of 
Provost John Bowman ; Mr Alexander Speirs, of Elderslie ; Mr 
John Campbell, of Clathic ; Mr Robert Bogle, of Daldowie ; Mr 
Robert Marshall, and others, appear among its partners. 

The brewing business, like the tanning, seems to have been car- 
ried on with great spirit. Soon after the Union, Mr Crawford of 
Milton erected an extensive brewery at Grahamston, afterwards 
the property of Mr Robert Cowan. The brewing trade was car- 
ried on extensively here at an early period by the Anderston Brew- 
ery Company, and latterly by Messrs Blackstock, Baird, Struthers, 
Buchanan, Hunter, &c. 

Previously to the Union, the foreign trade of Glasgow was chiefly 
confined to Holland and France. The union of the kingdoms, 
which took place in 1707, having opened the colonies to the Scotch, 
the merchants of Glasgow immediately availed themselves of the 
circumstance, and having engaged extensively in a trade with Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, soon made their city a mart for tobacco, and 
the chief medium through which the farmers-general of France re- 
ceived their supplies of that article. In 1721, a remonstrance was 
preferred to the Lords of the Treasury, charging the Glasgow mer- 
chants with fraud. After having heard parties, and considered the 
representation, their Lordships dismissed the complaint "as ground- 



GLASGOW. 137 

less, and proceeding from a spirit of envy, not from a regard to the 
interest of trade or the King's revenue." To such an extent was 
this branch of commerce carried on in Glasgow, that for several 
years previously to 1770, the annual import of tobacco into the 
Clyde was from 35,000 to 45,000 hogsheads. In 1771, 49,016 
hogsheads were imported. As the Glasgow merchants were en- 
abled to undersell, and did undersell, those of London, Bristol, 
Liverpool, and Whitehaven, jealousies arose which ended in liti- 
gation. As the tobacco trade was suspended in 1783, at the break- 
ing out of the war with America, the merchants of Glasgow engag- 
ed their capital in other pursuits. 

Some attempts having been made to open a connection with the 
West Indies, the imports from that quarter into the Clyde in 1775 
were as follow: Sugar, 4621 hogsheads, and 691 tierces; rum, 
1154 puncheons, and 193 hogsheads; cotton, 503 bags. The fol- 
lowing excerpt of imports into the Clyde, from the custom-house 
books, shows the great increase of this trade. In the year ending 
the 5th of January 1815, immediately preceding the battle of Wa- 
terloo, there were imported, sugar, 540,198 cwts. 2 quarters, and 
25 Ibs.; rum, 1,251,092 gallons; cotton-wool, 6,530,177 Ibs. The 
import duties of these and other articles amounted to L. 563,058, 
2s. 6d., and the produce was imported in 448 ships, carrying 79,219 
tons, and employing 4868 men in navigating them. These imports 
are, exclusive of grain, hemp, tallow, &c. from the Baltic, through 
the Great Canal. The exports during the same period to Ame- 
rica, the West Indies, and Europe, amounted to L. 4,016,181, 
12s. 2jd., and 592 ships, 94,350 tonnage, and 6476 men, were 
employed in this traffic. 

In 1718, the art of type-making was introduced by James Dun- 
can. The types used by him are evidently of his own making, 
being rudely cut, and badly proportioned. He deserves credit, 
however, for the attempt, and his letters are little inferior to those 
used by the other Scottish printers of that period. In M'Ure's 
History of Glasgow, he is styled " printer to the city." 

In 1740, the art was brought to great perfection by Mr Alexan- 
der Wilson, afterward Professor of Astronomy in this University, 
and by his friend Mr John Baine. They first settled at St An- 
drews, the place of their nativity, but soon after removed to Cam- 
lachie, a suburb of this city, where they carried on business till the 
partnership was dissolved on Mr Baine's going to Dublin, where 
he remained but a short time. The professor removed to Glas- 



138 LANARKSHIRE. 

gow, and lived to see his foundery become the most extensive and 
the most celebrated of any in Europe. At his death, the business 
was carried on by his son, and continued by the family on a very 
extensive scale for a number of years. As a considerable part of 
their types went to London and Edinburgh, and as other type- 
makers had commenced business here, the Messrs Wilsons, in 1834, 
removed their business from this city, one part of it to London, and 
the other to Edinburgh ; Alexander conducting the London de- 
partment, and Patrick the Edinburgh. 

Although the origin of stereotyping is uncertain, it is evident 
that it was not invented by the French. If it be a modern inven- 
tion, or there be any question as to the country in which it was first 
used, the Scots are entitled to the preference ; for there certainly 
was an instance of the art having been used in Edinburgh many 
years before the earliest date at which it is said, or is even suppos- 
ed to have been used in France. And in evidence of this, refer- 
ence is made to the original stereotyped page of Sallust, with the 
plate and matrix, as well as a copy of the book, in the Hunterian 
Museum at Glasgow. Mr Andrew Duncan introduced stereotyp- 
ing into this city in 1818; and since that period, Messrs Hutchi- 
son and Brookman, Edward Khull, Blackie and Son, and Fuller- 
ton and Company, carry on the business of stereotyping to a very 
great extent. 

Steam Engines as applicable to Manufactures. As the great im- 
provement on the steam-engine was made in Glasgow, a brief ac- 
count of that mighty engine may not be improper here. The 
steam-engine was invented in the reign of Charles II. by the Mar- 
quis of Worcester, who, in the year 1663, published a book en- 
titled A Century of Inventions. But as the Marquis, though not- 
able as a theoretical projector, knew little of practical detail, Cap- 
tain Savary took up the subject, and published a book in 1696, en- 
titled The Miner's Friend^ where he described the principles of his 
improvement, for which he obtained a patent. About this time, 
M. Papin, a Frenchman, came to England, and becoming fami- 
liar with the elastic power of steam, on his return home he was 
employed by Charles, Landgrave of Hesse, to raise water by a ma- 
chine which he constructed ; and from this, his countrymen affect- 
ed to consider him as the inventor of the steam-engine. In 1707, 
he published an account of his inventions. Not long after this, 
Mr Amonton contrived a machine which he called a fire-wheel. 
It consisted of a number of buckets placed in the circumference of 



GLASGOW. 139 

the wheel, and communicating with each other by very circuitous 
passages. One part of the circumference was exposed to the heat 
of a furnace, and another to a stream or cistern of cold water. At 
the death of Amonton, M. Dessandes, a member of the Acade- 
my of Sciences at Paris, presented to the academy a project of a 
steam-wheel, where the impulsive force of the vapours was impel- 
led ; but it met with little encouragement. In the meantime, the 
English engineers had so much improved Savary's invention, that 
it supplanted all others. Mr Newcomen, a blacksmith at Dart- 
mouth in Devonshire, observing that Savary's engine could not lift 
water from deep mines, set his genius to work, and made great im- 
provements on it. Savary's engine raised water by the force of 
steam ; but, in Newcomen's contrivance, this was done by the pressure 
of the atmosphere, and steam was employed merely as the most ex- 
peditious method of producing a vacuum. This engine was first 
offered to the public in 1705, but its imperfections were not removed 
till 1717, when Mr Beighton brought it into its present form. 

The greatest improvement on the steam-engine was, however, 
reserved for Mr James Watt, who was born at Greenock on the 
19th of January 1736. When Mr Watt had completed his edu- 
cation in Greenock and Glasgow, he went to London in 1754, and 
returned in 1757, and in a short time he was appointed philoso- 
phical instrument-maker to the university. This circumstance laid 
the foundation of an intimacy with Drs Adam Smith, Black, and 
Dick, Mr Anderson, Mr Robison, and other distinguished persons 
connected with the university. In contemplating the principles of 
a small working model of Newcomen's steam-engine, which Pro- 
fessor Anderson sent him to repair, Mr Watt thought it capable of 
improvement ; and having procured an apartment in Delftfield, he 
shut himself up along with his apprentice, Mr John Gardner, after- 
wards a philosophical instrument-maker in this city, and it was in 
this place that the foundation of the great improvement on the 
steam-engine was laid.* In 1769, Mr Watt, on the recommenda- 
tion of Dr Black, formed a connection with Dr Roebuck of Carron 

* When Jean Baptiste Say, the celebrated French philosopher, visited Glasgow 
several years ago, he sat down in the class-room chair which had been used by Dr 
Adam Smith, and after a short prayer, said, with great fervour, " Lord, let now thy 
servant depart in peace." In August 1834, when the no less celebrated M. Arago, 
Perpetual Secretary to the French Institute, visited this University, accompanied by 
Principal Macfarlun, Professor Mac Gill, Professor Meikleham, and Dr Clcland, he 
re-quested to see the small model of Newcomen's steam-engine, which directed Mr 
Watt's mind to his great improvements. On the engine being shown him, he expres- 
sed great delight, and considered it as a relic of great value. 



140 LANARKSHIRE. 

Iron-works, when he left Glasgow for Kinneil House, near these 
works, where he constructed a small steam-engine. The cylinder 
was of block-tin, eighteen inches diameter. The first experiment, 
which was made at a coal mine, succeeded to admiration ; indeed 
his success was so great, that he procured a patent " for saving 
steam and fuel in fire-engines." Dr Roebuck's affairs becoming 
embarrassed in 1775, Mr Watt formed a connection with Mr Boul- 
ton of Soho, Birmingham, where they had the exclusive privilege 
of making steam-engines for a period of twenty-jive years. 

On the expiration of the exclusive privilege, the engineers of 
this city commenced making steam-engines ; and to such an extent 
is this business carried on here for every part of the country, that 
there are now fourteen firms who make steam-engines or mill ma- 
chinery. Some of the works are more like national than private 
undertakings. Three houses alone employ upwards of 1000 per- 
sons in this important branch of trade. 

It appears from Dr Cleland's folio statistical work, that in 1831 
there were in Glasgow arid its suburbs thirty-one different kinds of 
manufactures where steam-engines are used, and that in these, and 
in collieries, quarries, and steam-boats/ there were 355 steam-en- 
gines = 7366 horse power ; average power of engines rather more 
than twenty horses each. The increase of engines in four years 
may be taken at about 10 per cent. 

The Cotton Trade. The manufacture of linens, lawns, cambrics, 
and other articles of similar fabric, was introduced into Glasgow 
about the year 1725, and continued to be the staple manufacture 
till they were succeeded by muslins. The following is a brief ac- 
count of that important event : 

About the year 1730, the 'late Mr J. Wyatt of Birmingham 
first conceived the project of spinning cotton yarn by machinery. 
The wool had to be carded in the common way, and was pressed 
between two cylinders, whence the bobbin drew it by means of the 
twist. In 1741 or 1742, the first mill for spinning cotton was 
erected in Birmingham ; it was turned by two asses walking round 
an axis, and ten girls were employed in attending the work. A 
work upon a larger scale on a stream of water was soon after this 
established at Northampton under the direction of Mr Yeoman ; 
but nothing new had occurred in weaving till 1750, when Mr John 
Kay, a weaver in Bury, invented the fly shuttles. In 1760, Mr 
James Hargreave, a weaver at Stanhill, near Church in Lanca- 

4 



GLASGOW. 141 

shire, adapted the stock cards used in the woollen manufacture, to 
the carding of cotton, and greatly improved them. By their means, 
a person was able to do double the work, and with more ease than by 
hand-carding. This contrivance was soon succeeded by the cy- 
linder carding-machine. It has not been ascertained who was the 
inventor of this valuable machine, but it is known, that the grand- 
father of Sir Robert Peel, late first Lord of the Treasury, was 
among the first who used it. In 1767, Mr Hargreave invented the 
spinning jenny. This machine, although of limited powers, when 
compared with the beautiful inventions which succeeded it, must 
be considered as the first and leading step in that progress of dis- 
covery, which carried improvement into every branch of the manu- 
facture, changing as it proceeds, the nature and character of the 
.means of production, by substituting mechanical operation for hu- 
man labour. The progress of invention after this was rapid. 
Hargreave in the meantime had removed to Nottingham, where 
he erected a small spinning work, and soon afterwards died in great 
poverty. The jenny having in a short time put an end to the 
spinning of cotton by the common wheel, the whole wefts used in 
the manufacture continued to be spun upon that machine, until the 
invention of the mule jenny, by which in its turn it was super- 
seded. It would appear, that whilst Hargreave was producing the 
common jenny, Mr (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright, was em- 
ployed in contriving that wonderful piece of mechanism, the spin- 
ning-frame, which, when put in motion, performs of itself the 
whole process of spinning, leaving to man only the office of sup- 
plying the material, and of joining or piecing the thread.* 

In 1769, Mr Arkwright obtained his patent for spinning with 
rollers, and he erected his first mill at Nottingham, which he 
worked by horse power. But this mode of giving motion to the 
machinery being expensive, he built another mill at Cromford in 
Derbyshire, in 1771, to which motion was given by water. Water- 
twist received its name from the circumstance of the machinery 
from which it is obtained, having for a long time after its invention 
been generally put in motion by water. The only improvement 
or even alteration yet made on Sir Richard's contrivance, the spin- 
ning-frame, is the machine invented several years ago, called the 
throstle. Instead of four or six spindles being coupled together, 

* Those who desire a more minute account of the early history of the cotton trade, 
arc referred to a valuable and elaborate work on that subject, by Mr John Kennedy 
of Manchester. 



142 LANARKSHIRE. 

forming what is called a head, with a separate movement by a pulley 
and drum, as is the case in the frame, the whole rollers and spindles 
on both sides of the throstle are connected together, and turned by 
bands from a tin cylinder lying horizontally under the machine, 
but its chief merit consists in the simplification of the apparatus, 
which renders the movement lighter. Besides this, the throstle 
can with more ease and at less expense than the frame be altered 
to spin the different grists of yarn. 

In the year 1775, Mr Samuel Crompton, of Bolton, completed 
his invention of the mule jenny, so called from its being in its struc- 
ture and operation a compound of the spinning-frame, and of Har- 
greave's jenny. The mule was originally worked by the spinner's 
hand, but in the year 1792, Mr William Kelly of Glasgow, at that 
time manager of the Lanark millsj obtained a patent for moving it 
by machinery ; and although the undisputed inventor of the pro- 
cess, he allowed every one freely to avail himself of its advantages. 
A great object expected to be obtained by this improvement was, 
that, instead of employing men as spinners, which was indispen- 
sable when the machine was to be worked by the hand, children 
would be able to perform every office required. To give the means 
of accomplishing this, Mr Kelly's machinery was contrived so as 
to move every part of the mule, even to the returning of the carriage 
into its place, after the draught was finished. But after a short 
trial of this mode of spinning it was discovered that a greater amount 
of produce might be obtained, and at a cheaper rate, by taking 
back the men as spinners, and employing them to return the car- 
riage as formerly, whilst the machine performed the other operations. 
In this way one man might spin two mules, the carriage of the one 
moving out during the time the spinner was engaged in returning 
the other. The process of mule-spinning continued to be conduct- 
ed upon this plan until lately, when several proprietors of large 
cotton works restored that part of Mr Kelly's machinery which re- 
turns the carriage into its place after the draught is completed. 

During the time that the machines for the different processes 
of cotton spinning were advancing towards perfection, Mr James 
Watt had applied his admirable improvements on the steam-en- 
gine to give motion to mill-work in general. His inventions for 
this end, besides the ingenuity and beauty of contrivance which 
they possess, have had an influence upon the circumstances of this 
country, and of mankind, far more important than that produced 
by any other mechanical discovery. 



GLASGOW. 143 

The foregoing application merely assisted the spinner in push- 
ing in the carriage. To meet the more nice and difficult operations of 
winding the thread upon the spindle, and forming it into the proper 
shape of a cop, still devolved upon the spinner, and required per- 
sons of superior skill and dexterity. The wages of that class of 
workmen have been maintained at a higher range than in the ge- 
nerality of manufacturing employments. This high rate of wages 
has led to the contrivance of many expedients to lessen the cost 
of production in this process of the manufacture. About the year 
1795, Mr Archibald Buchanan of Catrine, now one of the oldest 
practical spinners in Britain, and one of the earliest pupils of Ark- 
wright, became connected with Messrs James Finlay and Com- 
pany, of Glasgow, and engaged in refitting their works at Ballin- 
dalloch in Stirlingshire. Having constructed very light mule jen- 
nies, he dispensed altogether with the employment of men as spin- 
ners, and trained young women to the work. These he found 
more easily directed than the men, more steady in attendance to 
their work, and more cleanly and tidy in the keeping of their ma- 
chines, and contented with much smaller wages. That work has 
ever since been wrought by women, and they have always been 
remarkable for their stout healthy appearance, as well as for good 
looks, and extreme neatness of dress. Mr Buchanan having, in 
1802, removed to the Catrine works, in the parish of Sorn, Ayr- 
shire, then purchased by James Finlay and Company, carried some 
female spinners with him, and there introduced most successfully 
the same system as at Ballindalloch. This system has from time 
to time been partially adopted at other works in Scotland and Eng- 
land ; but men are still most generally employed. 

The men having formed a union for the protection of their trade, 
as they supposed, have from time to time annoyed their employers 
with vexatious interferences and restrictions, which have induced a 
great desire on the part of the masters to be able to dispense with 
their employment; and this has led to several attempts to invent a 
set of mechanism to perform all the operations hitherto performed 
by men or women, thereby forming a self-acting mule. Mr William 
Kelly was the first to patent a machine of this description in the 
year 1792, as has already been stated. About the same time, Mr 
Archibald Buchanan of Catrine Works, then at Deanston Works, 
in Perthshire, made an attempt to perfect a self-acting mule, but 
was not at that time successful. The next attempt was made by 
Mr Eaton of Derby, who took out a patent in 1815, and fitted up 



144 LANARKSHIRE. 

a flat of his mills in Manchester soon after. The mechanism being 
complicated, no practical spinners ventured to give the machine a 
trial. 

In 1825, M. de Jonge, an ingenious French gentleman, who has 
been long resident in this country, contrived a machine of more 
simple construction, for which he obtained a patent. This he 
had in operation at Warrington in Lancashire, and in Yorkshire ; 
but they have never made farther progress. The spinners of Man- 
chester and neighbourhood having been much annoyed by the union 
of their spinners, applied to Messrs Sharp, Roberts, and Company, 
celebrated machine-makers, to allow their Mr Roberts, a man of 
great ingenuity, and of much skill and taste in mechanism, to en- 
deavour to perfect a self-acting mule. This Mr Roberts under- 
took ; and having devoted himself to the pursuit, succeeded, after 
several years of experiment, and at the expense of a large sum of 
money, (upwards, it is said, of L. 10,000, ) in producing a machine 
which has been found to work well in the spinning of yarn, not ex- 
ceeding forty hanks in the pound. In the construction of this ma- 
chine there is a display of great ingenuity, skill, and taste, and it 
has been adopted to some extent by several extensive spinners. 
Still, however, there are objections to these machines, on account 
of the complexity and expense of the mechanism ; and from the 
peculiar style of the movements, the machine is still liable to break- 
age, and to considerable tear and wear. About the year 1826, 
Mr Buchanan having to renew the mules at Catrine Works, re- 
solved to attempt again a self-actor; and with some suggestions 
from his nephew, Mr James Smith of Deanston Works, and with 
much ingenuity and perseverance on his own part, he succeeded 
in contriving an effective machine. He has had his whole work in 
operation on this plan for six years past, and under his peculiar 
good management, the machines perform very well in low num- 
bers. In 1820, Mr James Smith of Deanston Works had con- 
trived and constructed the mechanism of a self-acting mule ; but 
his attention having been required to other more extensive and 
important operations, he laid it aside, it is believed, without trial. 
In 1833, Mr Smith seeing the desire that existed for a simple and 
efficient self-acting mule, and more especially such as could be 
applied to the mules of various constructions at present in general 
use in the trade, set about contriving one ; and, having made some 
progress, he came to hear of a very simple contrivance for facili- 
tating the process of backing off (one of the most difficult to ac- 



GLASGOW. 145 

complish in a self-actor,) by John Robertson, an operative spin- 
ner, and foreman to Mr James Orr of Crofthead Mill, in Renfrew- 
shire. Robertson, through Mr Orr, obtained a patent for his in- 
vention, which consisted of other movements, rendering the mule 
completely self-acting. Mr Smith, struck with the simplicity and 
efficacy of his backing-off movement, which consists in stripping 
the coils from the spindles, entered into an arrangement with Mr 
Orr and Robertson, and having united the mechanism of his own 
patent with that of Robertson and Orr, they have now brought out 
a machine, which is considered to be more simple and effective, 
and more generally applicable to all mules, than any other yet 
brought before the trade, and it is believed it will soon be gene- 
rally adopted. 

The adoption of the self-acting mules will bring the business 
of spinning much more under the control of the master, and will 
aid much in enabling the spinners of Britain to maintain a success- 
ful competition against the cheap labour of other countries, who 
have less capital and less facilities for obtaining these improved 
machines, and less skill for their management, if obtained. 

About six years ago, Mr Smith of Deanston Works, invented 
a very simple throstle for spinning water-twist yarn, in the form of 
a cop, intended to facilitate the manufacture of water-twist shirt- 
ing. This machine works well, and the tension of the thread in 
spinning is maintained by the action of two fanner's slades or wings 
attached to the stem of a spindle, similar to a mule spindle, and 
on which the cop is built ; and which, from the uniform and soft 
resistance of the air, gives a never-varying tension. But the most 
wonderful improvement in water-spinning was brought to this coun- 
try from the United States in 1831, by Mr Alexander Carrick, 
a native of Glasgow, who then obtained a patent for the invention. 
The inventor, a mechanic of the name of Danforth, came with the 
machine to this country, and it has now obtained his name, being 
denominated the Danforth Throstle. This throstle has no flies. 
The twisting part consists of a dead or fast spindle, on which a 
socket of about five inches long is fitted to revolve, and on this the 
bobbin for receiving the thread being spun is placed. On the top 
of the spindle is placed a hollow cap of one and a-half to two in- 
ches diameter, which covers the bobbin ; and the thread, passing 
from the roller to the bobbin, is revolved by the motion of the 
socket and bobbin round the outer surface of this cap ; but the 
centrifugal force of the thread causes it to fly out from the cap, 



146 LANARKSHIRE. 

and the only point of contact is round the edge of the mouth of 
the cap, when the thread passes to the bobbin. From this, and 
the resistance of the air to the movement of the thread, the ten- 
sion is derived, and is light and uniform. The spindle of .the com- 
mon throstle cannot be driven to advantage above 4000 or 5000 
revolutions in a minute, whilst the Danforth socket may be run 
with advantage at 8000 or 9000. This machine has been slowly 
getting into use, and suits to spin twist from tens to forties. The 
yarn has a medium character, betwixt water -twist and mule-twist. 
The power required to turn this machine is great, and the tear 
and wear of the machine considerable. Another American throstle 
(which, however, was invented in Scotland thirty years ago,) was 
introduced about four years ago, by Mr Montgomerie of Johnston. 
It consists of a long central spindle, embraced by a double-necked 
flur, and is said to work well, building the yarn in the form of a 
cop, or on a bobbin, as may be required. Several are at work about 
Glasgow. By these and other improvements in the various pro- 
cesses of cotton spinning, as much yarn can now be spun for 5s. 
of wages as cost L. 1 twenty-five years ago. * 

In the year 1797, a new machine for cleaning cotton was invent- 
ed by Mr Neil Snodgrass, now of Glasgow, and first used at John- 
ston, near Paisley, by Messrs Houston and Company. It is called 
a skutching or blowing machine. Its merits were not sufficiently 
known till 1808 or 1809, when it was introduced into Manchester. 
About that period it received some improvements from Mr Ark- 
wright, and Mr Strutt, who applied a fanner to create a strong 
draft of air passing through a revolving wire sieve, whereby the 
dust and small flur separated from the cotton by the blows of the 
skutcher is carried off, and thrown into a chamber, where it is de- 
posited, or into the open air out of doors ; whilst the opened cot- 
ton is stopped by the sieve, and, arranging into a fleecy form of 
uniform thickness, passes by the revolution of the sieve to a roller, 
when it is wound up, to be carried to the carding-engine. 

The most complete arrangement of this machine was made by 

* In November 1831, Dr Cleland ascertained, that in 44 mills in Lanarkshire, for 
spinning cotton, there were 1344 spinners, 640,188 spindles, viz. 591,288 mules, and 
48,900 throstles. 

On 21st July 1834, the total number of persons employed in the cotton, woollen, 
ftax, and silk mills in Scotland, was 46,825, of whom 13,721 (3799 males, and 9992 
females) are between the ages of 13 and 18, and 6228 (2552 males, and 3676 females,) 
are under 13 years of age. There are few under 1 1. Their number, as stated in the 
returns, amounts to 1143; but that is not to be taken as the number now in the mills, 
some mill owners having discharged all under 11 Factory Report, p. 7. 

3 



GLASGOW.. 147 

Mr Buchanan of Catrine Works in 1817, whereby the whole pro- 
cesses of opening, cleaning, and lapping the cotton are performed 
at once by a series of four skutchers, each with a sieve. The rooms 
in which these machines work are as free of dust as a drawing-room; 
and this process, at one time the most disagreeable and unwhole- 
some, is now quite the reverse ; besides, the cotton being com- 
pletely freed of the dust and flur, is more cleanly in all succeed- 
ing processes, much to the comfort of the workers, and the bene- 
fit of the work. 

Little improvement was made in the carding-engine for many years. 
About 1812, however, a system of completing the carding process 
in one machine was introduced, and is now pretty generally adopt- 
ed for numbers under fifties, and in some cases as high as eighties. 
In 1815, Mr Smith of Deanston Works, constructed a carding-en- 
gine, having the flats or tops moveable on hinges, and applied an 
apparatus for turning and cleaning the tops, which was the first 
self-topping engine ; and with him the idea had originated. Two 
years after, Mr Buchanan arranged a more perfect machine, and 
had it adopted in all his water-twist mills. Some years after, he 
farther improved this apparatus, and obtained a patent. In 1829, 
Mr Smith again improved the topping apparatus, by substituting 
a chain of successive tops, and had them made of tin plate, to avoid 
warping. This ^improvement, together with a neat and effective 
arrangement of cylinders, forming a compact single engine, he com- 
pleted in 1833, and obtained a patent. 

These engines occupy about half the space of the Oldham en- 
gine much used in England, make more perfect work, and will 
turn off nearly two pounds per inch of wire per day, for numbers 
from thirties to forties. 

Some of the movements are extremely striking and beautiful. 
This machine gives promise of many advantages to the trade. 

In* the roving process some recent improvements have been in- 
troduced. About ten years ago, Mr Henry Houldsworth Junior of 
Glasgow, now of Manchester, contrived a beautiful differential mo- 
tion for the winding in of the rovings on the spindle and fly ma- 
chine, and obtained a patent. This improvement has got much 
into use. About the same time a very peculiar mode of roving was 
introduced from America, by the late Mr James Dunlop, and 
which was afterwards improved, and patented by Mr Dyer of Man- 
chester. This machine is called the tube-machine, and has got 
much into use for the lower numbers of yarns. The rove coming 



148 LANARKSHIRE. 

from the drawing rollers, passes through a tube revolving at the 
rate of 5000 turns per minute, whereby a hard twist is thrown 
up to the rollers, and the roving being wound on a spool or bobbin 
at the opposite end of the tube, gives off all the twist, but from the 
compression and rubbing it has undergone, retains a round and 
compact form, and has sufficient tenacity to pull round the spool or 
bobbin, in being drawn into the spinning-machine. This machine 
is simple, goes at a great speed, and turns off a deal of work, but 
it has not yet been successfully applied to any numbers above 
forties. 

There are now many splendid spinning establishments in and 
around Glasgow. Those of the Lanark Company, on the Clyde, 
about twenty miles from Glasgow, are the most extensive in one 
establishment ; but the three establishments of Messrs James Fin- 
lay and Company of Glasgow, (of which Mr Kirkman Finlay is 
the head,) at Catrine, Deanston, and Ballindalloch, are the most 
extensive ones in the whole kingdom, and employ about 2400 
hands in spinning, weaving, bleaching, &c. 

In reviewing the various machines which have been invented for 
the cotton manufacture, the result terminates in this, that one 
man can now spin as much cotton yarn in a given time as 200 
could have done sixty years ago. 

On the 21st of July 1834, Mr Leonard Horner, one of the Par- 
liamentary Factory Commissioners, reported, " That in Scotland 
there are 134 cotton-mills ; that, with the exception of some large 
establishments at Aberdeen, and one at Stanley, near Perth, the 
cotton manufacture is almost entirely confined to Glasgow, and 
the country immediately adjoining, to a distance of about 25 
miles radius ; and all these country mills, even including the great 
work at Stanley, are connected with Glasgow houses, or in the 
Glasgow trade. In Lanarkshire, (in which Glasgow is situated,) 
there are 74 cotton factories; in Renfrewshire, 41 ; Dumbarton- 
shire, 4 ; Buteshire, 2; Argyleshire, 1 ; Perthshire, 1. In these six 
counties, there are 123 cotton-mills," nearly 100 of which belong 
to Glasgow. The following statement, also from the Factory 
Commission Report, will give a pretty good idea of the amount of 
cotton trade in Glasgow : "In Lanarkshire, there are 74 cotton, 
2 woollen, and 2 silk factories ; 78 steam engines,* namely, 17, each 

* Mr (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright obtained his patent for spinning cot- 
ton with rollers in 1769. Soon after this he erected his first mill at Nottingham, 
which he worked by horse-power. His second mill he erected at Cromford in 
Derbyshire in 1771, to which he gave motion by water. In 1785, Messrs Boulton 



GLASGOW. 149 

of 50 horse power and upwards ; 1 1 from 40 to 49 horse power ; 
9 from 30 to 39 horse power; 19 from 20 to 29 horse power; 
20 from 10 to 19 horse power; 2 under 10 horse power. Wa- 
ter-wheels, 3, each of 50 horse power and upwards; 2 under 10 
horse power. Total horse power, 2914; of which, steam, 2394, 
water, 520. Total persons employed in factories, 17,949 ; of this 
number, 13 years and under 18 years, 5047, viz. males, 1345 ; 
females, 3702 ; under 13 years, 1651, viz. males, 756; females, 
895." 

The increase of the cotton trade in Scotland may be seen by 
the following official statement of cotton-wool taken for the con- 
sumption of Scotland from 1818 till 1834. 

Years. Bales. Years. Bales. 

1818, 46,565 1827, 72,655 

1819, 50,123 1828, 74,037 

1820, 51,994 1829, 79,742 

1821, 53,002 1830, 79,801 

1822, 55,447 1831, 85,929 

1823, 54,891 1832, 88,162 

1824, 54,708 1833, 86,964 

1825, 56,995 1834, 95,603 

1826, 56,117 

Calico-printing has been the subject of modern improvement, 
which may be compared in importance with those in cotton-spin- 
ning ; and most of these improvements have either originated or 
been matured and perfected in Lancashire. The old method of 
printing still continued for certain parts of the work was by blocks 

and Watt put up the first steam engine for spinning cotton in Britain, at Papplewick, 
for Messrs Robison. The first steam engine for spinning cotton in Manchester was 
put up in 1790, and the first in Glasgow in 1792. This was for Messrs Scott, Ste- 
venson, and Company, opposite the Broomielaw. 

The following table, taken from Mr Baines' History of the Cotton Manufacture, 
exhibits the astonishing increase of the cotton trade in sixty-six years. 
Grand summary of cotton mills in the United Kingdom. 

No. of Horse power. No. of persons 

Districts of Factory Inspectors. Mills. Steam. Water. employed. 

Mr Rickards, - 934 26,513 6,093 175,268 

Mr Homer's, - - 152 3,670 2,792 35,623 

Mr Saunder's, 54 438 1,172 8,128 

MrHowell's, - 14 232 146 1,806 

Total, - 1154 30,853 10,203^ 220,825 

In England and Wales, - 1000 27,049 7,343 185,031 

In Scotland, - - 125 3,200 2,480 31,099 

In Ireland, 29 604 380 4,695 



Total in the United Kingdom, 1154 30,853 10,203 220,825 

In 1 785, when Boulton and Watt pu,t up their first steam engine for spinning cot- 
ton, the quantity of cotton imported into Great Britain, was 18,400,384 Ibs. of which 
there were exported 407,496 Ibs. In forty-eight years after, viz. in 1833, the quan- 
tity imported was 303,6.56,837 Ibs. ; exported, 17,363,882 Ibs. ; quantity entered for 
consumption, 293,682,976 Ibs. 
, LANARK. L 



150 LANARKSHIRE. 

of sycamore, about ten inches long by five broad, on the surface of 
which the pattern was cut in relief, in the common method of wood- 
engraving. On the back of the block was a handle by which the 
workman held it : the surface was applied to a woollen cloth stretch- 
ed over a vessel containing the colour, and in contact with that 
colour, so as to be saturated by it, and was then laid upon the 
piece of cloth, (there being wire points at the corners of the block 
to enable the workmen to apply it with exactness,) and struck with 
an iron mallet. Thus the figure was impressed upon the cloth, 
one colour only being used at once ; and if other colours were re- 
quired to complete the pattern, it was necessary to repeat the ope- 
ration with different blocks. In order to produce more delicate pat- 
terns than could be engraved on wood, copper-plates were intro- 
duced in the neighbourhood of London, and the cloth was thus 
printed from flat plates, with the kind of press used in copper-plate 
printing. Each of these modes was tedious, as no more of the 
cloth could be printed at once than was covered with the wooden 
block or copper-plate ; and a single piece of calico, twenty-eight 
yards in length, required the application of the block 448 times. 

The grand improvement is the art of cylinder printing, which 
bears nearly the same relation in point of despatch to block-print- 
ing by hand as throstle or mule spinning bears to spinning by the 
one thread wheel. 

This great invention is said to have been made by a. Scotchman 
of the name of Bell, and it was first successfully applied in Lanca- 
shire, about the year 1785, at Mosney, near Preston, by the house 
of Livesay, Hargreaves, Hall, and Company. 

The chemical department of printing has not been less rich in 
discoveries than the mechanical. At the head of these stands 
the grand discovery of the properties of chlorine, and which are 
of important use in several stages and processes of printing, as well 
as in whitening the cloth. Whenever, in the course of printing, 
the calico is to be freed from stain or discoloration, the solution of 
chloride of lime is used ; and by the aid of this powerful agent a 
rich chintz, which formerly required many weeks to print in the 
summer season, when it could be laid on the grass exposed to the 
air and sun, is now produced without ever going from under the 
roof of the factory, and almost in as many days. 
I It has been remarked, that cotton fabrics are very rarely dyed 
of a uniform colour. Sometimes a flower, stripe, or other figure, 
is printed on a white ground ; and at other times the pattern only 



GLASGOW. 151 

is white, and the rest of the cloth dyed. The proper use of mor- 
dants lies at the foundation of the dyer's art. The nature of mor- 
dants is thus explained by Dr Thomson : 

" The term mordant is applied by dyers to certain substances 
with which the cloth to be dyed must be impregnated, otherwise 
the colouring matters would not adhere to the cloth, but would be 
removed by washing. Thus the red colour given to cotton by 
madder would not be fixed, unless the cloth were previously steep- 
ed in a solution of a salt alumina. It has been ascertained that 
the cloth has the property of decomposing the salt of alumina, and 
of combining with and retaining a portion of alumina. The red co- 
louring principle of the madder has an affinity for this alumina, 
and combines with it. The consequence is, that the alumina be- 
ing firmly retained by the cloth, and the colouring matter by the 
alumina, the dye becomes fast, or cannot be removed by washing 
the cloth with water, even by the assistance of soap, though simple 
water is sufficient to remove the red colouring matter from the cloth, 
unless the alum mordant (from the Latin word mordeo, to bite,) 
was applied to these substances by the French writers on dyeing, 
from a notion entertained by them, that the action of the mordants 
was mechanical ; that they were of a corrosive or biting nature, 
and served merely to open pores in the fibres of the cloth, into 
which the colouring matter might insinuate itself. And after the 
inaccuracy of this notion was discovered, and the real use of mor- 
dants ascertained, the term was still continued as sufficiently ap- 
propriate, or rather, a proper name without any allusion to its ori- 
ginal signification. The term mordant, however, is not limited to 
those substances merely which serve, like alumina, to fix the co- 
lours. It is applied also to certain substances which have the pro- 
perty of altering the shade of colour, or of brightening the colour 
as it is called." * 

The art of dyeing the fine red, called Turkey or Adrianople 
red, on thread or yarn, has long been practised in the Levant, and 
subsequently in Europe. About forty years ago, it was introduced 
in Glasgow by M. Papillon, a Frenchman, who established a dye- 
work with Mr George Macintosh, and this city has ever since been 
famous for dyeing Turkey red. 

The art of giving this colour to cloth was unknown till the year 
1810, when it was first practised by M. Daniel Koechlin of Mulhau- 
sen, in Alsace. The discovery, which has immortalized the name of 

* K n cyclopaedia Britanniea, 7th edition, article, " Dyeing." 



152 LANARKSHIRE. 

this gentleman in the annals of calico-printing, was made the fol- 
lowing year. It consists in printing upon Turkey red, or any dyed 
colour, some powerful acid, and then immersing the cloth in a so- 
lution of chloride of lime. Neither of these agents singly and alone 
affects the colour; but those parts which have received the acid, 
on being plunged in chloride of lime, are speedily deprived of their 
dye, and made white by the acid of the liberated chlorine. This 
is one of the most beautiful facts in the chemistry of calico-print- 
ing. 

For this process, a patent was obtained in this country by Mr 
James Thomson of Primrose, near Clitheroe, in the year 1813; 
and the same gentleman, in 1816, took out a second patent for a 
very useful and happy modification of the principle of the former 
one, namely, for combining with the acid some mordant, or metal- 
lic oxide, capable, after the dyed colour was removed, of having 
imparted to it some other colour. This laid the foundation of that 
series of processes, in which the chromic acid and its combinations 
have since been employed with such great success. 

Progress of the Power-Loom. The power-loom was introduced 
into Glasgow in the year 1793, by Mr James Lewis Robertson of 
Dumblane. It was invented by the Rev. Dr Cartwright of Don- 
caster, and was patented by him in 1774. About 1789 or 1790, 
a number of these looms were fitted up in the hulks, to employ the 
convicts. They were driven in a manner similar to the inkle-loom, 
of which, indeed, the whole machine was a modification. Mr Ro- 
bertson having been in London in 1792 or 1793, bought a couple 
of the looms from the hulks, and brought them to Glasgow, when 
they were fitted up, and wrought in a cellar in Argyle Street. He 
removed the driving-bar, and employed a large Newfoundland dog, 
walking in a drum or cylinder, to drive the looms. He had an in- 
genious old man, William Whyte, from Denny, to manage the 
looms ; and, by a son-in-law of this man's, the design of the looms 
was communicated to a bleaching and calico-printing establishment 
at Milton, near Dumbarton, in 1794, where about forty looms were 
fitted up there for weaving calicoes for printing. In 1801, Mr 
John Monteith of Glasgow got a pair of looms from Milton, and, 
in the course of two years afterwards, had 200 looms at work in a 
portion of his spinning establishment at Pollockshaws, near Glas- 
gow. In 1803, Mr Thomas Johnston of Bradbury, Cheshire, in- 
vented a very beautiful and useful machine for warping and dres- 
sing warps; and sometime after, Messrs Radcliffe and Ross of Stock- 



GLASGOW. 153 

port improved the dressing-machine, and obtained a patent for 
these improvements. This machine they also employed in dres- 
sing webs to be woven on hand- looms by boys and girls. In 1804, 
Mr Monteith prevailed upon Mr Archibald Buchanan of Catrine 
to take a pair of looms from him, urging him to improve the ma- 
chine. Mr Buchanan worked these looms for a year, with a view 
to obtain experience on the subject ; and finding the annoyance of 
dressing the web in the loom great, he set about contriving a dres- 
sing-machine. In this machine he used cylindrical brushes, and 
succeeded at that time pretty well ; but from the obstinacy of the 
person engaged to work the machine, and his own want of know- 
ledge in the art of dressing, he was led to abandon it. He then 
invented a remarkably neat and effective loom, and in 1806 pro- 
ceeded to fill a large room with them, and again applied himself 
to contrive a dressing-machine ; he abandoned the cylindrical 
brushes, and adopted parallel moving ones, similar to those of Rad- 
cliff and Ross ; and after much experiment with various success, 
and by the exercise of much ingenuity, and perseverance, he suc- 
ceeded in effecting a complete machine, and rapidly extending his 
looms, with the necessary dressing-machines. In the year 1807, 
he had the first complete work in Britain, in which warping, dres- 
sing, and weaving by power, were uniformly carried on ; and it may 
be said that from this establishment emanated the power-loom 
weaving of Britain. 

When Mr Buchanan first began the power-loom, from seventy 
to eighty shots or picks per minute were considered as great 
speed ; but, from improvements since introduced by Mr Buchanan 
and others, a speed of a hundred and forty shots per minute is now 
obtained. About this time, Messrs Foster and Corbet of Glasgow, 
and the Messrs Crums at Thornlie Bank, began to use power-looms. 
About the same time, Mr Peter Mansland of Stockport was the 
first to introduce the power-loom into England on a practical 
scale. In 1808, power-looms were begun at Deanston ; and there, 
in 1809, tweels, and in 1810, checks were first woven on power- 
looms. In 1818 or 1819, Mr William Perry of Glasgow began the 
weaving of figured goods; and sometime since, lappets were woven 
by the Messrs Reids of Anderston, Glasgow. The Messrs King 
were the first persons celebrated for weaving strong shirting, and 
domestics ; and the Messrs Somerville and Sons have recently in- 
troduced extensively a very superior manufacture of furniture 
stripes and checks, and an infinite variety of similar goods for wo- 



154 LANARKSHIRE. 

men's dresses, shirting, &c. at their new and splendid works in 
Hutchesontown, Glasgow. Mr William Dunn of Duntocher, the 
most extensive and successful spinner in Scotland, as an individual,, 
has upwards of 600 looms, upon which he executes various very 
beautiful plain fabrics. The power-loom is daily extending into 
new fields of manufacture, and it is evident that it will ultimately 
be the only means of weaving, excepting for fabrics of. very com- 
plex patterns. 

Steam-looms have increased greatly of late years. In August 
1831, the Lancefield Spinning Company employed 635 looms ; 
and Messrs Johnston and Galbraith, James Finlay and Company, 
and William Dunn, 2405. These looms on an average weave 
fourteen yards each per day. Allowing each loom to work 300 
days in a year, these four companies would throw off 10,101,000 
yards of cloth, which, at the average price of 4^d. per yard, is 
L. 189,393, 15s. per annum. The power and hand-looms be- 
longing to Glasgow amount to 47,127, viz. steam-looms, 15,127, 
hand-looms in the city and suburbs, 18,537 ; in other towns for 
Glasgow manufacturers, 13,463. , jfa, ^^ ' O/L.2; $ +{~ 

The extension of the use of the power-loom has" 1 for the last 
twenty years borne hard upon the poor hand-loom weavers, who 
have long suffered from low wages with exemplary patience. The 
evil was at first aggravated by a natural cause. When the weaver 
found difficulty in making wages to support his family, the only ap- 
parent remedy was to get looms for his children, girls as well as 
boys, and to set them to work also. This, when work was to be 
had, helped the individual's family, but it brought so much more 
weaving labour into operation in the trade previously overstocked, 
that the evil was increased, and every succeeding year the prices 
of weaving became lower. Many attempts have been made by the 
hand-loom weavers to have their prices regulated by act of Parlia- 
ment, or Board of Trade ; and in this they have occasionally been 
aided by some well-meaning men of rank and influence, but, as 
might have been expected, without the least success. For why fix 
the wages or prices of the hand-loom weavers, whilst those of the 
mason, joiner, farm-servant, &c. are left to be adjusted by the con- 
stantly operating natural causes springing from demand and supply ? 
If the prices of weaving were fixed, whenever a period of stagna- 
tion arrived, the manufacturers would either get weavers to do their 
work at lower prices clandestinely, or they would cease to manufac- 
ture at all, thereby throwing a great proportion of the weavers com- 



GLASGOW. 155 

pletely idle. Besides, the hand-weavers had a long period of high 
wages, averaging far above the rates paid for labour in other more la- 
borious and skilful professions. This arose from the rapid extension 
of their trade ; and now, in its decline, they must be contented with 
the lower rate of wages, until their superabundant labour is absorbed 
by other trades in a state of advancement. This process has been 
slowly going on within the last few years, and the wages of hand- 
loom labour are now rather advancing. During the rise of hand- 
loom weaving in the west of Scotland, the high wages and constant 
excitement applied by rival manufacturers, and their agents, led 
to much dissipation, especially among the younger men, and the 
bulk of the class became prone to dissolute habits ; still, however, 
many well educated, intelligent, and decent men were to be found 
amongst them ; now the bulk of the class are sober, frugal, intel- 
ligent men, which shows that high wages neither lead to decency 
nor intelligence, the sure basis of happiness. It has invariably 
happened in this manufacturing community, that, when any class 
of operatives obtained for a time wages much above the other 
classes, they have in general become dissipated, and they are found 
living in more miserable ill-furnished dwellings, than those having 
the very lowest rates of wages. Various expedients have from time 
to time been resorted to by several of the trades, with a view to 
raise or maintain their wages, such as long apprenticeships, heavy 
fees, and the like ; and of late, trades unions have been much in 
vogue, many of them having rules and practices surpassing the 
closest corporations, and outvieing the fiercest tyranny of the dark- 
est ages ; and it is strange, that, although these unions have in 
most of the trades been successively overthrown, still new unions 
urge the hopeless combat. 

It bespeaks deplorable ignorance in the mass of the operatives, 
who have so allowed themselves to be led by a few designing and 
selfish knaves ; and submit to be urged by the violent wrong-head- 
ed fools of their order, a class to be found in all communities. 
That the schoolmaster has been successfully abroad, there can be 
no doubt ; and that the working-classes are becoming more intel- 
ligent, every good man must observe with delight ; but they are 
as yet in the transition state, at the point when a " little learning 
is a dangerous thing." They are like raw recruits with good wea- 
pons in their hands, more likely to wound their neighbours, or 
themselves, than to make a successful assault on the enemy. Be- 
fore they can be called intelligent, or find themselves truly power- 



156 LANARKSHIRE. 

ful, they must dip deeper into the pure science of morals, economy, 
and politics, which they can only accomplish by reading less of the 
base and selfish ravings of a particular description of the periodi- 
cal press ; and more of those solid works which calmly, deliberate- 
ly, and honestly, treat of the great principles of human nature, and 
the essential conventional laws of human society. Great improve- 
ment has taken place during the last fifty years in the manners, 
habits, and intelligence of the middle classes, and there is nothing 
in the moral or physical circumstances of the working-classes to 
prevent their making a similar progress, and to their attaining as 
high a point in the scale of intelligence and moral worth. Even 
now we find many who have attained both, though in the humblest 
ranks. Amidst their labours they have quite as much time for 
reading as the -generality of men in the middle classes, and it 
wants but a resolution, a fashion amongst them, to lead to the 
happy results. 

It is the duty, as it is the interest, of all masters, and all minis- 
ters of religion, and of all good men who are worthy the appella- 
tion, to promote within their own sphere, by kindly, free, and fre- 
quent discourse, as. well as by pecuniary arrangement, the consum- 
mation and progress of this most desirable object.* 

* The following note is from the history of the cotton manufacture of Great Bri- 
tain, just published, by Mr Edward Baines Jun. of Leeds, a work distinguished for 
great talent aud research, a work which contains more useful information respect- 
ing the cotton trade than is to be found in any other, a work which should be in 
the hands of all those who desire a knowledge of that trade which has tended to raise 
their country so high in the scale of nations. 

" The cotton manufacture of England presents a spectacle unparalleled in the annals 
of industry, whether we regard the suddenness of its growth, the magnitude which it 
has attained, or the wonderful inventions to which its progress is to be ascribed. 
Within the memory of many now living, those machines have been brought into use 
which have made so great a revolution in manufactures, as the art of printing effect- 
ed in literature. Within the same period, the cotton manufacture of this country has 
sprung up from insignificance, and has attained a greater extent than the manufac- 
tures of wool and linen combined, though these have existed for centuries," 
" Sixty years si nee, our manufacturers consumedlittle more than THREE MILLION POUNDS 
of raw cotton annually, the annual consumption is now TWO HUNDRED AND EIGHTY 
MILLION FOUNDS. In 1750, the county of Lancaster, the chief seat of the trade, had a po. 
pulation of only 297,400, in 1831, the number of its inhabitants had swelled to 
1,336,854. A similar increase has taken place in Lanarkshire, the principal seat of 
the manufacture in Scotland. The families supported by this branch of industry are 
estimated to comprise A MILLION AND A-H ALF of individuals ; and the goods produced, 
not only furnish a large part of the clothing consumed in this kingdom, but supply 
nearly one-half of the immense export trade of Britain, find their way into all the 
markets of the world, and are even destroying in the Indian market, the competition, 
of the ancient manufacture of India itself, the native country of the raw material, 
and the earliest seat of the art." 

" The causes of this unexampled extension of manufacturing industry are to be 
found in a series of splendid inventions and discoveries, by. the combined effect of 
which, a spinner now produces as much. yarn in a day, as by the old processes he 
could have produced in a year, and cloth which formerly required six or eight months 
to bleach, is now bleached in a few hours." 



GLASGOW. 157 

Glasgow was the first place in Britain where inkle wares were 
manufactured. In 1732, Mr Alexander Harvey, at the risk of 
his life, brought away from Haerlem, two inkle-looms and a work- 
man, and was thereby enabled to introduce the manufacture of the 
article into this city. Soon after this, the Dutchman, considering 
himself as ill-used by his employer, left Glasgow in disgust, and 
communicated his art to Manchester. 

The manufacture of green bottles in Glasgow was introduced, 
and the first bottle-house erected on the site of the present Ja- 
maica Street Bottle-house, in 1730. 

It does not appear that the art of turret bell making was practised 
in Glasgow till 1735. It was not, however till 1813, when Messrs 
Stephen Miller and Company made the bell for the steeple of the 
Gorbals church, that large turret bells were made in Glasgow. 
Since that period they have made a great number, which are equal 
in quality and tone to any that ever came from Holland. In the 
steeple at the cross, there are twenty-eight bells, denominated 
chimes, diminishing from five feet three inches, to one foot six 
inches in circumference. The greater part of them have this in- 
scription. " Tuned by Arniston and Cummin, .28 bells for Glas- 
gow, 1735." 

In 1742, Messrs Ingram and Company fitted up a printfield at 
Pollockshaws. The first delft manufactory in Scotland was begun 
in Delftfield near the Broomielaw, in 1748. Mr Laurence Dinwid- 
die, formerly Provost, and his brother, Governor Dinwiddie, were 
two of the first partners. 

The first shoe-shop in Glasgow was opened in 1749 by Mr 
William Colquhoun; and in 1773, Mr George Macintosh, em- 
ploying at that time upwards of 300 shoemakers for the home and 
export trade, had his shoe-shop in King Street. Mr Macintosh had 
also an agent in Edinburgh, where he employed a number of work- 
men. At the same period the Glasgow tan-work company em- 
ployed nearly 300 shoemakers, and to these two houses, the whole 
export of shoes was confined. 

The haberdashery business was first introduced into Glasgow 
about 1750, by Mr Andrew Lockhart. But although Mr Lock- 
hart was the first person who commenced the haberdashery busi- 
ness in this city, it was not till the autumn of 1787 that it was 
carried on to any considerable extent. At that period, Mr J. Ross 
of Carlisle, opened a shop in SpreulPs new " land," and gave the 
haberdashery business a tone which it had never reached before in 



158 LANARKSHIRE. 

this city. Soon afterwards two of his shopmen, under the firm of 
Grey and Laurie, commenced business with an extensive stock of 
goods; and the haberdashery business has rapidly increased in 
this city since that time. 

Mr John Blair and Mr James Inglis were the first persons who 
had front shops for the sale of hats in this city. The shops were 
both opened in 1756, the former in the Salt Market, and the latter 
in the Bridgegate. 

The business of silversmith is of considerable standing in Glas- 
gow. Mr James Glen, who was a magistrate in 1754, succeeded 
Mr Robert Luke. When the latter first opened a shop, the trade 
was but little known in the west of Scotland. In 1775, when Mr 
Robert Gray, of Blairbeth, commenced business, the following 
persons had silversmiths' shops here : Messrs Milne and Camp- 
bell, William Napier, David Warnock, Napier and Bain, James 
M'Ewan, and Adam Graham. In 1775, the assortment of plate 
was inconsiderable ; but in 1 835, there are shops in Glasgow, which 
would be considered as valuable in Fleet Street, and elegant in 
Bond Street. It is not easy to ascertain when the first woollen- 
draper's shop was opened in Glasgow. In 1761, when Mr Patrick 
Ewing entered into the trade, it was very limited. 

The Iron Trade. Although the cotton manufacture has been 
the staple trade of Glasgow and neighbourhood for a long period, 
the iron manufacture in its various branches would appear to be 
the one which nature points out as likely to furnish the most ad- 
vantageous employment of the labour and capital of the district, 
from the inexhaustible stores of the materials for the making of iron 
with which it abounds. The local situation of Glasgow, too, is 
peculiarly favourable for the cheap conveyance of the bulky and 
heavy articles of this manufacture to every quarter of the world. 
The city is about equidistant from the Atlantic and German seas, 
and not more than twenty-six miles from either, communicating with 
the one by the river Clyde, navigable by vessels drawing thirteen 
feet water, and with the other by the Forth and Clyde Canal, navi- 
gable by vessels also drawing about thirteen feet water. It stands at 
the western extremity of the district known by the designation of the 
Basin of the Clyde s and which, stretching eastward for about twen- 
ty-six miles, and of considerable breadth, is one uninterrupted field 
of coal, interspersed with bands of rich black ironstone. Into this 
mineral field the Monkland Canal penetrates twelve miles, having 
its western extremity at Glasgow, communicating there with the 



GLASGOW. 159 

Forth and Clyde Canal, into which it is introduced. On a paral- 
lel line with this water conveyance there is the Garnkirk and Air- 
drie Railway, on a part of which locomotive engines were intro- 
duced on the 2d July 1831. The Garion-Gill Railway, which is 
to be connected with the Garnkirk and Airdrie Railway, and with 
the Monkland Canal, will carry the communication with the mi- 
neral field eight miles farther, and it is expected that the great 
coal field at Coltness will soon be opened up. With these ad- 
vantages for obtaining the materials and sending the manufactured 
article to market, Glasgow must become the seat of a great iron 
manufacture. She has already large establishments for the ma- 
nufacture of steam-engines and machinery, and for making the 
machines employed in the processes of cotton-spinning, flax-spin- 
ning, and wool-spinning. In these works every thing belonging 
to or connected with the mill-wright or engineer departments of 
the manufacture, is also fabricated. Having these important and 
valuable portions of the manufacture already established, and with 
the advantages which the district possesses for carrying on the 
trade, there is every reason to expect its rapid growth, and its ex- 
tension to every article of iron manufacture. 

Neilson's Patent Hot-Blast. An improvement of national im- 
portance has lately taken place in the making of iron, of which the 
following is a description. Mr James B. Neilson, engineer in this 
city, obtained patents in this country and France, for an improve- 
ment in the manufacture of iron, which he designated a llot- Blast. 
The patentee drew up a description of this improvement, of which 
the following is an abridgement : 

In 1824, an iron-maker asked Mr Neilson if he thought it pos- 
sible to purify the air blown into blast furnaces in a manner simi- 
lar to that in which carburetted hydrogen gas is purified ; and from 
this conversation Mr Neilson perceived, that he imagined the pre- 
sence of sulphur in the air to be the cause of blast-furnaces work- 
ing irregularly, and making bad iron in the summer months. Sub- 
sequently to this conversation, which had in some measure direct- 
ed his thoughts to the subject of blast-furnaces, he received infor- 
mation, that one of the Muirkirk iron-furnaces, situated at a con- 
siderable distance from the engine, did not work so well as the 
others ; which led him to conjecture, that the friction of the air, 
in passing along the pipe, prevented an equal volume of the air 
getting to the distant furnace, with that which reached to the one 
situated close by the engine ; and he at once came to the conclu- 
sion, that, by heating the air at the distant furnace, he should in- 



160 LANARKSHIRE. 

crease its volume in the ratio of the known law according to which 
air and gases expand. Thus, if 1000 cubic feet, say at 50 of 
Fahrenheit, were pressed by the engine in a given time, and heat- 
ed to 600 of Fahrenheit, it would then be increased in volume to 
2.1044, and so on for every thousand feet that would be blown into 
the furnace. In prosecuting the experiments which this idea sug- 
gested, circumstances, however, convinced him, that heating the 
air introduced for supporting combustion into air-furnaces would 
materially increase its efficacy in this respect ; and, with the view 
of putting his suspicions on this point to the test, he instituted the 
following experiments : To the nozle of a pair of common smith's 
bellows he attached a cast-iron vessel heated from beneath in the 
manner of a retort for generating gas, and to this vessel the blow- 
pipe by which the forge or furnace was blown was also attached. 
The air from the bellows having thus to pass through the heated 
vessel above-mentioned, was consequently heated to a high tem- 
perature before it entered the forge fire, and the result produced 
in increasing the intensity of the heat in the furnace was far be- 
yond his expectation, whilst it made apparent the fallacy of the 
generally received theory, that the coldness of the air of the at- 
mosphere in the winter months was the cause of the best iron being 
then produced. But in overthrowing the old theory, he had also 
established new principles and facts, in the process of iron-making ; 
and by the advice and assistance of Mr Charles Macintosh of Cross- 
basket, he applied for, and obtained, a patent, as the reward of his 
discovery and improvement. 

Experiments on the large scale to reduce iron ore in a founder's 
cupola were forthwith commenced at the Clyde Iron Works, belong- 
ing to Mr Colin Dunlop, M. P. and were completely successful, in 
consequence of which, the invention of Mr Neilson was immediate- 
ly adopted at the Calder Iron- Works, the property of Mr William 
Dixon, where the blast, by being made to pass through two retorts, 
placed on each side of one of the large furnaces, before entering 
the furnace, effected an instantaneous change, both in the quantity 
and quality of iron produced ; and a considerable saving of fuel. 
The whole of the furnaces at Calder and Clyde Iron- Works were 
in consequence immediately fitted up on the principle of the hot- 
blast, and its use at these works continues to be attended with the 
utmost success. It has also been adopted at Wilsontown and 
Gartsherrie Works in Scotland, and at several works in England 
and France. The air, at first raised to 250 of Fahrenheit, produced 
a saving of three-sevenths of fuel in every ton of pig-iron made ; 



GLASGOW. 161 

and the heating apparatus having since been enlarged, so as to in- 
crease the temperature of the blast to 600 of Fahrenheit, and up- 
wards, a proportionate saving of fuel is effected, and an immense 
additional saving is also acquired by the use of raw coal instead of 
coke, which may now be adopted by thus increasing the heat of the 
blast, the whole waste incurred in burning the coal into coke being 
thus also avoided in the process of iron-making. By the use of 
this invention, with three-sevenths of the fuel which he formerly 
employed in the cold air process, the iron-maker is now enabled to 
make one-third more iron of a superior quality. Were the hot- 
blast generally adopted, the saving to the country in the article of 
coal would be immense. In Britain about 700,000 tons of iron are 
made annually, of which 55,500 tons only are produced in Scot- 
land. On these 55,500 tons his invention would save, in the pro- 
cess of manufacture, 222,000 tons of coal annually. In England 
the saving would be in proportion to the strength and quality of the 
coal, and cannot be computed at less than 1,320,000 tons annual- 
ly, and taking the price of coals at the low rate of 4s. per ton, a 
yearly saving of L. 308,400 Sterling would be effected. Nor are 
the advantages of this invention solely confined to iron-making. 
By its use, the founder can cast into goods an equal quantity of 
iron in greatly less time, and with a saving of nearly half the fuel 
employed in the cold air process ; and the blacksmith can produce 
in the same time one-third more work, with much less fuel than he 
formerly required. In all the processes of metallurgical science, 
it will be found of the utmost importance in reducing the ores to a 
metallic state. 

Iron Works in Scotland in June 1835. 



Erected in or about 1 767, 


Carron Company, 


5 furnaces, 


8,000 


tons. 


1786, 


Clyde, 


4 


_ 


12,500 


_ 


1786, 


Wilsontown, 


1 


_ 


3,000 


_ 


1790, 


Muirkirk, 


2 


_ 


4,000 


, * ' 


1790, 


Cleland, 


j 


_ 


2,5(JO 


_ 


1790, 


Devon, 


3 


_ 


7,000 


';' 


1805, 


'Calder, 


4 


_; - 


12,000 


_ 


1805, 


Shotts, 


] 


' '. " 


3,000 


_ 


1825, 


Monkland, - 


3 


'. " 


8,000 


'_; 


1828, 


Gartsherrie, 


3 


_ 


9,000 


.. ' 


1834, 


Dundyvan, 


2 


Jjl-' 


6,000 


v - ; "'. 






29* 




75,000 




1824, quantity of iron 


made in Scotland at this date, 


55,500 





Increase in 11 years, 19,500 

* Exclusive of the above furnaces, there were in preparation in June 1835, six ad- 
ditional, viz three at Gartsherrie ; one at Monkland ; one at Calder ; and one at Dun- 
dyvan. Those six furnaces will make 13,000 tons of iron annually. 



162 LANARKSHIRE. 

These works are all in the neighbourhood of Glasgow excepting 
five, and none of them are thirty miles distant from that city. Pre- 
viously to the use of Neilson's hot-blast, 6000 tons of iron were 
made at Clyde Iron- Works in a year. In the formation of each 
ton of iron, eight tons of coal, and fifteen cwt. of limestone were 
required. In 1833, when the hot-blast was applied, the same 
steam-engine made 12,500 tons of iron, each ton requiring only 
three tons of coal, and eight cwt. of limestone. The whole of the 
above iron-works are using the hot-blast in all their furnaces, ex- 
cepting" the Carron Company, who have only yet taken out a license 
for one of their furnaces. The license is at the rate of Is. per ton. 
The best coal for making iron at the above works does not ave- 
rage above 4s. per ton. 

Supply of Coals in Glasgow. In 1831, Dr Cleland ascertained 
from coal-masters and authentic documents, that the supply of coals 
came from thirty-seven coal pits ; that the quantity brought to 
Glasgow was 561,049 tons, and of that quantity 124,000 were ex- 
ported, thereby leaving 437,049 tons for the use of families, and 
public works, in the city and suburbs. The additional consump- 
tion since the above statement was made, may be fairly estimated at 
ten per cent, on the home consumption, and five per cent, on the ex- 
port, which makes the quantity brought to Glasgow in 1835 amount 
to 610,953 tons. The following is the average prices of coals de- 
livered in quantities in Glasgow, during a period of eight years. 

In 1821, - - 8s. 4d. to 9s. 4d. per ton. 

1822, - - 7s. lid. to 8s. lid. 

1823, - - 7s. 6d. to 8s. 6d. 

1824, - - 7s. lid. to 8s. lid. 

1825, - - 11s. Id. to 12s. Id. 

1826, - - 9s. 7d. to 10s. 7d. 

1827, - - 6s. 3d. to 7s. 3d. 

1828, - - 5s. lOd. to 6s. lOd. 

There has been no variation in the price of coals from 1828 to 
1835. The best hard splint is laid down at the steam-boat quay 
at 6s. 3d. per ton. 

In 1835, Cannel coal from Lesmahagow, for the formation of gas, 
is laid down at the gas works at 1 6s. per ton ; ditto from pits in 
the neighbourhood of Glasgow, 10s. 6d. per ton ; average on the 
quantity used, 14s. per ton. 

The manufacture of flint-glass or crystal was introduced here 
by Messrs Cookson and Company of Newcastle in 1777, and is now 
carried on to a very considerable extent. Soon after that period, 
a number of chemical works were erected in the neighbourhood of 
this city. The Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures was in- 



GLASGOW. 163 

stituted here in 1783, under the auspices of Mr Patrick Colqu- 
houn, at that time an eminent merchant in Glasgow. Pullicate 
hankerchiefs were begun to be made about the year 1785. 

The business of a regular distiller is but of recent date in Scot- 
land. Mr William Menzies of Gorbals, Glasgow, was the first 
person in the west of Scotland who had a licensed still. He open- 
ed his distillery in Kirk Street in 1786, and his license was the 
fourth in Scotland ; the houses of Messrs Stein, Haig, and another, 
having alone preceded him. At that period, the duties amounted 
to about one penny per gallon, and the best malt spirit was sold 
at 3s. per gallon. 

In 1800, Messrs Tennant, Knox, and Company, established a 
chemical work at St Rollox ; now carried on under the firm of 
Charles Tennant and Company, for the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid, chloride of lime, soda, and soap. This manufactory, the 
most extensive of any of the kind in Europe, covers ten acres of 
ground, and within its walls there are buildings winch cover 27,340 
square yards of ground. In the premises, there are upwards of 100 
furnaces, retorts, or fire-places. In one apartment there are platina 
vessels to the value of L. 7000. In this great concern, upwards 
of 600 tons of coal are consumed weekly. 

Messrs Henry Monteith, Bogle, and Company, established a 
manufactory for bandana handkerchiefs in 1802, now carried on 
under the firm of Henry Monteith and Company. This respect- 
able firm also carry on the business of cotton-spinning and calico- 
printing. Their establishment at Blantyre is most extensive ; 
while their splendid works at Barrowfield are probably unequalled 
in the kingdom. With the exception of an attempt on the conti- 
nent, which proved unsuccessful, the manufacture of bandanas has 
been chiefly confined to this city. The manufacture of silk is but 
in its infancy here ; but the throwing and other departments of 
the trade bid fair for prosperity. 

Gas-Light Company. A company for lighting Glasgow with 
gas was incorporated by act of Parliament in 1817, with a capi- 
tal of L. 40,000, which has been increased from time to time to 
L. 150,000. The first street lamp was lighted with gas on the 
5th September 1818. 

The works are on a large scale, and, including subsidiary esta- 
blishments in different parts of the town, occupy an area of 14,831 
square yards. The principal establishment now forms a square, 



164 LANARKSHIRE, 

of which one side is occupied by retorts, condensers, and other ap- 
paratus ; and round the other three are ranged sheds, under which 
cannel coals are stored, to preserve them from moisture. These 
sheds are calculated to contain 6000 tons ; and to show at any 
time how much coal is on hand, they are divided into compart- 
ments, each containing a certain known quantity. The company 
have at present 152 retorts, each capable of making 5000 cubic 
feet of gas in twenty- four hours. Of these, 105 are required in 
winter, and 30 in summer. The gas holders are of a very large 
size, and are 8 in number, viz. 4 at the works, and 4 in different 
parts of the town. By this arrangement, the pressure of gas is 
equalised in all portions of the city and suburbs. Cast-iron 
pipes to convey the gas are laid on both sides of the streets, under 
the foot pavements, so as not to interfere with the water pipes, 
and extend to more than 110 miles in length. In generating gas 
for the supply of Glasgow, upwards of 9000 tons of coals are an- 
nually consumed. The coke which remains after extracting gas 
from cannel coal, and the tar deposited on the cooling of the gas, 
are used for heating the retorts, and are found to be very economi- 
cal fuel. Nor is the tar the only one of the liquid products that is 
turned to profitable account. The ammoniacal water is sold to be 
used in making cudbear dye, and the naphtha, in dissolving ca- 
outchouc, for manufacturing water-proof cloth. The solution of 
lime, after having been employed for purifying the gas, is allowed 
to stand until the heavier part is precipitated ; this is then collected 
and sold for manure, and the liquor which remains (none of the 
gas-work refuse is allowed to run into the common sewers of the 
city) is evaporated under the great bars of the retort furnace, 
thereby increasing the draught, and, consequently, the intensity 
of the fire. 

As at other establishments, the gas is purified with lime ; but 
in addition to this process, it is made to pass through a solution of 
sulphate of iron, by which it is very much improved in purity. 
After being purified, it passes through a metre of a very large 
size, made by Mr Crosley of London, the patentee. Here the 
gas manufactured is measured, and by a beautiful contrivance, 
called a tell-tale, which acts by the combined motions of the me- 
tre on a common clock, the quantity passing through each hour 
of the day or night is registered ; and the extent of any irregula- 
rity in the workmen, as well as the time at which it happened, is 
at once detected. The company have been peculiarly fortunate 



GLASGOW. 1(35 

in procuring the services of Mr James B. Neilson, engineer, pa- 
tentee of the iron hot-blast. To the scientific attainments of this 
distinguished manager, the company are chiefly indebted for their 
uncommon success, and for the most perfect and beautiful esta- 
blishment of the kind in the kingdom. 

In May 1835, the directors of the Gas Company drew up, 
printed, and circulated a short history of their affairs, of which the 
following is an abstract. In the act of 1825, the company became 
bound that the dividends should not exceed 10 per cent, on their 
stock per annum. From the commencement of the undertaking, 
they supplied the city and suburbs of Glasgow with gas, at prices 
below what were charged in any other city in the empire. 

In 1818, the period at which the lighting of the city commen- 
ced, the charge for a single jet to eight o'clock was 12s. per annum. 
Since that period, the company have been enabled to make four 
successive reductions of the rates. In 1819, they reduced the 
rates L. 1800 per annum; in 1822, L. 1200; in 1830, L. 2300; 
and in 1833, L. 1600. The charge for a single jet lighted to eight 
o'clock, is now reduced to 6s. 6d. per annum. The aggregate 
amount of the rates paid by the consumers in 1835 is L. 30,000, 
and the number of payers about 10,000. 

Chemical Works. The process for dyeing Turkey or Adria- 
nople red, was first introduced into Britain by Mr George Mac- 
intosh, at a dye-house which he established at Glasgow. The im- 
mense importance since attained by this branch of commerce in 
Britain owes its origin entirely to this circumstance. 

Mr George Macintosh also commenced the manufacture of the 
dye stuff called cudbear, in Glasgow. This is a modification of 
the Florentine manufacture of orcella, or orseille, and is still car- 
ried on, on a large scale, by Mr Charles Macintosh, the son of 
the first named gentleman. 

In the year 1786, Mr Charles Macintosh introduced from Hol- 
land, the manufacture of sugar of lead, saccharum saturni, or ace- 
tate of lead. This article had previously been obtained by im- 
portation from Holland ; but in the course of a very short time, this 
state of matters was reversed, by Mr Macintosh exporting ihe ar- 
ticle in considerable quantities to Rotterdam, the place from which 
a knowledge of the manufacture was first obtained. Independent 
of its use in medicine, sugar of lead is employed on the large scale 
in calico-printing, in the formation of the mordant called red co- 
lour liquor ; in which process a double chemical decomposition is 

LANARK. M 



id6 LANARKSHIRE. 

effected by the addition of the acetate of lead, to an aqueous solu- 
tion of alum (sulphate of alumina.) Sulphate of lead is thus pre- 
cipitated, whilst acetate of alumina, constituting the mordant, re- 
mains in solution. About 1789, Mr Macintosh modified this pro- 
cess by the substitution of acetate of lime, instead of acetate of lead. 
A similar decomposition, affording acetate of alumina in solution, 
in this instance takes place. By this process the selling price of 
the red colour liquor became lowered from three shillings per gal- 
lon, to sixpence, and under, per gallon. This process was never 
patented, and as it speedily became appropriated by others, the 
inventor derived scarcely any advantage from it. Many thousand 
pounds Sterling were annually expended on malt and barley, in the 
manufacture of saccharum saturni, at Glasgow, between the year 
1786, the period of the first introduction of the manufacture, and 
1 820, when pyroligneous acid prepared from wood was substituted 
for the malt vinegar, previously employed in this process. 

In 1793, Mr Charles Macintosh introduced at Pollockshaws, 
numerous and important improvements in the art of dyeing fancy 
muslins, and in 1795, he established the first alum-work erected in 
Scotland, at Hurlet, in Renfrewshire, about six miles from Glasgow. 
Two other alum-works at Campsie, and in the parish of Baldernock 
in Stirlingshire, were shortly after established through his interven- 
tion, which works now yield an annual supply of 2000 tons of alum. 
The decomposed aluminous schistus found in the coal wastes is 
the material employed at these places in the manufacture of alum, 
the price of which has been reduced from L. 25 per ton, at which 
it was when these works were established, to L c 12 and under per 
ton. Remarks upon the influence exerted by this cause, on the 
various branches of dyeing, calico-printing, tanning, and paper- 
making, in all of which the use of alum is indispensable, would 
be superfluous. 

In 1799, Mr Charles Macintosh prepared for the first time 
chloride of lime, in the dry form, which has since been denominat- 
ed bleaching salt, or bleaching powder. This process he patented, 
and its manufacture, on a large scale, was carried on by Mr Mac* 
intosh and Mr Charles Tennant of St Rollox for many years. Mr 
Tennant had previously obtained a patent for the preparation of 
chloride of lime in the liquid state, denominated bleaching liquor, 
of which he was the inventor. The immense chemical works at 
St Rollox, since conducted on a scale of such magnitude and per- 
fection by Mr Tennant, originated in this partnership. 

In 1808, Mr Charles Macintosh established at the alum-works at 



GLASGOW. 167 

Campsie, the manufacture of Prussian blue, triple-prussiate of po- 
tass, and iron or ferro-prussiate of potash. Soon afterwards he ap- 
plied, for the first time, for the purpose of dyeing woollen, silk, and 
cotton, the salt termed triple-prussiate of potash, or hydro-ferro- 
cyanic acid. This salt had only previously been known as a che- 
mical reagent, prepared from Prussian blue, and selling at from 
5s. to 6s. per ounce. Its use as a dye stuff, in substitution for in- 
digo, is now universal over Europe ; the price being reduced to 
about 2d. per ounce, or 2s. 6d. per pound. This substance is pro- 
cured from the horns and hoofs of animals, as also the waste parings 
and clippings of horns and whalebone ; and for these substances, 
and pot and pearl ashes, also employed in the process, a great an- 
nual outlay takes place. 

The process for rendering fabrics of silk, woollen, cotton, or 
linen, waterproof, by means of a layer of caoutchouc, or Indian 
rubber, previously rendered liquid by solution in naphtha, being in- 
troduced between two separate pieces of cloth, which are subse- 
quently thus made to adhere perfectly and permanently together 
by pressure, is also the invention of Mr Charles Macintosh. He 
for some time carried on the manufactory of these articles at Glas- 
gow; but some time ago the business was transferred to Manchester. 
Mr Macintosh obtained a patent for this process. Previous to the intro- 
duction of this manufacture, the importation of caoutchouc into Bri- 
tain was merely trifling, its use being limited almost entirely to, 
stationary purposes ; now it is imported in large quantities ; and, in 
order to supply the demand for it, it is understood, that the pro- 
prietors of several West India estates are planting for cultivation, 
the different species of Irtropha elastica and Urceola elastica, from 
which it is procured in the state of a milky juice, which coagulates 
on exposure to the atmosphere. 

The process for converting iron into steel, by submitting it, in- 
closed in close vessels, to the action of carburetted hydrogen gas, 
is also the invention of Mr Charles Macintosh. This is also a 
patent process. 

In 1823, the Royal Society of London marked their sense of 
Mr Charles Macintosh's services in the cause of science, by elect- 
ing him a Fellow. 

The calico-printing works of Messrs James and John Kibble and 
Company of Glasgow, on the banks of the Leven, are allowed to 
be the most complete of any in the kingdom. 

Cashmere Yarn. In 1830, the weaving of Cashmere shawls in 
this country had become so important a branch of trade, as to in- 



168 LANARKSHIRE. 

duce the Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Arts and Ma- 
nufactures in Scotland to offer a premium of L. 300 Sterling to the 
first person who should establish the spinning of Cashmere wool 
upon the French principle in this country. Up to that time the 
French had exclusively enjoyed the advantages of that trade ; and 
all Cashmere yarns used in this country in the manufacture of shawls 
and other fabrics had to be imported from France. The offer of 
this handsome premium, together with the other advantages which 
the carrying on of the trade held out, induced Captain Charles 
Stuart Cochrane, of the Royal Navy, to attempt, whilst in Paris, to 
find out the secret of this manufacture, which, after many difficul- 
ties and much delay, he at last accomplished ; and, in 1831, he 
took out patents for the introduction of this kind of spinning to the 
three kingdoms. In the autumn of that year, he prevailed on Messrs 
Henry Houldsworth and Sons, of Glasgow, to purchase his patents, 
and they accordingly commenced the spinning of Cashmere yarn. 
After many difficulties, they succeeded, in 1832, in making better 
yarn than the French, and in the following year received from the 
Board of Trustees the L. 300 Sterling as the premium due for the 
establishing of the spinning of Cashmere yarn in this country. 
Since then, the manufacture has gone on but slowly, though gra- 
dually increasing in extent, and the day is not far distant when it 
may be hoped that the beauty of the goods made from Cashmere 
yarn will be duly appreciated by our ladies. One thing is grati- 
fying, that, notwithstanding the cheapness of labour in France, and 
the long experience the French have had in this manufacture, we 
are quite capable at this moment of successfully competing with 
them in the market, although the French yarns can be admitted 
free of duty. 

Establishment of Merino Yarn Spinning in Scotland. At the 
same time that the late Captain C. S. Cochrane was engaged in 
Paris in finding out the manufacture of Cashmere yarn, his atten- 
tion was attracted by the superiority of French merino dresses over 
those made in this country ; and on inquiry he found that the peculiar 
manner in which the French spun the merino yarn was the prin- 
cipal cause of this difference. Captain Cochrane, accordingly, got 
all the information he could possibly Obtain respecting this manu- 
facture, and in 1333 established in Glasgow this peculiar mode of 
spinning merino yarn on the French principle. The Board of Trus- 
tees offered a premium of L. 300 Sterling to the introducer and 
establisher of this manufacture; which premium Captain Cochrane 
accordingly received in 1834, his merino yarn being pronounced 



GLASGOW. 169 

equal, if not superior, to the best French yarns. After this satis- 
factory result, the business was extended to meet the demand of 
the trade ; but, unfortunately for the spirited introducer, death cut 
him short before his plans were fully brought to a profitable result. 
The business is in the meantime carried on by Messrs Hen- 
ry Houldsworth and Sons, for the benefit of Captain Cochrane's 
partner ; and from the soft and beautiful goods which can be made 
from this yarn, almost rivalling the Cashmere itself, there seems 
little doubt but that in a short time, when it becomes well known, 
the merinos of this country will successfully compete with those of 
the French. 

Timber Trade. The merchants of Glasgow send numerous ships 
to the East and West Indies, to America, and to the continent of Eu- 
rope; but there is one firm which merits particular attention. Messrs 
Pollock, Gilmour and Company, who are chiefly engaged in the 
North American timber trade, have eight different establishments 
that ship annually upwards of six MILLIONS cubic feet of timber ; to 
cut and to collect which, and to prepare it for shipment, requires 
upwards of FIFTEEN THOUSAND MEN, AND six HUNDRED HORSES 
AND OXEN in constant employment ; and for the accommodation 
of their trade, they are owners of twenty-one large ships, the register 
tonnage of which is twelve thousand and five tons, navigated by five 
hundred and two seamen, carrying each trip upwards of twenty 
thousand tons of timber at 40 cubic feet per ton. All of which 
ships make two, and several of them three voyages annually. It 
may be truly said that this establishment is unequalled in Europe. 

Messrs James and William Campbell and Company were the first 
in this city to occupy as a warehouse for the retail of soft goods, 
the upper flats of a tenement, instead of shops on the ground or 
street floor, and although the practice of having retail places of 
business on the second floor has since become pretty general in 
Glasgow, it is still a peculiarity of this city. The Messrs Camp- 
bells, too, were the first who successfully resisted the practice, which 
had previously obtained very generally in Glasgow, in their line of 
business, of what in Scotch phrase, is termed " prigging," or de- 
viating from the first price asked for goods sold in retail. They 
commenced business in 1817, in the Trades Land, head of Salt- 
market Street, from whence they removed in 1823, to premises 
built by themselves, and which they still occupy in Candleriggs 
Street, 

This establishment, now embracing the wholesale as well as the 



170 LANARKSHIRE. 

retail business, the largest of the kind in the King's dominions 
out of London, contains 30,003 square feet of flooring. In these 
premises the public are supplied with nearly every description of 
goods of woollen, linen, cotton, and silk manufacture, and the ar- 
rangements are such that purchasers of the smallest quantities for 
private use are equally attended to and accommodated with those 
who make the most extensive purchases, for either home or foreign 
consumpt. Upwards of eighty persons are employed in the sale- 
departments of these warehouses, and the following is a note of 
the respective amounts of six years sales, which not only shows 
the progressive increase of the Messrs Campbells' business, but 
exhibits a fair criterion of the rapid increase, and commercial im- 
provement of the city of Glasgow. 

In 1818, . L. 41,022 6 4 In 1830, . L. 250,899 9 6 
1824, . 156,284 2 1 1832, . 312,207 5 8 
1827, . 183,385 6 10 1834, . 423,021 4 7 

Besides these gross sales the company manufacture to the value 
of from L. 70,000 to L. 80,000 annually of the goods thus dis- 
posed of, giving employment from this department to nearly 
2000 people. It may likewise be remarked, that, although se- 
veral London houses turn a greater sum annually, in consequence 
of dealing largely in the more valuable descriptions of silk goods, 
it is understood that the Messrs Campbell serve as great a num- 
ber of customers as any of those highly respectable metropolitan 
establishments. 

The Tea Trade. The Camden was the first vessel unconnect- 
ed with the East India Company which brought a cargo of tea 
direct from Canton to Britain. She was consigned by China mer- 
chants to Mr William Mathieson of Glasgow, and her full cargo of 
Bohea, Congou, Cape Congou, Campio, and Souchong, was sold 
in the Rojal Exchange sale-room of this city on the 14th of No- 
vember 1834. A number of London and Edinburgh merchants 
purchased at the sale. The whole was sold at high prices. 

V. Civic ECONOMY. 

Literature. From the commercial enterprise which engages 
the time and attention of its inhabitants, this city cannot boast of 
a literary character. There are many individuals, however, of 
cultivated minds and extensive attainments, some of whom have 
formed themselves into societies for the promotion of literature 
and science. About the middle of the last century a literary so- 
ciety was established, consisting chiefly of the professors and cler- 
gymen of the city and neighbourhood, and reckoned amongst its 



GLASGOW. 171 

distinguished members, Doctors Adam Smith, Trail, and Reid, 
and Mr John Millar, the celebrated Professor of Law. A litera- 
ry and commercial society was formed about the beginning of the 
present century, and is composed of a number of gentlemen who 
meet for the discussion of literary and commercial topics. Dur- 
ing the twenty-seven years in which records have been kept, up- 
wards of 200 essays have been read by the society. 

University. The University of Glasgow is a corporate body, 
consisting of a Chancellor, Rector, Dean, Principal, with Profes- 
sors and Students. 

In 1451, Nicolas V., a pope distinguished by his talents and 
erudition, and particularly by his munificent patronage of Grecian 
literature, after having composed the great western schism, which 
for more than half a century had distracted the states of Christen- 
dom, was pleased to issue a Papal Edict, or Bull, establishing a 
studium generate^ or university in the city of Glasgow ; the situa- 
tion of which is described in the narrative as being, by the salubri- 
ty of the climate, and the abundance of all the necessaries of life, 
peculiarly adapted for such an institution. The instrument bears 
that James II. King of Scotland had applied to the See of Rome 
for this grant ; for although an independent sovereign might claim 
the power of erecting universities within his own dominions, he 
could not confer on the licentiates and doctors, who derived their 
qualifications from such seminaries, the privilege of acting as 
teachers and regents in all the seats of general study throughout 
the bounds of the Catholic church, without any examination or 
approbation, in addition to that which they received when they ob- 
tained their academical degrees. This faculty was bestowed by 
apostolical authority on the graduates of the University of Glasgow, 
along with all other liberties, immunities, and honours, enjoyed 
by the masters, doctors, and students, in the University of Bologna. 

The University at first had received no endowments, and was 
for years possessed of no property except the University purse, into 
which were put some small perquisites on the conferring of degrees, 
and the patronage of two or three small chaplainaries. At first 
the University had no buildings of its own. It held its meetings 
in the chapter-house of the Blackfriars, or in the cathedral. But 
these defects were in some measure supplied by the liberality of 
James first Lord Hamilton, an ancestor of the noble house of 
Hamilton, who, in the year 1459, gave to the Principal, and other 
Regents of the College of Arts, for their use and accommodation, 



172 LANARKSHIRE. 

a tenement with its pertinents, in the High Street of Glasgow, to 
the north of the Blackfriars, together with four acres of land in 
the Dow-hill. In the deed, the noble donor required the Princi- 
pal and Regents, on their first admission, to declare on oath, that 
they would commemorate James Lord Hamilton, and Lady Eu- 
phemia, his spouse, the Countess of Douglas, as the founders of 
the college. Amongst other benefactors of the college, distin- 
guished by their donations, chiefly for the support of poor students, 
were Ann Duchess of Hamilton, Robina Countess of Forfar, 
William Earl of Dundonnell, the Duke of Chandos, the Duke 
of Montrose, Leighton, Archbishop of Glasgow, Boulter, Bishop 
of Armagh, Mr Snell, Dr Williams, Dr Walton, Mr Zachary 
Boyd, and Dr William Hunter. 

The Reformation produced great disorder in the University, its 
members being clergymen of the Catholic persuasion, and its chief 
support being derived from the church. In 1577, James VI. pre- 
scribed particular rules with regard to the college, and the forma- 
tion of its government, and made a considerable addition to its 
funds. The charter by which the King made these regulations, 
and gave that property, still continues to be the magna charta of 
the college, and is known by the name of Nova Erectio. 

The business of the University is transacted in three distinct 
meetings, viz. those of the Senate, the Comitia, and the Faculty. 
The meeting of senate consists of the Rector, the Dean, the 
members of Faculty, and the other Professors. The Rector pre- 
sides in this meeting, except when affairs are managed, for which 
the Dean is competent. Meetings of the senate are held for the 
election and admission of the Chancellor and Dean of Faculty, 
for the admission of the Vice- Chancellor and Vice-Rector, for 
electing a representative to the General Assembly, for conferring 
degrees, and for the management of the libraries, and other mat- 
ters belonging to the University. The constituent members of the 
comitia are, the Rector, the Dean, the Principal, the Profes- 
sors, and the matriculated students of the University.* The Rec- 

* The royal visitation of the University, in 1717 and 1718, deprived the Students 
of the right of voting in the election of the Rector, and appointed the election to be 
made by the plurality of votes in a University meeting, composed of the Chancellor, 
Dean, and Principal, (the office of Rector being vacant,) and all the Professors and 
Regents ; the said members being restricted to a man of probity and judgment, 
of known affection to the government in Church and State, who is not a minister of 
the gospel, nor bears any other office in the University, It is believed that the re- 
gulations of this visitation originated in some feelings and jealousies connected with 
the political circumstances of the country, and had reference to the wish of persons 
attached to the interests of the Stuart family, being raised to situations of importance 
and influence. 



GLASGOW. 173 

tor or Vice- Rector presides in this meeting. Meetings of the co- 
mitia are held for the election and admission of the Rector, for 
hearing public disputations in any of the faculties, previously to 
the conferring of degrees, for hearing the inaugural discourses of 
the Principal and Professors, previously to their admission to their 
respective offices, and for promulgating the laws of the University, 
and other acts of the University and College courts. The meeting 
of faculty, or college meeting, consists of the Principal, the Pro- 
fessors of Divinity, Church History, Oriental Languages, Natural 
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Mathematics, Logic, Greek, Hu- 
manity, Civil Law, Medicine, Anatomy, and Practical Astronomy. 
The Principal presides in this meeting, and has a casting but not 
a deliberative vote. The members of faculty have the administra- 
tion of the whole revenue and property of the College, consisting 
of heritage, feus, teinds, and bequests, with the exception of a few 
particular bequests, in which the Rector and other officers of the 
University are specially named. They have likewise the right of 
exercising the patronage of eight professorships, vested in the Col- 
lege. They present a minister to the parish of Govan, and have 
the gift of various bursaries. In the exercise, however, of one of 
their privileges, viz. the election of professors, the Rector and 
Dean of Faculty have a vote. 

The officer of highest dignity in the University is the Chancellor, 
who is elected by the members of senate. He is the head of the 
University, and by himself or deputy has the sole privilege of con- 
ferring academical degrees upon persons found qualified by the 
Senatus Academicus. The office of Chancellor is held during life. 
The Rector is annually elected by the Dean, the Principal, the Pro- 
fessors, and the matriculated students. The electors are divided, 
according to their respective birth-places, into four nations, as.be- 
fore-mentioned. As the majority of the members of each nation 
constitutes one vote, in case of an equality, the Rector going out of 
office has the casting vote ; and in his absence, the Rector imme- 
diately preceding. The election is always held on the 15th of No- 
vember, except when it falls upon Sunday, and then the election 
is held on the following day, and the same person is generally re- 

The royal visitation of 1727, prescribed a number of regulations which have been 
in force ever since. Inter alia, the right of electing a Rector was declared to be in 
all the matriculated Members, Moderators or Masters, and students. Some altera- 
tions were made on the distribution of the supposts into nations. The Natlo Glot- 
tiana sive Clydcsdalice and the Natio dicta Rotltsay, continued as originally settled. 
But into the Nutio Laudoniana sive Thevidalioe were introduced, all matriculated 
members from England, and the British Colonies ; and the Natio Albanian sive Trans- 
forthiatui) was to include all foreigners. 



174 LANARKSHIRE. 

elected for a second year. It is the duty of the Rector to preserve 
the rights and privileges of the University, to convoke those meet- 
ings in which he presides, and with his assessors, whom he himself 
appoints, to exercise that academical jurisdiction amongst the stu- 
dents themselves, or between the students and citizens, which is 
bestowed upon most of the universities of Europe. The Dean 
of Faculties is elected by the senate. This office is held for two 
years, and by virtue of it, he is entitled to give directions with re- 
gard to the course of study, and to judge together with the Rector, 
Principal, and Professors, of the qualifications of those who desire 
to be created Masters of Arts, Doctors of Divinity, &c. The foun- 
dation of the office of Principal, almost coeval with that of the Uni- 
versity, was confirmed by James VI. in 1577. It is in the appoint- 
ment of the King. The Principal has the ordinary superintendence 
of the deportment of all members of the University, and is Prima- 
rius Professor of Divinity. The Professors of the University of 
Glasgow may be distributed according to the departments of know- 
ledge to which they are respectively assigned, into four distinct fa- 
culties ; those of arts, theology, law, and medicine. 

The Faculty of Arts comprehends the Professors of Latin or Hu- 
manity, Greek, Logic, Ethics, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, 
Practical Astronomy, and Natural History. To this faculty maybe 
added the Professors of Mathematics, Astronomy, and Natural His- 
tory. The faculty of Theology includes, besides the Principal, who, 
in right of his office, is first Professor of Divinity, three other Pro- 
fessorships, those of Divinity, Church History, and Oriental Lan- 
guages. The faculty of Law consists of a single Professorship, that of 
Civil Law. The faculty of Medicine comprehends the Professorships 
of Anatomy, Medicine, Materia Medica, Surgery, Midwifery, Che- 
mistry, and Botany. The Professors of Greek, Logic, Ethics, and 
Natural Philosophy, whose chairs were the earliest endowed in the 
University, are denominated Regents, and enjoy in right of their re- 
gency certain trifling privileges beyond their brother professors. 
The Regius Professors are those whose chairs have been recently 
founded, endowed, and nominated by the Crown, and they are mem- 
bers of Senate only, not of the Faculty of the college, viz. natural his- 
tory, surgery, midwifery, chemistry, botany, and materia medica,* 

* Office-Rearers and Professors in 1835. 

Inducted Inducted /. Faculty of Arts. 

1 781. Chancellor, Duke of Montrose. 1831. Humanity, W. M. Ramsay, M. A. 

1834. Lord Rector, Lord Stanley. 1821. Greek, Sir D.K. Sandford, B.C. L. 

1834. Dean of Faculties, Sir A. Campbell. 1827. Logic, Robert Buchanan, M. A. 
1823. Principal, D. Macfarlan, D. D. . 1797. Moral Philosophy, J.Mylne,M. A. 



GLASGOW. 175 

The University Library was founded in the fifteenth century. It 
contains an extensive and valuable collection of books, amongst 
which are many beautiful editions of the classics. It is always in- 
creasing by donations of copies of every new work published in 
this country, as well as by books purchased by the fees received 
at matriculation, assisted by fees received from graduates, and by 
an annual payment from all students, who are entitled to the use 
of the library under certain limitations. 

A small botanic garden adjoining the college was prepared for 
the use of the lecturer in botany in 1753 ; but, having from various 
causes, become unfit for its purposes, a very valuable botanical gar- 
den, consisting of eight acres, was formed in the neighbourhood of 
the city, by the citizens of Glasgow. The University subscribed 
L.2000 towards its erection, for the privilege of their Professor of 
Botany lecturing in the hall in the garden, and Government has sub- 
sequently given a similar sum in support of it. This garden, which 
was opened in the spring of 1818, is, for the variety of rare plants 
from almost every part of the world, not exceeded by any botanical 
garden in the kingdom. 

The founder of the Hunterian Museum was the celebrated Wil- 
liam Hunter, M. D. who was born in the parish of East Kilbride, in 
the neighbourhood of Glasgow, in 1710. By his will in 1781, he be- 
queathed to the Principal and Professors of the College, his splen- 
did collection of books, coins, paintings, anatomical preparations, 
&c. and appropriated L. 8000 for the erection of a building for 
their reception. The collection is valued at L. 65,000, viz. medals, 
L. 30,000, books, L. 15,000, pictures, L. 10,000, miscellaneous, 
L. 10,000. The collection has been considerably increased of late 
years. The public are admitted every lawful day, on payment of Is. 

There are twenty-seven bursaries connected^ with the College, 
varying from L. 5 to L. 40. They are held from four to six years. 
Besides these, there are two very valuable exhibitions. In the year 

Inducted Inducted III. Faculty of Law. 

1803. Natural Philosophy, William 1801. Civil Law, R. Davidson, Advocate. 

Meikleham, LL. U. IV. Faculty of Medicine. 

1831. Mathematics, J. Thomson, LL.D. 1790. Anatomy, James Jeffray, M. D. 

1803. Practical Astronomy, James Cou- 1827. Theory and Practice of Medicine, 

per, D.D. Charles Badham, M. D. 

1829." Natural History, William Cou- 1815.* Surgery, John Burns, M. D. 

per, M. D. 1 834. Midwifery, W. Cumin, M. D. 

//. Faculty of Theology. .1818. * Chemistry, T. Thomson, M. D. 

1814. Divinity, S. MacGill/1). D. 1821.* Botany, Win. Jackson Hooker, 

1807. Church History, William Mac- LL.D. 

Turk, D. D. 1831.* Materia Medica, Jn. Couper,M.D. 

1831 . Oriental Languages, W. Fleming, 1828. Diseases of the Eye, William Mac- 

D. D. kenzie, M. D. Lecturer. 

* Those with an asterisk are Regius Professors. 

\ 



176 LANARKSHIRE. 

1 688, Mr John Snell, with a view to support Episcopacy in Scot- 
land, devised to trustees a considerable estate near Leamington, 
in Warwickshire, for educating Scotch students at Baliol College, 
Oxford. By the rise in the value of land, and the improvements 
which have from time to time been made on that estate, the fund 
now affords about L. 130 per annum to each of ten exhibitioners. 
Another foundation, by John Warner, Bishop of Rochester, of L.20 
per annum, to each of four Scotch students of the same college, 
during their residence at Oxford, is generally given to the Glasgow 
exhibitioners ; so that four of them have a stipend of L. 150 per an- 
num. The exhibitions are tenable for ten years, but vacated by mar- 
riage, or on receiving preferment of a certain amount. The right 
of nomination belongs to the Principal and Professors of the faculty. 

Candidates, to be eligible to SnelPs exhibitions, must first be na- 
tives of Scotland, which the master of Baliol re'quires to be proved 
by the production of an extract from the parish register of births; 
secondly, they must have attended as public students at least two 
sessions at the University of Glasgow, or one session there, and 
two at some other Scottish university. Warner's exhibitions are 
in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishop of Roches- 
ter, who usually nominate on the recommendation of the master of 
Baliol College. Amongst the distinguished persons of several pro- 
fessions who have been educated on Mr SnelPs foundation, may be 
mentioned Dr John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury; Dr Adam Smith; 
and Dr Matthew Baillie. 

This University has had from its origin men of the highest talent 
and literary eminence among its professors and office-bearers. The 
names of Melville, Baillie, Leishman, Burnet, Simpson, Hutchi- 
son, Black, Cullen, Adam Smith, Reid, Miller, and Richardson, 
are conspicuous; and the names of Henry Dundas, Edmund Burke, 
Sir James Mackintosh, and other distinguished individuals, are to 
be found in the list of rectors. 

Education. The attention which has been paid to education in 
Scotland for centuries past has been acknowledged all over Europe. 
Amidst all the tumult and violence of civil contention, and at a 
time when the very existence of the Presbyterian church was at 
stake, the subject of education and of schools was never overlooked. 

By act 43 Geo. III. cap. 54, the salaries of parochial school- 
masters, whose schools are not entirely confined in royal burghs, 
are to be fixed, from and after the 1 1th September 1803, at a sum 
of from 300 to 400 merks Scots, by the minister, and the heritors 
whose lands in the parish amount to L. 100 Scots. In twenty-five 



GLASGOW. 177 

years after the above period, or such after period as the salary 
shall be fixed, these heritors and minister are to modify a new sa- 
lary, according to the average price of oatmeal, to be ascertained 
by the Exchequer, of the value of from one and a-half to two chal- 
ders, and so on from twenty-five years to twenty-five years; and 
when there is not a proper school-house, a house for the school- 
master, and a garden for him, containing at least one-fourth of a 
Scotch acre, the heritors of the parish must provide these.* 

Grammar-School. This seminary is of remote antiquity, but, 
like some similar institutions of long standing, little is known of its 
early history. There was a grammar-school at Glasgow in the 
early part of the fourteenth century. It depended immediately on 
the cathedral church, and the chancellor of the diocese had not 
only the appointment of the masters, but also the superintendence 
of whatever related to education in the city. The grammar-school 
continued to be a distinct establishment after the erection of the 
University, and considerable care appears to have been taken to 
supply it with good teachers. In 1494, Mr Martin Wan, Chan- 
cellor of the Metropolitan Church of Glasgow, brought a complaint 
before Archbishop Blackadder against one Dwne, a priest of the 
diocese, for teaching scholars in grammar, and children in inferior 
branches, by himself apart, openly and publicly in the said city, 
without the allowance, and "in opposition to the will of the Chan- 
cellor. The bishop having heard parties, and examined witnesses, 
decided, with the advice of his chapter, and of the rector and clerks 
of the University, in favour of the Chancellor. As far back as the 
sixteenth century, the situation of the master of the grammar-school 
was highly respectable ; he was to be found among the non-regen- 
tes, nominated to elect the Rector, and to examine the graduates. 
On the 28th of October 1595, the Presbytery directed the Regents 
in the college " to try the Irish scholars in the grammar-school, 
tuching the heads of religion." At that period the school met 
at five o'clock in the morning. Mr John Blackburn, who was mas- 
ter of the grammar-school, and Lord Rector of the University in 
1592, 1593, resigned his mastership in 1615, on being appointed 
minister of the Barony Church. 

* The celebrated Dr South has, with much ability, enforced the great utility to be 
derived from attention to schoolmasters. " There is no profession," he observes, 
" which has, or can have, a greater influence on the public. An able and well prin- 
cipled schoolmaster is one of the most meritorious subjects in any prince's dominions; 
and schoolmasters are the great depositaries and trustees of the peace of the nation, 
having its growing hopes and fears in their hands. Nay, schoolmasters have a more 
powerful influence upon the spirits of men than preachers themselves; for they 
have to deal with younger and tender minds, and consequently have the advantage of 
making the first and deepest impression upon them." 



178 LANARKSHIRE. 

The records of the town-council have been searched in vain for 
the plan or system by which the school was conducted prior to the 
year 1707. Since that period, it has undergone various changes 
in the management and system of education. Sometimes the 
school was under the control of a rector, and at other times the 
office was laid aside. Sometimes the course consisted of five, and 
at others of only four years. In 1830, .the office of rector was 
abolished, and each of the four masters had the entire charge of 
finishing his own scholars during the four years. In 1834, this 
seminary underwent a very material alteration. From being a 
grammar-school, it may now be considered as an academy. Two 
of the masterships for Latin and Greek have been suppressed ; 
and, in lieu of these, teachers of English grammar, elocution, 
French, Italian, German, writing, geography, and mathematics, 
have been introduced, and the name of the seminary has been 
changed to that of the High School The school is under the im- 
mediate management of a committee of the town-council, aided 
by the advice and assistance of the reverend clergy of the city, 
and learned professors of the University. 

Schools. In a large community like that of Glasgow, where 
schools are ever shifting, it is difficult to ascertain the exact num- 
ber; but the following abstract from Dr Cleland's Annals of Glas- 
gow, lately published, will give the reader an idea of the extent of 
education in this city. In that work, the names of 144 teachers 
are published, from which it appears that, exclusively of the Uni- 
versity and 13 institutions where youth were educated, there were 
144 schools of every description ; that, including the public insti- 
tutions, there were 16,799 scholars, of whom 65 16 were taught gratis 
in the charity or free schools. These schools were all in the dis- 
trict of the royalty, containing about 75,000 souls. It appears from 
the same work, that Sunday schools were established in 1786; that 
there were 106 schools, 158 teachers, and 4668 scholars, viz. 2235 
boys, and 2433 girls, besides 3 adult schools. An infant school so- 
ciety was instituted in 1826, and in 1827, the Glasgow Model 
School, the first in Scotland on the training system, was opened here 
under the auspices of Mr David Stow. In 1835, there are 6 in- 
fant schools, viz. the Model School in Salt Market, a school in 
Drygate, Chalmers' Street, Marlborough Street, John Street, and 
Cowcaddens ; and two school-houses are about to be built in Gor- 
bals, and one in Anderston. As it would be tedious to quote the 
rate of wages in the various schools, it may be sufficient, to say, 
that they are from two to fifteen shillings per quarter. 



GLASGOW. 179 

The Lord Advocate having directed the parochial clergy of 
Scotland to furnish him with a detailed account of the schools in 
their respective parishes, a valuable statistical document may be ex- 
pected in the course of the session of Parliament 1 836. This, in 
connection with the periodical Reports of the Committee of the Ge- 
neral Assembly for increasing the means of Education and Religious 
Instruction in Scotland, will exhibit the amount of education in a 
very satisfactory manner. The Committee's Report for 1 835 gives a 
detailed account of five of the Glasgow parishes, viz. the College, 
Tron, St David's, St John's, and St James's. The Report is ac- 
companied by a table showing the amount of population, number 
of parochial, endowed, Sabbath, and week day evening schools, 
number of scholars, salaries of teachers, number of persons un- 
able to read and write, &c. 

Andersonian University. This seminary, founded by Mr John 
Anderson, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of 
Glasgow, on the 7th of May 1795, and endowed by him with a 
valuable philosophical apparatus, museum, and library, was incor- 
porated by a seal of cause from the magistrates and council of this 
city, on the 9th of June 1796. The university is subject to the 
inspection of the Lord Provost, and other official persons, as ordi- 
nary visitors, and is placed under the immediate superintendence 
of eighty-one trustees, who are elected by ballot, and remain in 
office for life, unless disqualified by non-attendance. The trustees 
consist of nine classes of citizens, viz. tradesmen, agriculturists, 
artists, manufacturers, physicians and surgeons, lawyers, divines, 
philosophers, and, lastly, kinsmen or namesakes. The trustees 
elect annually by ballot nine of their number as managers, to whom 
the principal affairs of the university are intrusted during the year. 
The managers elect by ballot from their number the president,* 
secretary, and treasurer. Although the views of the venerable 
and celebrated founder embraced a complete circle of liberal edu- 
cation, adapted to the improved state of society, it was found con- 
venient at first to limit the plan to natural philosophy, chemistry, 
mathematics, and geography. 

* Presidents since the origin of the University 

1796. Peter Wright, M. D. 1810. Joshua Hey wood. 

1797. Alexander Oswald. 1811. James Cleland, LL. D. 

1798. William M'Neil. 1812. John Hamilton. 

1801. James Monteath, M. D. 1814. John More. 

1802. John Geddes. 1817. James Ewing, LL. D. 

1805. Alexander Oswald. 1820. John Geddes. 

1806. John Semple. 1821. Walter Ferguson. 

1807. William Anderson, M. D. 1825. James A. Anderson. 
1809. Robert Austin. 1831. James Smith, F. R. S. 



180 LANARKSHIRE. 

The business of the university commenced on the 21st of Sep- 
tember 1796 by Dr Garnet's reading in the Trades Hall to persons 
of both sexes popular and scientific lectures on natural philosophy 
and chemistry, illustrated by experiments. Soon after this period, 
the managers rented, and then purchased, extensive premises in 
John Street. Dr Garnet having been appointed Professor of Ex- 
perimental Philosophy and Chemistry in the Royal Institution of 
London, which had been formed on the model of this primary one, 
resigned his professorship, and, on the 18th of October 1799, Dr 
George Birkbeck was appointed as his successor. In addition to 
what had been formerly taught, he introduced a familiar system of 
instruction, which he demonstrated by experiments free of expense. 
About 500 operatives attended this class, the greater part of whom 
were recommended by Dr William Anderson and Dr James Cle- 
land. This mode of tuition, by which philosophical subjects are 
explained in ordinary language, divested of technicalities beyond 
the comprehension of the student, is continued with great suc- 
cess, at a small expense, and has been productive of the happiest 
effects to a valuable class of society. Dr Birkbeck resigned his 
professorship on the 5th of August 1804, and returned to London. 
Dr Andrew Ure was appointed his successor on the 21st of the 
following month, and, during a period of twenty-five years, dis- 
charged the duties of his office with great ability, when he also 
went to London to reside. 

The affairs of the university becoming more and more prosper- 
ous, the trustees purchased from the city the grammar-school 
buildings fronting George Street, and having made considerable 
additions and alterations, the premises now contain numerous halls 
for the classes and for the museum, which has of late become 
very rich in its several departments. The university buildings 
were opened in November 1828, since which time the classes have 
been well attended, and soirees have been introduced with the hap- 
piest effect. The professions in 1835, are first, literature, philoso- 
phy and popular science : Classes, natural philosophy, logic, ethics, 
rhetoric, mathematics, natural history, modern languages, oriental 
languages, drawing and painting in oil and water colours, and po- 
pular lectures on the veterinary art ; and secondly, Medicine : clas- 
ses, surgery, chemistry, medical jurisprudence, theory of medicine, 
anatomy, physiology, and midwifery. 

Mechanics Institution for the Promotion of the Arts and Sciences. 
This society was formed in 1823, by the mechanics of Glasgow, 
with the view of disseminating mechanical and scientific knowledge 



GLASGOW. 181 

among their fellow operatives, particularly those branches more 
immediately connected with their daily occupations. Lectures 
were given on natural philosophy and chemistry, when a fee of 
three shillings was paid by each student, which was afterwards in- 
creased to ten shillings. From the formation of the society to the 
present time, the number of students has averaged yearly about 
500. Free admission is annually given to the lectures on chemis- 
try and mechanics, and also to the library, to poor apprentices, 
one being admitted for every twenty tickets sold. In this manner 
220 have been admitted since the commencement of the institu- 
tion. In 1831, the society removed to large premises built for 
them in Hanover Street. A colossal statue of James Watt is 
placed on the pediment of the building, by a subscription of one 
shilling from each student in successive years. In the building 
there are commodious apartments for the numerous models and ap- 
paratus; and for the library, which now consists of 3128 volumes on 
science and general literature. In the session of 1835, there are 
three professors, who give lectures on natural philosophy, chemistry, 
popular anatomy, physiology, and phrenology. Fee for the course, 
eight shillings. 

At the close of the session of 183435, Mr Leadbetter, the 
zealous and philosophic president of the society, stated, that the 
students were from about forty different trades, a proof of the 
utility of the institution.* The entry book of the library shows 
an increased avidity for reading. During the six months of the 
session 7778 isues were made to 399 readers, being an average 
of about 20 books to each reader. The British Association, from 
its perambulatory character, has given a new impulse to the study 
of science. " I expect to see ere long," said the indefatigable 
and talented President, " this body of men the concentration of 
all the scientific knowledge of Great Britain, encamped and set- 
ting up their crucibles in the city which first opened the portals 
of science to the mechanic and artisan, and which first invited 
the fair sex to a participation of the common benefits of a phi- 
losophical education." Exclusive of the above institution, there 

* Honorary Patron, George Birkbeck, M. D. F. R. S. London. 
Vice- Patron, Charles Tennant. 
President, John Leadbetter. 

Honorary Councillors : 

James Ewing, LL. D. James Hutchison. 

Henry Houldsworth. James Lumsden. 

James Watson. Robert Napier. 

Archibald M'Lellan. James Cleland, LL.D. 

Maurice Pollock. William Dunn. 

William Gilmour. Colin Dunlop, M. P. 

T A XT A T> V XT 



182 LANARKSHIRE. 

are similar ones in the suburbs, with about 1200 students. In the 
Calton 450 students attended the natural philosophy class, of whom 
nine-tenths were operatives ; 200 females attended the astronomy 
and geography classes, seven-tenths of whom were mill girls. 
From the foregoing facts let not the friends of elementary educa- 
tion undervalue the acquirements of science, nor the friends of 
science the benefits of a moral and religious education. It is true 
that the one does not embrace scientific instruction, and the other 
does not profess to impart moral and religious knowledge, but both 
contribute to improve and exalt the human character, and are there- 
fore essential elements in a national education. Dr Chalmers has 
observed, that Christianity has every thing to hope and nothing to 
fear from the advancement of science, and he affords in his own 
character a striking instance of the benefits of scientific knowledge, 
ennobling the intellect, and adorning the Christian character. 

Newspapers. The first newspaper published in the west of Scot- 
land was the Glasgow Courant, which appeared in the year 1715. 
It was published three times a-week, consisted of twelve pages in 
small quarto, and was sold for three-halfpence, or " one penny to 
regular customers." The second number contained a letter from 
Provost Aird, Colonel of the regiment of Glasgow Volunteers, de- 
tailing his views in regard to the Duke of Argyll's ultimate success 
at Sheriffmuir. The name of the paper was soon changed to that 
of the West Country Intelligence, which only survived a few years. 
From 1715 till the present time, there have been twenty-one at- 
tempts to establish newspapers in this city, and out of that num- 
ber, eleven still survive. The names of the papers, the dates of 
their commencement, and the periods of publication, are as fol- 
lows : The Glasgow Courant in 1715; the Journal in 1729; 
the Chronicle in 1775; the Mercury in 1779; the Advertiser in 
1783; but in 1804 its name was changed to that of the Herald ; 
the Courier in 1791 ; the Clyde Commercial Advertiser in 1805; 
the Caledonia in 1807 ; but in the same year it merged in the 
Western Star; the Sentinel in 1809; a second Chronicle in 1811 ; 
the Scotsman in 1812; the Packet in 1813; a second Sentinel in 
1821; the Free Press in 1823; the Scots Times in 1825; the 
Evening Post in 1827 ; the Trades' Advocate in 1829 ; the Libera- 
tor in 1831 ; the Scottish Guardian and the Argus in 1832; and 
the Weekly Reporter in 1834. The eleven surviving papers are, 
the Journal, published once a-week ; the Herald, twice ; the Cou- 
rier, three times ; the Chronicle, three times ; the Free Press, 
twice ; the Scots Times, twice ; the Evening Post, once ; the Libe- 



GLASGOW. 183 

rator, once; the Scottish Guardian, twice; the Argus, twice; and 
the Weekly Reporter, once ; so that in Glasgow there are twenty 
newspapers published weekly. It would be invidious to state the 
circulation of each paper, even if it could be accurately obtained. 
It is, however, known, that the circulation of the Herald on each 
publishing day for some years past has exceeded 1800, and that 
during the quarter from the 1st of March to the 1st of June 1834, 
its advertisements amounted to 3291. 

Libraries, fyc. The first circulating library in the west of Scot- 
land was established in Glasgow in 1753, by Mr John Smith Se- 
nior, who lent out books at the rate of one-halfpenny per volume. 
There are now many circulating as well as public and private li- 
braries in Glasgow. Of the public libraries, exclusively of those 
belonging to the University, to Anderson's University, and to other 
literary bodies, the more valuable are Stirling's, which was institut- 
ed in 1791, the Glasgow in 1804, and the Robertsonian in 1814. 

Of late years a number of book societies have been established 
in Glasgow. They are conducted on a plan similar to that of cir- 
culating libraries, with this difference, that the books belong to the 
readers themselves, who are chiefly of the working-classes. The 
periodical book publishing trade, which, till about the year 1796, 
was scarcely known in Scotland, is carried on in Glasgow to an 
extent surpassing that of any other town in this part of the king- 
dom. By a late Parliamentary report, it appeared that in Scot- 
land there were 414 book-hawkers, technically termed " canvas- 
sers" and " deliverers," who, in seven years, collected L. 44160 
per annum in sixpences and shillings ; and five-sixteenths of the 
whole belonged to Glasgow. 

The Maitland Club, which was established in this city a few 
years ago, is similar to the Bannatyne Club of Edinburgh, or the 
Roxburgh Club of London, by the reprinting of valuable and scarce 
old books for private, use, or printing for the first time curious and 
rare manuscripts illustrative of the history, literature, or antiqui- 
ties of Scotland. The club takes its name from Sir Richard 
Maitland of Lethington, an Officer of State during the minority of 
James VI. ; and who like Bannatyne, did much service to Scottish 
literature, by compiling nearly all the poetry of the nation then in 
existence. 

During the last thirty years several magazines and other periodical 
works have been published here, but none of them have succeeded. 
The Church of Scotland Magazine bids fair for permanency. 
Poor. The proper management of the poor is every where 



184 LANARKSHIRE. 

important, but in a great manufacturing community, subject to 
numerous vicissitudes, unknown to small towns and rural districts, 
it is peculiarly so. The poor in nine of the ten parishes of the 
city are maintained by an assessment on the inhabitants, aided by 
certain donations, and the collections or offerings at the church 
doors ; whilst the poor of the other parish are maintained on a se- 
parate plan, to be afterwards mentioned, and the poor of the two 
suburban parishes of Barony and Gorbals by a tax on rental, aid- 
ed by donations and offerings. Soon after Dr Chalmers'* admis- 
sion to the Tron Church on the 21st of July 1815, he discover- 
ed that a great improvement might be made in the mode of main- 
taining the poor, and particularly that assessment might be dis- 
pensed with. Having explained his views to the magistrates, he 
was translated to the newly erected church and parish of St John's, 
that he might be the better able to develope his plan. Accordingly, 
on the 18th of August 1819, the town-council unanimously resolved 
that Dr Chalmers should have a " separate, independent, and ex- 
clusive management and distribution of the funds which may be 
raised by voluntary or charitable collections at the doors of St 
John's Church for the relief of the poor resident in said parish." 
The scheme was continued by Dr Patrick Macfarlan, the clergy- 
man who succeeded Dr Chalmers, and is still continued by Dr 
Thomas Brown, the present incumbent ; and after a trial of six- 
teen years, the energies of what is emphatically called the agen- 
cy have not decreased. There is no intricacy in the scheme. 
The members of the congregation are liberal in their voluntary of- 
ferings at the church doors. The parish is divided into small dis- 
tricts; numerous elders and deacons, to whom districts are assigned, 
visit their respective poor, by which means imposition is easily detect- 
ed, and the distribution of the fund to the legitimate poor more 
surely and easily accomplished. It redounds much to the credit 
of the parochial scheme, that St John's parish not only supports 
its poor without assessment, but the parishioners are assessed as 
other citizens for the maintenance of the poor of the other nine pa- 
rishes. 

We have preferred taking the following abstract from Dr Cle- 
land's Statistical work in 1831, to any statement which could be 
made for 1835, as we have the advantage of the Government enu- 

* This distinguished divine, now a Corresponding Member of the Royal Institute 
of France, received his degree of D. D. from the University of Glasgow, and of LL.D. 
from the University of Oxford, literary honours which we believe never before met 
in the person of a Presbyterian clergyman. 



GLASGOW. 185 

meration for the former year, to enable our readers to draw re- 
sults. Number of paupers in the city and suburbs on the 31st of 
December 1830, with the expense of maintaining them during 
that year. 

Number Expense of 
of paupers. maintenance. 

St Mungo's, . . . . 179 L. 396 12 9 

St Mary's, . . . .149 348 7 7 

Blackfriars, . . . . 176 362 1 1 

Outer High, . . . .148 336 5 1J 

St George's, . . . . 126 354 2 

St Andrew's, . . . . 88 205 17 4 

St Enoch's, . . . . 137 254 5 2 

St James', . . . .108 228 19 2$ 

St David's, 71 161 16 8 

St John's, . . . . .70 241 19 1 

In-door and out-door paupers in hospital, 1057 5773 1 7 

Total in city, .... 2309 

In Barony parish, .... 2237 7485 4 4 

In Gorbals, ... 460 1 132 18 



Total in city and suburbs, . . . 5006 L. 17281 18 04 

The population in the city and suburbs being 202,426, and the 
number of paupers 5006, there is one pauper for every 40 ^o per- 
sons. The population of the ten parishes in the city being 89,847, 
and the number of paupers 2309, there is one pauper for every 
38/0*0 persons. The number of paupers in the city and suburbs 
being 5006, and the amount of their maintenance L. 17,281, 18s. Ojd. 
gives to each pauper L. 3, 9s. T 6 2 d. The number of paupers in 
St John's parish being 70, and the amount of their maintenance 
L. 241, 19s. Id. gives to each pauper L. 3, 8s. lO-^d. 

Abstract of the Expenditure of the Benevolent and Charitable In- 
stitutions of Glasgow, exclusive of Widows' Funds, Benefit Societies, 
Charity Schools, and Maintenance of Paupers. 

The affairs of the following societies are conducted at the Re- 
ligious and Charitable Institution Rooms : 

Date of Subscriptions 

formation. for 1834. 

1796, Glasgow Missionary Society, ... L. 735 

1804, do. Bible Society, .... 576 

1809, Nile and George Street Chapels' Sabbath School Society, 57 00 

1811, Aged Women's Society, . . . , ' . 110 

1811, Glasgow Auxiliary Gaelic School Society, . . 456 

1812, do Old Men's Friend Society, . . . 323 

1813, do. Auxiliary Hibernian Society, . . . 200 
1815, do. Auxiliary Bible Society, . . 165 
1815, do. Society in Aid of the Serampore Missions, . 693 
1817> do. Young Men's Society for the Support of Gaelic Schools, 1 1 8 

1818, do. Auxiliary Moravian Society, . . . 622 

1819, do. Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, 
(Auxiliary to the London Society, formed in 1810,) . 166 

1820, do. Auxiliary Scottish Missionary Society, . 265 Q_ 



186 LANARKSHIRE. 

1820, Glasgow Deaf and Dumb Institution, . . L. 215 11 10 

1821, do. Religious and Church Institution House Reading Room, 35 
1821, do. Auxiliary Religious Tract and Book Society for Ireland, 66 
)822, do. Seaman's Friend Society, . . . 87 
1823, do. Auxiliary London Missionary Society, (originated in 

1815, re-organized in 1823,) . . . 187 

1823, do. Auxiliary Irish Evangelical Society, . . 74 

1823, do. Religious Tract Society, .... 270 

1825, do. North American Colonial Society, . . 316 

1825, Orphan's Institution, ..... 500 

1826, Glasgow Continental Society, . . . . 45 

1826, do. City Mission, ..... 800 

1827, do. Auxiliary to the Irish Society for Native Schools, 367 
1829, do. Naval and Military Bible Society, . . 130 

1829, Scottish Temperance Society, . . . . 175 

1830, Glasgow Temperance Society, . . . 485 15 10 

1 830, do. Auxiliary to the British Society for Promoting the Reli- 
gious Principles of the Reformation, . . . 85 

1831, do. Society for Benevolent Visitation of the Destitute Sick, 

and others in extreme Poverty, . . . 50 

1832, do. Christian Instruction Society, . . . 15 

1833, do. Association for Promoting the Interests of the Church 

of Scotland, . . . . . . 260 

1834, do. Society for Church Accommodation, (subscribed in nine 
months, viz. two at L. 500, one at L. 300, seventy at L. 200 each, 
fifty-five at L. 100, and twelve at L. 50,) . . 21,400 

L. 30,039 7 8 

The following list was prepared a few years ago by Dr Cleland 
for a public purpose. Although the expenditure of some of the 
institutions may now vary a little, the aggregate amount may be 
taken as pretty near the truth. 

1460, St Nicholas Hospital, . . . . L. 30 

Fourteen incorporations (at various dates,) . . 2777 3 1 

1599, Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, . *> " ; ' [ 35 

1605, Merchant's House, . . . . 920 12 2 

1605, Trades House, . . . . . 782 11 8 

1639, Hutchison's Hospital, . . . . 2580 2 11 

1725, Buchanan's Society, . . . . . 418 15 2 

1727, Highland Society, . . . . 775 7 

1729, Mitchell's Mortification, (Mortmain,) . . 100 

1741, Tennant's Mortification, . . . 46 2 8 

1778, Wilson's Charity, . . . . . 214 1 7 

1778, Coulter's Mortification, . . . . 60 

1789, Grocers' Society, . . . . 95 8 4 

1790, Miller's Charity, . . . . 264 4 2 
1790, Humane Society, . . . . . 49 10 9 
1790, Society of the Sons of the Clergy, . . 228 
1790, Brown's Society, . . . . . 12 

1790, Watson's Society, . . . . 24 7 

1791, Glasgow Galloway Brotherly Society, . . 49 10 
1794, Royal Infirmary,* . . . . 3593 4 7 

* The number of patients in the hospitals and asylums on the 25th March 1831 
was 709, viz. in the Royal Infirmary, 304 ; of whom males, 143 ; females, 161 ; un- 
der 30 years of age, 148. In the Lunatic Asylum there were 264, viz. insane, 212 ; 
of whom, males, 99 ; females, 1 13 ; under 30 years, 46 ; idiots, 1 1 ; of whom, males, 
ft ; females, 3 ; under 30 years, 5 ; silly in mind, 41 ; of whom, males, 9; ^females, 
32; under 30 years, 6. In the Lock Hospital there were females, 27 ; under 30 
years, 23. In the Magdalene Asylum there were 33, all under 30 years. In the 



GLASGOW. 187 

1794, Teachers' Society, . . . ..; . L.2i 

1794, Dumfries-shire Society, V' 1 . ''' . : ' ' 10 

1796, Faculty of Procurators, . . ': : . "; ?4 

J797, Badge of Merit Highland Society, . .\ 12 

1805, Lock Hospital, >;' . [ *V '-' . . 451 1 

1809, Stirlingshire Society, . . . . t . 20 2 

1810, Lunatic Asylum, . . . . 443 5 

1 8 11, M< Alpine's Mortification, . . . 70 

1812, Benevolent Society for Clothing the Poor, . . 340 13 10 
1815, Magdalene Asylum, 'V . . . 485 7 9 

Not ascertained. Graham's Society, . . -. 164 1 

Do. Ayrshire Society, . . . . 4180 



Abstract amount of charities partaking of a benevolent character, L. 1 5, 1 9 1 3 8 
Do. of a religious character, 30,039 7 8 



Amount of religious and charitable funds, ,/ f. i L. 45,230 11 4 

Donations for charitable education under the patronage of the 
magistrates and ministers of Glasgow, exclusive of the above, 

1825, Mr M'Lachlan, Calcutta, . . . . L. 8281 18 

1831, Mr James Murdoch, Glasgow, . . . 4417 18 6 

1833, Dr Bell, London, . . . . 9791 13 4 

Contingent on the life of Mrs Maxwell, aged upwards of 70 years, 2000 

L. 24,491 9 10 
M'Lachlan 's includes the Elders. 

Presbytery of Glasgow, and Synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The 
Presbytery formerly consisted of ten ministers of the city, and those of 
the twelve surrounding parishes, viz. Barony of Glasgow, Gorbals, 
Rutherglen, Cumbernauld, Carmunnock, Cadder, Campsie, Govan, 
Kirkintilloch, Kilsyth, Cathcart, and Eaglesham, with their elders ; 
but as the thirteen ministers of the chapels of ease have now been 
raised to the status of parish ministers, the clerical members of 
Presbytery are increased to thirty-five. The Presbytery of Glas- 
gow in 1835, for the first time, sent six ministers and three elders 
to the General Assembly. 

The synod consists of eight presbyteries, viz. Glasgow, Ayr, Ir- 
vine, Paisley, Hamilton, Lanark, Dumbarton, and the new Pres- 
bytery of Greenock. 

The following is a view of the, progressive stipends of nine of the 
ministers of Glasgow. Till 1788, the stipends were paid in Scots 
money, viz. in merks converted into pounds Sterling. 

In 1638, - L. 58 16 114 In 1788, - L. 165 

1642, - 66 13 4 1796, - 200 

1643, - 78 16 8 1801, - 250 
1674, - 90 1808, 300 
172% . Ill 2 2| 1814, - 400 
1762, - 138 17 9J 1830, - 425 

Deaf and Dumb Institution there were 37 ; males, 22 ; females, 15; under 20 years, 
36. The blind persons in the Asylum and Town's Hospital were 40 ; males, 26 ; 
females, 14 ; under 30 years, 27 Eye Infirmary, 4 ; males, 2 ; females, 2 ; under 
30,2. 



188 



LANARKSHIRE. 



The stipend of the minister of the Cathedral Church ( St Mungo 
or Inner High) is paid in victual from teind (converted into mo- 
ney,)* viz. 12J chalders of meal; 12J chalders of barley; L. 30 in 
money ; and a glebe, which has been feued under the authority of 
Parliament. This stipend, when grain is at a moderate price, 
amounts to about L. 500. It is very remarkable, that the stipend 
of the Barony parish, with the largest population in Scotland, was. 
only 2000 merks Scots, (L.I 11, 2s. 2|d.) till 22d February 1815, 
when the Court of Teinds raised it to 22 chalders of victual, and 
L. 30 in money. The glebe was afterwards authorized to be feued. 
When the Gorbals parish was erected on 20th February 1771, the 
stipend was L. 90. It has since been increased to L. 300. 

Church Accommodation. In 1831, the population of the city 
and suburbs, as before stated, was 202,426, and the total sittings in 
the various places of worship in the city and suburbs 73,425 : viz. 
in the Established Church, 30,928; Seceders, Dissenters, Episco- 
palians, and Roman Catholics, 42,497. This is in the proportion 



* His Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the County of Lanark, taking into their 
consideration that, by act 4th and 5th William IV. cap. 49, all local measures are 
repealed ; and that in Scotland, on 1st January 1835, the fiar prices of all grain in 
every county, for ascertaining the value of ministers' stipends, teinds, &c. shall be 
struck by the imperial quarter, it therefore becomes necessary to know how many im- 
perial bushels and parts of a bushel are equal to a Linlithgow wheat chalder, and art 
oat and barley chalder ; and having full confidence in the science and skill of Dr Wil- 
liam Meikleham, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glasgow ; Dr 
Thomas Thomson, Professor of Chemistry in said University ; and Dr James Cle- 
land of Glasgow, Fellow of the Statistical Society of London, the meeting appointed 
the said gentlemen to ascertain and report on oath, on the comparative contents of 
the measures aforesaid. 

After mature investigation, commensurate to the importance of the remit, they re- 
ported inter alia. 

TABLE FOR WHEAT, PEAS, AND TABLE FOR OATS, BARLEY, BERE, 

BEANS. AND MALT. 

Chald. Imp. Bush. Bush. Gall. 

1 = 93.198784 or 93 1 3-5 

2=186.397568 or 186 3 1-6 

3=279.596352 or 279 4 3-4 

4=372.795136 or 372 6 1-S 

5=465.993920 or 465 7 19-20 

6=559.192704 or 559 1 1-2 

7=652.391488 or 652 3 

8=745.590272 or 745 4 



Chald. Imp. Bush. 
1= 63.8862656 
2=127.7725312 
3=191.6587968 
4=255.5450624 
5=319.4313280 
6=383.3175936 
7=447.2038592 
8=511.0901248 
9=574.9763904 
10=638.8626560 


or 
or 
or 
or 
or 
or 
or 
or 
or 
or 


Bush. 
63 
127 
.191 
255 
319 
383 
447 
511 
574 
638 


Gall. 
7 1-10 
6 1-5 
5 1-4 
4 1-3 
3 9-20 
2 J-2 
1 2-3 
3-4 
7 8-10 
6 9-10 



9=838.789056 or 838 6 



1-8 
3-4 
1-3 



10=931.987840 or 931 7 9-10 



At a meeting of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the County of Lanark, held 
at Hamilton on the 24th October 1 834, his Grace the Lord Lieutenant suggested, 
and the meeting unanimously conferred on Dr Cleland, one of their number, the 
honorary office of Inspector- General of weights and measures for the county, with 
control over the statutory inspectors. The counties of Renfrew and Dumbarton, and 
the burghs of . Calton, Hamilton, Lanark, Paisley, Greenock, Dumbarton, and 
Kirkintilloch, had their imperial standards of weights and measures adjusted and cer- 
tified by the Director- General. 



GLASGOW. 189 

of one sitting to 2.75-100th persons, or 20, 4 291 sittings less than 
the amount required by law. 

On 1st July 1835, the House of Commons presented a humble 
address to his Majesty, who has been graciously pleased to appoint a 
commission " to inquire into the opportunities of religious worship 
and means of religious instruction, and the pastoral superintendence 
afforded to the people of Scotland, and how far these are of avail 
for the religious and moral improvement of the poor and of the 
working classes, and with this view to obtain information respect- 
ing their stated attendance at places of worship, and their actual 
connection with any religious denomination, to inquire what funds 
are now or may hereafter be available for the purpose of the Esta- 
blished Church of Scotland, and to report from time to time, in 
order that such remedies may be applied to any existing evils as 
Parliament may think fit." 

When the time occupied, and the expense incurred in preparing 
for the church is considered, no one will presume to say that the 
aspirant for the holy ministry is actuated by mercenary motives ; it 
,is, therefore, the duty of those who benefit by their labours to pro- 
vide for their temporal wants in a suitable manner, so that their 
spiritual instructor may be enabled to devote his whole energies to 
the duties of his sacred office. As the livings of two of the clergy- 
men of this city arise from teinds, the following account may not 
be uninteresting: 

In the case of the minister of Prestonkirk against the heritors 
of that parish in 1808, the Lord President Hope, then Lord Jus- 
tice-Clerk, in giving his opinion, said, " When we look back to the 
history of past ages, we find that the tithes of Scotland were at no 
time the property of the heritors. From the very earliest period 
which we can trace our history, the tithes were the property of the 
state, reserved by the state, and by the state appropriated, or at 
least applied, as a fund for the purpose of maintaining the clergy. 
Let us consider the situation of an heritor in the light of a pur- 
chaser of land. Did any such pay one farthing as the price of the 
tithes ? Certainly not. They always are, and always have been, 
deducted from the rental in calculating the price of the estate. 
What is taken from the tithes for the maintenance of the clergy 
is not, therefore, taken out of the pocket of the heritors ; for, merely 
as a proprietor of land, he can have no right to the tithes either 
by purchase or inheritance. On the point of law, I never was 
clearer on any question in my life. In point of authority, I look 



190 LANARKSHIRE. 

to Lord Stair, as the highest with which I am acquainted. On the 
subject of tithes he says, ' They were at all times the property of 
the Church or state/ He adds, that, ' into whatever hands they 
pass, teinds carry along with them, as a burthen affecting them, 
competent stipends for the ministers who are, or who shall be, 
elected ;' in other words, that, into whatever hands teinds may 
come, they are inherently necessarily burthened with the mainte- 
nance of the clergy." The Lord Justice- Clerk then said, "Where 
has there been since the world began such a body of clergy in 
point of virtue, learning, piety, and a faithful discharge of their 
parochial duties ? The clergy of Scotland, I am proud to say, have 
never been equalled by the clergy of any nation upon earth. Much 
reason would the landholders of this country have to be contented 
and satisfied, though the burden of maintaining such a body of 
clergy had been ten times greater than it is. Still more reason 
have the heritors of Scotland to be satisfied with their lot, when 
they compare their situation with that of the landed proprietors of 
any other country." 

Lord Craig " would not go over the ground occupied by his 
learned brother, but would say, of all men in any Christian country 
in Europe, the proprietors of land in Scotland have least reason to 
complain of the state of the teinds. By the law of Scotland, they 
possess advantages with regard to teinds which no other country in 
Christendom enjoys. " As the Church of Christ includes an order 
of men who devote their time and study to the discharge of the duties 
of the pastoral office, and who have been expressly educated for that 
purpose, they are entitled to a competent maintenance from those 
for whose good they labour ; and the provision for the clergy of the 
Church of Scotland, though inferior to that of other ecclesiastical 
establishments, is, on the whole, respectable. The allowance to 
the clergy out of the tithes of the parish was at first but scanty, 
but their stipends have been gradually augmented. Indeed, if, 
while other orders of men are getting forward, the stipends of the 
ministers of the Established Church had remained stationary, the 
accumulation of national wealth, by relatively sinking those who 
minister at the altar into abject poverty, would have rendered them 
contemptible, and the Church would have been supplied solely 
from the lowest orders of the people. It is a branch of political 
wisdom, therefore, to save the Established clergy from this degra- 
dation, which would undermine their usefulness, and might render 



GLASGOW. 191 

them but little anxious to preserve the welfare and stability of the 
state."* 

It has been said, that clergymen in the discharge of the sacred du- 
ties of their office belong to no particular class of society, mixing, as 
they necessarily do, with the high, the low, and the middle grades. 
In Glasgow the clergymen have always been highly respectable, 
and at no period more so than at present. The Established churches 
in Glasgow are all uncollegiate. The ministers prepare and preach 
two sermons every Sunday, and in rotation preach on Thursdays 
in St Mary's Church, and Hope Street and St Mary's Churches 
on Sunday evenings. They preach occasional charity and mission- 
ary sermons. They examine the youth of their congregations in 
class meetings, and give partial ministerial visitations in the families 
of their parishioners. To visit the whole in the present overgrown 
state of the parishes would be next to impossible. They visit the 
sick, and assist the kirk-session in the proper distribution of the 
poors' funds ; they superintend the schools in their parishes, 
and, in obedience to the wishes of the pious founders of some of the 
benevolent institutions of the city, they share the management with 
the magistrates ; and their attendance on funerals, kirk-sessions, 
presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies, occupies a consider- 
able portion of their time. The bare recital of the above must 
convince every one of the laborious duties of a city parochial clergy- 
man ; and as to pecuniary remuneration, it is barely sufficient for pre- 
sent purposes, leaving little or no provision in case of a widowed family. 
The clergymen of Glasgow have long moved in the first rank of 
society. Their dwelling-houses and their domestic expenses are 
necessarily on a scale suited to their rank. In addition to the Go- 
vernment and local taxes, they are subjected to clerical ones, and 
they readily contribute to private and public charities ; and when 
it is considered that their sons usually receive a university educa- 
tion, and their daughters that which is suited to their station, the 
wonder is, how a city clergyman can bring up his family on his sti- 
pend, not to speak of his making any after-provision for them. In 
1831 there were 58 clergymen in the city and suburbs who receiv- 
ed stipend, varying from L. 150 to L. 500 ; the average to each 
was within a small fraction of L. 268. If the maintenance of the 
whole clergy was chargeable to each individual in the community, 
it would only amount to Is. 5|d. in the year, a sum small, indeed, 
when compared with the important benefits received. 

* Hill's Theological Institutes, p, 282. 



192 LANARKSHIRE. 

The corporation of the city are proprietors of the Established 
churches, and receive the seat rents. That the church is not bur- 
densome to the community is evident from the following official 
statement for 1834, by which it appears that the ecclesiastical re- 
venue exceeded the expenditure, L. 487, Is. 7d. as under : 

Rents of seats in the Established churches, . . L. 4930 15 

Stipend to the Established clergymen of the city,* L. 3825 

Communion elements, . 163 10 7 

Salaries to ten precentors, . . 1 46 1 1 8 

Cleaning churches, insurance, coal and candle, . 110 10 

Repairing church windows, . . . 31 16 3 

General repairs and furnishings for churches, . 166 4 11 

4443 13 5 



Excess, , . L. 487 1 7 

Individuals inimical to establishments- think that the interest of 
the sums laid out in building the churches should form a part of 
the expense of the Establishment. Without admitting the prin- 
ciple that parochial churches should support themselves; on the 
contrary, believing that the law and the practice is otherwise, it may 
be well to see how the churches in Glasgow came into the possession 
of the corporation. In the first place, the Cathedral and Outer 
High Churches belong to the Crown, the corporation being at the 
expense of seating them. The College Church was given to the cor- 
poration by Queen Mary ; and on its becoming ruinous, it was re- 
built chiefly by private subscription. At present a very great pro- 
portion of the seats belong to the College or to private individuals. 
The Ramshorn Church in like manner was built chiefly by sub- 
scription. It has lately been rebuilt, under the name of St David's, 
at the expense of the corporation. This church, and its beautiful 
tower, after deducting the amount of sales of burying places in the 
crypt, cost the corporation little more than L.3000. St Enoch's 
Church, originally intended for a chapel of ease, was built chiefly 
by subscription, but was soon afterwards acquired by the corpora- 
tion for a parish church. It has lately been rebuilt on very favour- 
able terms; as the corporation, after receiving interest for the sum 
laid out, gained L. 132, 17s. 6d. per annum, as appeared from a 
printed paper which Dr Cleland addressed to the corporation when 
the church was finished. This saving arose chiefly from additional 
seats and better accommodation. ' 

The collections at the doors of the Established churches ave- 
rage rather more than L. 1800 per annum, which, when added to 

* By Act 4R Geo. III. 6, C. 138, no stipend can be augmented until twenty years 
after the date of the last decreet of modification. The incumbents of the Cathedral 
and Barony Churches were entitled to apply for an augmentation on 22d February 
1835. 



GLASGOW. 193 

the sum of L.487, Is. 7d. surplus revenue, is much more than 
would pay the interest of the expense of building the Established 
churches. The poor in this city, as is elsewhere stated, are support- 
ed by an assessment on the inhabitants, whether belonging to the 
Established Church or to the Dissenters. The collections at the 
doors of the Established churches go to reduce that assessment, but 
those received at the doors of the Dissenters chapels do not go to 
the fund, but are applied to purposes connected with their own body. 

City Mission. The want of church accommodation, and the 
total inability of the clergymen of the city to attend to the religi- 
ous wants of a numerous class of the community, many of whom 
have no desire for religious instruction, led to the formation of the 
City Mission. The society was instituted upon the 1st of Janu- 
ary 1 826, for the purpose of promoting the spiritual welfare of the 
poor of Glasgow and its neighbourhood, by employing persons of 
approved piety, and otherwise properly qualified, to visit the poor 
in their own houses, for the purpose of religious discourse, and to 
use other means of diffusing and increasing amongst them a know- 
ledge of evangelical truth. In December 1831, there were twenty- 
two licentiates or students of divinity employed at salaries of L.40 
each ; twenty of these were on full time, viz. four hours per day, and 
the other two on two-thirds time. In addition to the city mission, 
a parochial mission was instituted in 1832, and there are now one 
missionary in every parish, and two or three in the large ones. 

Roman Catholics. The number of Roman Catholics has greatly 
increased in Glasgow of late years. The following is a brief ac- 
count of their rise and progress. 

Although popular opinion ran very strong ag^nst the exercise 
of the Roman Catholic religion in this city till after the mitigation 
of the penal statutes, Bishop Hay occasionally came from Edin- 
burgh, and celebrated mass in a clandestine manner in a room in 
Blackstock's back tenement, Salt Market Street, to the few Catho- 
lics who at that time resided here. 

An act of Parliament having been passed for repealing certain 
penal statutes in England enacted against the Roman Catholics, 
in the llth and 12th years of William III., a bill was brought in- 
to Parliament for repealing these statutes in Scotland, which ex- 
cited great alarm in that part of the kingdom. In Edinburgh, a 
mob assembled on 3d February 1779, and burnt Bishop Hay's 
house and valuable library, and the house of Principal Robertson 
would have shared the same fate, had it not been protected by the 



194 LANRAKSH1RE. 

military, he having expressed himself favourable to the repeal of 
the penal statutes. 

In Glasgow, the measure was viewed with so much alarm, that 
eighty-five societies were formed to oppose it; and Mr John Pa- 
terson, a spirit-merchant, was appointed to keep up a corre- 
spondence with Lord George Gordon, at that time the head of the 
Protestant association in London. During the discussion in Par- 
liament, a mob collected on Sunday the 5th February 1780, dur- 
ing the time of divine service, and would have destroyed the dwel- 
ling-house of a Catholic where mass was being celebrated, had not 
Provost French and the other magistrates arrived in time to pre- 
vent it. On the Thursday following, being a day appointed for a 
national fast, a mob collected in King Street, and destroyed the 
shop of Mr Bagnall, a potter. Having completed their work of de- 
vastation, they went to Tureen Street, and destroyed his manufac- 
tory, for no other reason but that he was a Roman Catholic. 

The increase of Roman Catholics in Glasgow may be dated from 

1791. At that time the spirit for emigration from the North High- 
lands to America was such as to drain the country of many of its 
best labourers. The services of these hardy Northlanders being 
required at home, Messrs George M'Intosh, David Dale, Robert 
Dalglish, and other extensive manufacturers, invited them to this 
city, and to such as were Roman Catholics, security was promised in 
the exercise of their religion. The Tennis Court, in Mitchell Street, 
was fitted up as a temporary chapel, and the Reverend Alexander 
M ; Donald, now Bishop of Upper Canada, was appointed priest in 

1792. Mr M'Donald was succeeded by the Reverend John Farquhar- 
son in 1795. Soon after that time the number of Roman Catholics 
increased so much, that, in 1797, they built a small chapel in the 
Gallowgate, near the barracks. In 1805, Mr Farquharson was suc- 
ceeded by the Reverend Andrew Scott. From this period the num- 
ber of Roman Catholics increased so rapidly, that, in 1815, the foun- 
dation stone of a new chapel was laid in Clyde Street. This spa- 
cious edifice, in which there is a magnificent organ, was opened 
with great solemnity on the Sunday before Christmas 1816; after 
which the chapel in the Gallowgate was appropriated to another 
purpose. The number of Roman Catholics continuing to increase, 
the Lancasterian school-house in Gorbals was converted into a Ro- 
man Catholic chapel in 1828. In 1831, there were 26,965 Ro- 
man Catholics in this city, and their number has increased con- 
siderably since. 



GLASGOW. 195 

On 21st September 1828, the Reverend Andrew Scott was raised 
to the dignity of Bishop of Eretria in the Archipelago, and coad- 
jutor vicar apostolic to Bishop M'Donald for the western district 
of Scotland. Mr Scott was consecrated bishop with great solem- 
nity by the Right Reverend Bishop Paterson of Edinburgh, assist- 
ed by Bishop McDonald of Lismore, and Bishop Penswick of Liver- 
pool. 

Prior to 1821, there was only one priest resident in Glasgow; 
at that period there were two; in 1826, four; and in 1829, the 
number of clergymen was increased to five, viz. the Right Reverend 
Bishop Scott, the Reverend John Murdoch (now Bishop,) the Re- 
verend John McDonald, the Reverend William Stewart, and the 
Reverend Charles Grant. * 

Licenses to sell Spirits. The number of persons licensed to re- 
tail spirituous, liquors in the ten parishes of the city being 1393, 
and the number of families, 19,467, gives one licensed person or 
public-house to ISjVo families. If the number of persons who 
retail spirituous liquors without being able to obtain a license were 
taken into account on the one hand, and the number of temperate 
families who never use a public-house on the other, it may be said, 
that in Glasgow there is at least one place where spirits are re- 
tailed for every twelve families ! ! ! 

Pawnbrokers. The business of a pawnbroker was not known 
in Glasgow till August 1806. At that period an itinerant Eng- 
lish pawnbroker commenced business in a room in the High Street, 
but was obliged to give up at the end of six months, for want of 
business; and it was not until the 8th of June 1813, that John 
Graham, a disbanded town-officer, set up a regular pawnbroking 

* On 16th June 1835, a solemn dedication of St Margaret's Nunnery, Edinburgh, 
took place in its beautiful Saxon Chapel, and at the same time an interesting and af- 
fecting ceremony took place on the admission of three young persons, who then en- 
tered their noviciate into the community of the Sisters of Charity. The Right Re- 
verend Bishop Carruthers, who officiated in chief, attired in gorgeous sacerdotals, 
sprinkled the chapel with holy water. The sermon was delivered by Bishop Mur- 
doch of Glasgow, from the front of the altar. In eloquent and powerful language 
the Right Reverend Preacher alluded to the havoc which the Reformation had made 
in the Catholic institutions of this country, and also to the fiery bigotry which, even 
in recent times, had consigned to the flames the only Catholic chapel in Edinburgh ; 
and while he contrasted the persecuting fury of former times with the enlightened 
spirit and toleration of the present, he at the same time earnestly disclaimed alluding 
to these things as matters of reproach to Protestants. He adverted to them merely 
as facts in history, and proceeded to describe in animated terms the progress which, in 
spite of all obstacles and difficulties, the Catholic religion was making in every part 
of the country; rearing up temples which adorned the spots where they were placed, 
and giving promise of the ultimate triumph which he felt assured that religion would 
one day obtain. 



S 



196 LANARKSHIRE. 

office. There are how twenty-two licensed pawnbrokers in the 
city. 

River Clyde. As the River Clyde, in a commercial point of 
view, is of the utmost importance, not only to Glasgow, but to the 
western district of Scotland, a short sketch of its improvements 
must be interesting. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
the channel of the river for about thirteen miles below Glasgow 
was so incommoded by fords and shoals as to be scarcely naviga- 
ble even for small craft. But in 1556, the inhabitants of the 
burghs of Glasgow, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, entered into an 
agreement to excavate the river for six weeks alternately, with the 
view of removing the ford at Dumbuck and some lesser fords. 
By the exertions of these parties, small flat-bottomed craft were 
brought up to the Broomielaw at Glasgow, which was then only a 
landing shore : there being no regular harbour for more than a 
hundred years after that period. In 1653, the merchants of Glas- 
gow had their shipping harbour at the bailiery of Cunningham in 
Ayrshire ; but that port being distant, and the land carriage expen- 
sive, the magistrates of Glasgow treated with the magistrates of Dum- 
barton for ground on which to build a harbour and docks at Dum- 
barton. After much discussion the negotiation was broken up, the 
magistrates of Dumbarton considering that the great influx of ma- 
riners would " raise the price of provisions to the inhabitants." The 
magistrates of Glasgow then turned their attention to the Troon ; 
and here they were again repulsed from a similar reason. In 1662, 
however, they succeeded in purchasing thirteen acres of ground from 
Sir Robert Maxwell of Newark, on which they laid out the town of 
Port- Glasgow, built harbours, and made the first dry orgravingdock 
in Scotland. Soon after the Revolution in 1688, a quay was formed 
at the Broomielaw, at the expense of 30,000 merks Scots, or 
L. 1666, 13s. 4d. Sterling. The east end was at the mouth of 
St Enoch's Burn, and the west at Robertson Street. 

The magistrates having got a shipping port and a quay, direct- 
ed Mr Smeaton, the celebrated engineer, to inspect the river, and 
report his opinion. On the 13th of September 1755, he reported 
inter alia, that the river at the ford at the Point House, about two 
miles below Glasgow, was only one foot three inches deep at low 
water, and three feet eight inches at high water. He proposed 
that a lock and dam should be made at the Marlin-ford, in order 
to secure four and a half feet water up to the quay at Glasgow. 
The lock was to be seventy feet long, and eighteen feet wide, and 
so deep as to take in a flat-bottomed lighter, at four and a-half 



GLASGOW. 197 

feet draught of water. An act of Parliament was procured for the 
above purpose, but happily nothing further was done in it. 

The magistrates soon after this required the assistance of Mr 
John Golborne of Chester, who reported on the 30th November 
1768, that the river was in a state of nature, and that at the shoal at 
Kilpatrick sands, and at each end of the Nushet Island, there was 
no more than two feet water. He then proposed to contract 
the river by jetties, for eight miles below Glasgow, and to dredge 
and deepen it at an expense of L. 8640. Mr Golborne having sug- 
gested that a survey of the river should be made, the magistrates em- 
ployed Mr James Watt, afterwards the celebrated improver of the 
steam-engine, who, along with Dr Wilson and Mr James Barrie, 
reported, that several parts of the river from the Broomielaw to the 
Point House, had less than two feet water. In 1770, an act of 
Parliament was procured, by which the members of the city cor- 
poration were appointed trustees, with power to levy dues. The 
trustees then contracted with Mr Golborne for deepening the ri- 
ver; and in January 1775, he had erected 117 jetties on both sides, 
which confined it' within narrow bounds, so that vessels drawing 
more than six feet water came up to the Broomielaw at the height 
of the tide. On the 7th of September 1781, Mr Golborne made an 
estimate for bringing vessels drawing seven feet water, to the Broomie- 
law. Since that period several eminent engineers have suggested 
improvements, the greater part of which have been carried into ef- 
fect. On the 22d of August 1799, Mr John Rennie, civil-en- 
gineer, London, gave a detailed report respecting the deepening of 
the river, as did also Mr Thomas Telford, civil-engineer, London, 
on 24th May 1806; Mr John Rennie again on the 24th of Decem- 
ber 1807; Mr Whidbey of Plymouth on the 22d of September 
1824 ; Mr John Clark, superintendent of the river, on the llth of 
November 1824 ; and Mr Charles Atherton, civil-engineer, Glas- 
gow, in 1833. 

In 1825, the trustees obtained another act of Parliament ap- 
pointing five merchants not connected with the corporation, ad- 
ditional trustees on the river ; and increasing the dues on all goods 
passing on the river from Is. to Is. 4d. per ton, and on the ad- 
measurement of all vessels coming to the harbour, in name of har- 
bour dues, from Id. to 2d. per ton. The same act authorized 
dues to be levied for the use of sheds, according to a regulated 
schedule, the former dues of Is. per ton on coals having been 
taken off. 

LANARK. O 



198 LANARKSHIRE. 

Mr James Spreull was appointed superintendent of the river in 
1798, and until his death in 1824, he was enthusiastic in every thing 
that related to its improvement. The increase of trade at the 
Broomielaw, in consequence of the improvements of the river, almost 
exceeds belief. Less than fifty years ago, a few gabbards, and these 
only about thirty or forty tons, could come up to Glasgow : by 
the year 1831, vessels drawing thirteen feet six inches of water 
were ' enabled to come up to the harbour ; and now large vessels, 
many of them upwards of 300 tons burden, from America, the 
East and West Indies, and the Continent of Europe, are often 
to be found three deep along nearly the whole length of the har- 
bour. During the year 1834, about 27,000 vessels passed Ren- 
frew Ferry ; and at some periods in the year between twenty and 
thirty passed in one hour. A few years ago the harbour was only 
730 feet long on one side, it is now 3340 feet long on the north side 
of the river, and 1260 on the south. Till of late years there were 
only a few punts and ploughs for the purpose of dredging the river, 
now, there are four dredging-machines, with powerful steam appara- 
tus, and two diving-bells. Till lately there was no covering for goods 
at the harbour, and but one small crane for loading and discharging, 
now, the shed accommodation on both sides of the river is most 
ample, and one of the cranes for shipping steam -boat-boilers, and 
other articles of thirty tons, made by Messrs Claud Girdwood and 
Company may, for the union of power with elegance of construc- 
tion, challenge all the ports in the kingdom. The river for seven 
miles below the city is confined within narrow bounds; and the 
sloping banks formed of whinstone, in imitation of ashlar, are un- 
equalled in the kingdom, whether their utility or their beauty be 
taken into account. 

Till 1834 the river and harbour dues were annually disposed 
of by public sale, but now they are collected by the trustees. 
The following is a statement of the amount of tonnage and har- 
bour dues in the years specified: In 1771, the first year's dues 
were L. 1021; in 1810, L. 4959 ; in 1812, L. 5525 ; in 1815, 
L. 5680; in 1833, L. 20,260 ; in 1834, L. 21,260, exclusive of 
L. 1564 for shed dues. The dues for the year ending on 8th July 
1835 amounted to L. 31,497. The sum of L. 8673, which has this 
year been added to the revenue, arises partly from the new mode 
of collection, and partly from the great increase of trade. The pub- 
lic are chiefly indebted for the change in the mode of collection to 



ULSAGOW. 199 

Mr James Hutchison, and Mr James Browne, two of the trus- 
tees. 

In virtue of an old charter, the burgesses of Dumbarton are 
exempt from river dues. From the time the exemption was first 
claimed on 9th July 1825, to 8th July 1834, they amounted to 
L. 4722, 13s. viz. sailing vessels L. 803, 13s. 4d ; steam ditto 
L. 3918, 19s. 8d, less L. 170, 3s. Id. paid by shareholders in steam- 
boats, who were not burgesses of Dumbarton. 

The river dues have been greatly increased by steam naviga- 
tion, as appears from the following statement. From 8th July 
1833 to 9th July 1834, the river dues collected stood to the gross 
revenue as follows : Total tonnage on merchandize 70J per cent, 
ditto by sailing vessels, including ferries, 38| per cent ; ditto by 
steam ditto 31| per cent. ; quay dues by ditto, 15| per cent: dit- 
to by sailing ditto 5J per cent ; shed dues 5 T 7 ^ per cent. ; ferries, 
3 1 per cent. Total steam to total sailing vessels as 87^ to 100. 

The trustees in 1834, appointed Mr David Logan, civil-engineer, 
a gentleman of great experience and scientific acquirements, to di- 
rect the improvements of the river. At present great and merito- 
rious exertions are making in widening the harbour and the nar- 
row parts of the river, and deepening it throughout. While the pre- 
sent trustees are entitled to high commendation for their exertions, 
it is not our intention to detract from the merits of the former trus- 
tees. Mr Golborne laid the foundation of the improvements of 
the river, but it is to the praiseworthy exertions of individuals com- 
posing the improvement committees during the last twenty years, 
while following out the suggestions of the civil-engineers, that the 
river has been brought to a state of so great perfection. At that pe- 
riod the revenue, as has been already shown, was under L. 6000, yet 
with that comparatively small sum, unaided by the large revenue 
since obtained from steam navigation, important improvements had 
been made, and it is no more than justice to Provost Dalglish (for 
a long time chairman of the improvement committee) to say, that, 
to the energies of his mind, sound judgment, and unwearied exer- 
tions, the public are greatly indebted for the splendid improvements 
on the river. The present trustees, with a revenue of L. 31,497, 
subject only to the interest of the debt, amounting at last balance to 
L. 125,231, 14s. 10d., will be enabled to do a great deal towards 
the general improvement of the river. 

Since the deepening of the river, ship-building has been intro- 



200 LANARKSHIRE. 

duced here. A large steam vessel for the Mediterranean trade was 
lately launched at Glasgow. 

Application of the Steam-Engine in propelling vessels. The 
application of steam in propelling vessels long engaged the atten- 
tion of men of mechanical genius. In 1736, Mr Jonathan Hulls 
obtained a patent for " a new invented machine for carrying ves- 
sels or ships out of or into any harbour, port, or river, against wind 
and tide, or in a calm;" but this scheme did not succeed. In 1781, 
the Marquis de Fouffroy made some unsuccessful experiments in 
propelling vessels by steam on the Saone at Lyons. In 1785, Mr 
James Rumsey of Virginia, and Mr John Fitch of Philadelphia, 
made several experiments, which were also unsuccessful. In the 
same year, Mr Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, Dumfries-shire, made 
several experiments with paddles, on twin and triple vessels, work- 
ed by men and horses, an account of which he published in February 
1787. Soon after this, Mr Miller, built a boat with two keels, 
between which he introduced a propelling paddle ; and Mr Wil- 
liam Symington of Falkirk, applied the steam-engine to it; and 
in 1788, Mr Miller and Mr Symington made an experiment with 
it on Dalswinton pond. But after several attempts, it was found 
that the engine and wheel were so inefficient, as occasionally to 
require the assistance of manual labour at a windlass. Some time 
after this, Mr Miller caused a larger engine to be made at Carron 
Works, and an experiment was made with it on the Forth and 
Clyde Canal, which, though answering better than the former, did 
not succeed. In 1794, the Earl of Stanhope constructed a steam- 
vessel with paddles under her quarters, but with no better success. 
In 1801 and 1802, Lord Dundas, then Governor of the Forth and 
Clyde Navigation, employed Mr Symington to construct a steam- 
boat for that canal, but this boat, from what Mr Symington called 
the " opposition of narrow minds," was laid up in a creek near 
Bainsford Bridge, where it remained as a wreck for many years. 
Mr Taylor and other ingenious individuals also failed in their 
laudable attempts. 

The whole race of steam propellers having thus left the field 
one by one, without being able to effect their object, the ground 
was occupied by Mr Henry Bell,* who, having a turn for mechanics, 
made a steam-engine of three horse-power, and employed Messrs 

* Mr Bell was born in the parish of Torphicben, Linlithgowshire, on 7th April 
1767- He died at the Baths, Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire, on 14th November 
1830. 



GLASGOW. 201 

John Wood and Company, ship-builders in Port- Glasgow, to build 
a boat for him, which he called the Comet.* On 18th January 
1812, the Comet began to ply between Glasgow and Greenock, 
and made five miles an hour against a head wind, whilst, by simply 
increasing her power, she went at the rate of seven miles an hour. 
This was the first vessel that was successfully propelled on a na- 
vigable river in Europe, and it is very remarkable, that, notwith- 
standing the great progress in mechanical science, no improvement 
has yet been made on Mr Bell's mode ; although numerous efforts 
have been made here and elsewhere for that purpose. It is true 
that boats go swifter now than formerly, but the propelling system 
remains the same. To this brief account of the origin of the 
steam-propelling system in this country, it must be added that the 
Americans preceded us fully four years. In October 1807, Mr 
Robert Fulton, an American engineer, launched a steam-boat at 
New York, which plied with great effect between that city and 
Albany, a distance of 160 miles. 

Clyde Steam-vessels in 1831 and 1835. 
Out-sea Boats. ;. 

1831. 1835. 

Vessels. Tonnage. Vessels. Tonnage. 

Liverpool, 5 910 7 1522 

Belfast, 3 429 6 918 

Dublin, 2 370 3 474 , 

Londonderry, 2 238 2 289 



Total, - 12 1947 18 3203 

1831. 1835. 
Vessels. Tonnage. Vessels. Tonnage. 
Boats for goods and passengers plying as far 
as Stranraer on the one side of the Clyde, 

and to the West Highlands on the other, 8 600 11 834 
Boats for passengers only, and plying on the 

river and Frith of Clyde, - - - 25 1728 26 1927 

Luggage boats, 7 431 8 470 

Towing boats, 3 199 4 257 

Abstract. 

1831. 1835. 
Vessels. Tonnage. Vessels. Tonnage. 

Out-sea boats, ; - . 12 1947 J8 3203 

Goods and passengers 8 600 1 1 834 

Passengers, ..... 25 1728 26 1927 

Luggage, 7 431 8 470 

Towing, - 3 199 4 257 



Total, - 55 4905 67 6691 

The above tonnage is register measure ; carpenter's measure in 

* The progress in steam navigation of late years is truly wonderful. In January 
1812, there was not a steam-boat in Europe excepting the <c Comet," of three horse 
power, at Glasgow. Now almost every navigable river in Europe is teeming with 
them, Some of the Glasgow boats have now upwards of 240 horse power. 



202 LANARKSHIRE. 

steam-vessels is about one-third more. All the new boats either 
for the out-sea or river trade, are of greater engine power, and are 
much more splendidly fitted up for the accommodation of passen- 
gers than heretofore. The speed is also greatly improved. The 
Liverpool boats in 1 831 were thought to have made good passages, 
when they performed the run from Liverpool to Greenock, a dis- 
tance of 220 miles, in twenty-four to twenty-six hours. It is now 
done much sooner. On Wednesday, 24th June 1835, the steam- 
packet City of Glasgow, belonging to Messrs Thomson and Mac- 
connell, left Greenock, and arrived in Liverpool in the unprece- 
dentedly short period cf seventeen hours and jifty-Jive minutes; and the 
steam-packet Manchester, belonging to Messrs James Martin, and 
James and George Burns and Company of this city, left the Clarence 
dock, Liverpool, on Monday evening the 15th December 1834, and 
arrived in Glasgow, a distance of 240 miles, discharged and loaded 
her cargoes, and was back again in the same dock within the short 
period of sixty hours. This was done in the dead of winter, and shows 
what may be accomplished by steam navigation, from studying the 
tides in the Mersey and Clyde. The cabin fares for the river boats 
are rather less than one penny per mile, and for out-sea boats rather 
more. To Liverpool the fare is L. 1, 5s. 

While locomotive engines have succeeded on our rail-roads to 
admiration, the steam carriages on the common road from Glas- 
gow to Paisley have been abandoned. 

The Forth and Clyde Navigation. In 1768, an act of Parlia- 
ment was obtained for making a canal from the river Forth, at or 
near the mouth of the river Carron, in the county of Stirling, to 
the river Clyde, at or near Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dum- 
barton, with a collateral cut to the city of Glasgow. On the 10th 
of June in that year, Sir Lawrence Dundas dug out the first spade- 
ful of earth for the formation of the canal, and it was opened from 
the eastern to the western sea on the 28th of July 1790. On the 
llth of November in the same year, the basin at Port Dundas was 
finished. The length of the navigation from the Forth to the 
Clyde is 35 miles, and the cut to Glasgow, 2J miles. There are 
39 locks on the canal, namely, 20 from the Forth to Glasgow, and 
19 between the great aqueduct and the Clyde. The length of 
the locks between the gates is 74 feet, the width 20 feet, and the 
fall 10 feet. The medium width of the surface of the canal is 56 
feet, at bottom 27 feet; and the depth nearly 10 feet. The rise 
from the east sea to the summit level of the canal at Wineford 



GLASGOW. 203 

Lock is 156 feet ; and the descent to the Clyde 150 feet, so that 
the Forth at the east end of the canal is 6 feet lower than the 
Clyde at Bowling. This great canal, which required 22 years for its 
completion, was one of the most arduous to execute in the kingdom; 
having to encounter rocks, precipices, and quicksands ; in some 
places it runs through a deep moss, and in others it is banked 20 
feet high. It crosses many rivulets and roads, as well as 2 consi- 
derable rivers, the Luggie and the Kelvin. The bridge over the 
latter, which consists of four arches, and carries the canal across a 
deep valley, cost L. 8509. The canal is supplied with water by 
eight reservoirs covering 721 acres, and containing 24,902 lock- 
fulls of water. 

Mr Kirkman Finlay of Castle Toward, the present governor, 
was elected to that important office on 20th March 1816. At the 
following balance the rate per cent, on each original share of 
L. 100 was L. 25. The annual average revenue during sixteen 
years previous to Mr Finlay being appointed governor, was L. 30,323, 
7s. 6d. ; and the annual average revenue during sixteen years after 
it was L. 46,680, lls. 4d. 

In 1832, there were 2 steam passage-boats on the canal ; each 
of 24 horse power. These boats went at the rate of six miles an 
hour. In 1833, the steam-boats gave place to swift iron boats, 
which travel at the rate of 10 miles an hour. Five of these boats 
leave Port Dundas for Stirling and Edinburgh, and return every 
lawful day, and two additional ones are in a state of preparation. 
In 1832, the revenue from steam and heavy drag boats was 
LJ213, 19s. 5d.; in 1833 from the swift boats L. 3007, 19s. Id.; 
and in 1834, upwards of L. 5000. 

Monkland Canal. This canal affords a cheap communication 
between the city of Glasgow, and the collieries in the parishes of 
Old and New Monkland, distant about 12 miles. The canal was 
originally 35 feet broad at the top, and 24 at the bottom, depth of 
water upon the lock sills 5 feet, and the smallest depth throughout 
any part of the canal 4 feet 6 inches. The banks have been re- 
cently raised, by which a greater depth of water is procured. At 
Blackhill there are 4 locks of 2 chambers, each chamber 71 feet 
long, 14 feet broad, and 12 feet deep. The head level at the top 
of Blackhill is continued to Sheepford, a distance of 8 miles, where 
there are 2 single locks of 1 1 feet 6 inches each, which carries the 
canal to the river Calder. In the spring of 1813, 3 passage-boats 
began to ply to Sheepford, about a mile from Airdrie. This canal 



204 LANARKSHIRE. 

has been productive to the stockholders for a number of years 
past. 

Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan Canal. The expense of land- 
carriage from Glasgow to the west coast through the fertile coun- 
ties of Renfrew, and Ayr, abounding with coal and limestone, sug- 
gested a water conveyance. The operations on the canal com- 
menced in May 1807, and the navigation opened between Glasgow 
and Johnstone on the 4th of October 1811. Although the canal 
was opened at that period, the trade did not commence till April 
1812. The length of the canal from Port Eglinton to Ardrossan 
is 32f miles, from Port Eglinton to Johnstone 11 miles, breadth 
at top 30 feet, at bottom 18 feet, and depth 4 feet 6 inches. There 
are no locks on that part of the canal yet executed, viz. between 
Port Eglinton and Johnstone ; but when the canal is carried for- 
ward, there will be eight near Johnstone to raise the canal to the 
summit level, and thirteen to fall down to the harbour of Ardros- 
san. On the 6th of November 1810, passage-boats were put on 
this canal ; but Mr William Houston, of Johnstone Castle, has the 
merit of introducing swift iron boats. 

The great increase of passengers may be seen from the follow- 
ing statement. 



From 1st Oct. 1830 to 30th Sept. 1831, 79455 289 8 34 1-3 275 
1st Oct. 1831 to 30th Sept. 1832, 148516 311 14 341-9 477 
1st Oct. 1832 to 30th Sept. 1833, 240062 310 20 382-3 774 
1st Oct 1833 to 30th Sept. 1834, 307275 313 22 442-3 982 
The passengers did not all travel from Glasgow to John- 
stone, many of them leaving at intermediate stages. During the 
months of July and August 1834, 50,000 persons took passages 
on the canal; the number in one day was 2500. The proportions 
of the best cabin and second cabin passengers are, one-fifth of the 
best cabin passengers at one penny per mile, and four-fifths of se- 
cond cabin passengers at three farthings per mile. The average 
total fare on the canal is therefore sixteen-twentieths of a penny 
per mile. The swift boats on the Forth and Clyde, and Union 
Canals, ply at similar rates. 

Union Canal. The Union Canal was begun on the 3d of 
March 1818. It is 31^ miles in length from Port-Hopetoun, near 
Edinburgh, to Port-Downie, near Falkirk. The navigation for 
ten miles west from Port-Hopetoun was opened on the 22d of 
March 1822, and to Port-Downie early in May thereafter. The 



GLASGOW. 205 

canal is on a level line for 30 miles from- Port Hopetoun, the re- 
maining distance is occupied by 11 locks, each 10 feet deep, so 
that the Union Canal at the head of the locks is 110 feet above 
the Forth and Clyde Navigation. The Union Canal is 40 feet 
broad at the top, 20 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet deep. This 
canal has not yet been productive to such stockholders as have not 
an interest in the Forth and Clyde Navigation. 

The Garnkirk Railway from Glasgow to near Airdrie was par- 
tially opened on the 2d of July 1831. On 1st February 1832, the 
locomotive engine, the " Glasgow," built by Messrs Johnston and 
M'Nab of this city, hauled a train of 36 loaded coal waggons 8 
miles, a gross weight of about 145 tons, in 1 hour and 7 minutes, thus 
carrying a load of twenty times her own weight. This was the first 
locomotive engine made in Scotland on the improved construction. 

Stage-Coaches. Stage-coaches were first used in Scotland in 
1678. The first mail-coach from London to Glasgow arrived at 
the Saracen's Head on Monday the 7th of July 1788. At that 
period the mail went by Leeds, a distance of 405 miles, and ar- 
rived in 65 hours, travelling at nearly 6J miles in the hour; in 1835 
the mail goes by Wetherby, a distance of 395 miles, and arrives in 
41 1 hours. The speed from Carlisle to Glasgow is at the rate of 
1 1 miles an hour. On the 10th of January 1799, Mr John Gard- 
ner of the Bucks Head, Glasgow, started a coach to Edinburgh 
with four horses, which performed the journey of 42 miles in 6 
hours. The time now occupied on the road by stage-coaches is 
about 4-jr hours. 

In 1833 there were on an average 61 stage coaches, which de- 
parted from, and returned to Glasgow, every lawful day. The 
mails every day are, to London, 2; Edinburgh, 12; Paisley, 13; 
Hamilton, 5 ; Lanark, 3 ; Perth, 2 ; Stirling, 2 ; and to other 
towns, 22. These coaches were drawn by 183 horses, and 671 
horses are kept for them. They accommodated 832 passengers ; 
viz. inside 284, outside 548. 

The intercourse with Glasgow by coaches, steam-boats, track- 
boats, and rail-roads, is so great that it almost exceeds belief. As 
some of the coaches and steam-boats depart and arrive more than 
once a-day, and the mail-coaches every day, the following may be 
taken as a low average of passengers by stage-coaches, and steam- 
boats ; while the others are from the books of the respective com- 
panies. During 1834, 61 stage-coaches, each averaging twelve 
passengers, arrived and departed during 313 lawful days. This 



206 LANARKSHIRE. 

gave 458,232 persons in the year. By 37 steam-boats, 25 passen- 
gers each 579,050; by the swift boats on the Forth and Clyde Na- 
vigation and Union Canal, 91,975; by the light iron boats on the 
Paisley Canal, 307,275 ; by the boats on the Monkland Canal, 
31,784; and by the Glasgow and Garnkirk Rail-road, 1 18,882; the 
gross number of passengers amounting to 1,587,198. 

Private Carriages. Mr Allan Dreghorn, timber-merchant and 
builder, was the first person who started a private carriage in this 
city. It was made by his own workmen in 1752. The number of 
carriages in the city and suburbs charged with duty in 1832 was 
402, viz. stage-coaches 61; hackney carriages 140; private carri- 
ages, 201, viz. with four wheels 114, two wheels 87. The private 
carriages have increased considerably during the last two years. 

Relays of post-chaises did not exist in Scotland except on the 
roads from Edinburgh to London, till the year 1776; and even in 
England, relays are of comparatively recent date. Mr John Glass- 
ford and Mr Andrew Thomson Senior, Glasgow merchants, went 
to London on horseback in the year 1739. At that period there 
was no turnpike road till they came to Grantham, within 110 miles 
of London. Up to that point they travelled upon a narrow cause - 
way, with an unmade soft road upon each side of it; and they met 
from time to time strings of pack-horses, from thirty to forty in a 
gang, the mode by which goods were transported from one part 
of the country to another. 

Mills. The town mills on the Molendinar Burn, erected 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, supplied from the 
Hogganfield and Frankfield lochs, are not of so much use to the 
inhabitants as they were before steam-mills were introduced. The 
water and steam-mills on the river Kelvin, at Partick and Clay- 
slap, belonging to the corporation of bakers, are very extensive, and 
of a superior construction. The establishment contains a large 
steam-mill, seven water-wheels, twenty-two pairs of stones, (Bour- 
deaux Burrs,) six boultin, and three shealing machines. The gra- 
naries and kilns are proportionate to the mills, which can grind 
12,000 bushels of wheat weekly. The bakers got a grant of their 
old mill at Partick from the Regent Murray, for their services at 
the battle of Langside on 13th May 1568. The value of the mill 
property is upwards of L. 50,000. 

Markets. The markets for butcher-meat, fish, cheese, butter, 
&c. have been much neglected of late. The great increase of 
the town has induced persons at a distance from the markets to 



GLASGOW. 207 

resort to shops. The live-cattle market is, however, an excep- 
tion, and is entitled to particular notice. Prior to the year 1818, 
the principal butchers in this city were frequently obliged to tra- 
vel a circuit of seventy or eighty miles to purchase cattle in lots, 
and to rent expensive parks in the neighbourhood of the city .to 
graze them in; but since the erection of the live-cattle market, 
the mode of supply is completely changed. In 1818, the magis- 
trates fitted up a spacious market-place, between the great roads to 
Edinburgh, by Gallowgate and Duke Street, in which there are a 
commodious inn, stables, sheds, a byre to contain 120 bullocks 
in view, and 260 pens to contain 9360 sheep. This market-place, 
allowed to be the most complete in the kingdom, occupies an area 
of 29,560 square yards, or rather more than six imperial acres, is 
paved with whinstones, and enclosed with stone walls. Since its for- 
mation, graziers and dealers from Aberdeenshire to Dumfries-shire, 
and from Berwickshire to Argyleshire, find it their interest to 
send their cattle to this market, where they find a ready sale, and 
return in cash. It is admitted that this market has been of great 
use to all classes of the community, excepting perhaps the more 
wealthy butchers. The graziers and dealers are benefited by a 
regular sale, without running the risk of bad debts. The public 
have a more regular and plentiful supply of butcher-meat of the 
best quality. The butcher is saved the trouble, and the public, 
the expense, of travelling. The butcher of small capital, who for- 
merly had not the means of getting good meat, can now go to 
market ; and if his capital be equal to the purchase of a bullock, 
and a dozen of sheep or lambs, he can compete with his more 
wealthy brethren. Monopoly is now unknown. The dues of the 
market were let by public sale in 1832 on lease, at L. 1075 per an- 
num, which leaves an annual profit to the trustees of upwards of 
L. 500. It was Dr Cleland who projected and established this im- 
portant market.. 

The advantages arising from this market have induced the Irish 
graziers to send cattle to it. On the 18th December 1834, the 
Green Isle steamer arrived in Glasgow from Drogheda, loaded ex- 
clusively with cattle and pigs. This was the first cattle-carrying 
steamer that arrived in the Clyde, and the traffic is to be continued. 
In 1822, a few rumps of beef were sent by the Edinburgh butchers 
to the Glasgow market, and this trade has increased so much, that 
during 1834, 7210 rumps were sent to Glasgow, the average value 
of each being 20s. 

Public Buildings. In a work of this nature, an architectural 



208 LANARKSHIRE. 

description of the public buildings in Glasgow would be superflu- 
ous. We shall therefore confine ourselves merely to mentioning a 
few of the most prominent of those appropriated for ecclesiastical 
purposes, and a few for the civil concerns of the city. For eccle- 
siastical, the first in order is the Cathedral, which is allowed to 
be the most splendid edifice of old English architecture that is to 
be found in Scotland. Its length from east to west is 319 feet, 
width 63 feet, height of the nave 90 feet, and of the choir 85 feet. 
In this edifice there are 2 steeples, 147 pillars, and 159 windows 
of various dimensions, many of them of exquisite workmanship.* 

* Mr Rickman, the celebrated architect, who gave the design for St David's Church 
in this city, in his work on Gothic Architecture, 3d edit., p. 336, says, " That the 
crypt of the cathedral of Glasgow is not equalled by any in the kingdom. The piers 
and groins are all of the most intricate character, the most beautiful design, and ex- 
cellent execution. The flowered capitals of the piers are much like those of York." 
The choir of the cathedral was renovated several years ago by the corporation, in a 
manner which does it great honour, so much so, that it is not too much to say, that 
the Cathedral Church of Glasgow is unrivalled in Scotland. But to the regret of 
every man of taste, the magnificent nave has been allowed to get into a state of great 
dilapidation. The arches, and the tabernacle work, and the images at the rood-loft at 
the east end are in decay, and the mullions and flowing tracery of the windows in the 
north and south fa9ades, are in. a similar condition. The west end is bounded by a 
bare wall, erected 170 years ago, and quite incompatible with the grandeur and ar- 
chitectural effect of the other parts. Such is the condition of the nave of the Glas- 
gow cathedral. Instead of its being a great ornament to the city, it is calculated to im- 
press strangers with the lowest estimate of the taste and public spirit of the citizens of 
Glasgow. 

Impressed with the importance of the measure, Dr Cleland frequently suggested 
to the public the renovation of the nave, and at length, on the 22d October 1829, he 
drew up, printed, and widely circulated, an appeal to his fellow-citizens, and com- 
menced a subscription for this important and necessary work, but owing to an unex- 
pected difficulty, raised on the part of the crown, to whom the edifice belongs, the pro- 
jected improvements were postponed. The public mind thus directed, never lost 
sight of the scheme. In 1832, Mr Archibald M'Lellan, then a member of the town- 
council, and president of the Dilletanti Society, suggested, in his valuable work on 
Cathedrals, that the Outer High Church, then deeply affected by dry rot, should 
be abandoned as a place of worship, and restored to the nave. While this magni- 
ficent scheme would have had no chance of success in 1829, as matters then were, 
there is now every prospect of its being carried into effect, from the circumstance of 
that church having, in 1835, been formally declared by two eminent physicians,-}- 
unfit for a place of worship. The corporation, as proprietors of the seats, having 
thus no alternative, have commenced the building of a church in High John 
Street, in lieu of the Outer High Church. The nave, including the space now occu- 
pied by that church, will then be a receptacle for monuments to departed worth, and 
the grand entrance to the Cathedral Church. Even in its present dilapidated state, 
there are monuments in the nave, which would be considered elegant in Westminster 
Abbey, and worthy of a place in St Paul's Cathedral. 

There is now every reason to believe that Government will contribute liberally to 
the renovation of the Cathedral out of the burgh and barony teinds, Dr Cleland hav- 
ing lately had an opportunity of pointing out the defects to the Right Honourable 
Sir John Cam Hobhouse, at that time Chief Commissioner of the Woods and Forests, 
which Board has been lately entrusted with the management of the Crown eccle- 
siastical edifices. 

Some time prior to 1817, his Majesty's Government resolved that in future they would 
not give a tack of Crown teinds without a fine of three years free teind. On 5th July 
1823, William Smith, Esq. of Carbeth-Guthrie, then Lord Provost, and Dr Cleland at- 

f Dr Burns and Dr Balmanno. 



GLASGOW. 209 

St Andrew's, St David's, and St Enoch's Churches, and the Al- 
bion Street, George Street, and Wellington Street Chapels, be- 
longing to the Dissenters, are fine specimens of architecture. 
For civil purposes the Royal Exchange is prominent. This build- 
ing, from designs by Mr David Hamilton, a native of Glasgow, is 
remarkable for its beauty, its extent, and its architectural decora- 
tions. Mr Hamilton was also architect to Hamilton Palace, one 
of the greatest architectural ornaments in Scotland. The Hun- 
terian Museum, from designs by Mr William Stark, is a beautiful 
model of a Greek Temple. The Royal Infirmary by Adams, and 
the Lunatic Asylum by Stark, are at once ornamental and appro- 
priate for their respective purposes. 

Streets and Squares. The streets, with the exception of some 
of those in the old part of the town, are all sixty feet wide, and the 
houses are built of stone and covered with slate. There are four 
squares, viz. Blythswood's, George's, St Enoch's, and St Andrew's. 
The three former are planted with shrubberry, and St Andrew's 
Church stands in the centre of the last. 

Burying Grounds. There are twenty burying grounds in the 
city and suburbs.* The Necropolis, formed by the Merchants' 
House in 1830, in their elevated park adjoining the cathedral, in 
imitation of the cemetery Pere la Chaise in Paris, stands unrival- 
led in the kingdom for picturesque effect. 

tended the Exchequer Court in Edinburgh, and obtained a tack of the teinds for the 
corporation and the Barony-heritors on the following terms : 

Three years free teind of the burgh and barony, as ascertained by the 

solicitor of teinds, - L. 7137 11 8 

Deduct for ten heritors on cause shown to the court, - - 679 8 



Fine paid for the tack of the teinds for 19 years, from 1817, the 

period when the last tack expired, - L. 6458 3 8 

The Lords of the Treasury were pleased to allocate 

from the above sum for repairing the cathedral, L. 3000 

Grant to the Botanic Garden, - - - 2000 

5000 



Reserved by the Treasury, but since laid out in repairing the cathedral, L. 1458 3 8 

The lease expires in 1836, when there is no doubt a similar fine will be exacted. 

* When the north-west burying ground was formed, it was distant from houses, but 
now, from the great increase of population, it is in the very centre of the city, sur- 
rounded by houses on all sides, and consequently very offensive to the neighbourhood. 
As it would be a very arduous undertaking to remove a public burying ground, where 
there are burying places for more than 500 families, Dr Cleland suggested throwing 
the whole burying ground into a grand vaulted cemetery, the groined arches sup- 
porting a floor of upwards of 7000 square yards, to be appropriated for public purposes. 
This magnificent scheme, of which a plan was lithographed at the expense of the cor- 
poration, and widely circulated, would not only relieve the town of a nuisance, but 
from the central situation of the ground, would give an excellent opportunity for ba- 
zaar purposes, while light and air would be preserved for the health of the inhabitants. 



210 LANARKSHIRE. 

Monuments and Statues. Amongst others may be enumerated 
an equestrian statue of William III. erected at the cross; an obe- 
lisk in honour of Lord Nelson, in the Green ; a pedestrian statue 
of Sir John Moore, in bronze, on a granite pedestal, by Flaxman, 
in George Square ; a pedestrian statue of William Pitt, in marble, 
by Flaxman, in the Town-Hall ; a trophy monument in honour of 
Lieutenant- Colonel Cadogan, (71st, or Glasgow Regiment,) in- 
marble, by Hamilton, in the nave of the cathedral ; a pillar sur- 
mounted by a statue in honour of John Knox, by Forrest, in the 
Necropolis ; a pedestrian statue of James Watt, in bronze, on a 
granite pedestal, in George Square, by Chantry; also a pedes- 
trian statue of James Watt, in marble, by Chantry, in the Hun- 
terian Museum ; and an architectural monument, with a statue of 
William M e Gavin, by Forrest, in the Necropolis. It has not yet 
been determined in what part of the town the monumental column 
in honour of Sir Walter Scott is to be placed. 

Theatre. Previously to the Reformation, and for some time af- 
terwards, pantomime representations of the history of our Saviour, 
his miracles, and passion, were exhibited in this city. It does not 
appear that any theatrical representation was allowed in this city 
from the Reformation in 1560 till 1750. At the latter period, Mr 
Burrell's dancing-hall in the High Street was used for that pur- 
pose, being four years after the theatre in the Canongate of Edin- 
burgh was opened, which was the first regular theatre in Scotland 
after the Reformation. In 1752, a booth or temporary theatre was 
fitted up adjoining the wall of the archbishop's palace, in which 
Digges, Love, Stampier, and Mrs Ward performed. Messrs Jack- 
son, Love, and Beate, comedians, built a regular theatre in the 
Grahamston suburb, which was opened in the spring of 1764 by 
Mrs Bellamy, and other respectable performers. On the first night 
of performance, the machinery and scenery were set on fire by some 
disorderly persons. When the stage was refitted, the theatre was 
occasionally kept open, but with very indifferent success; and at 
one o'clock on the morning of the 16th April 1782, it was burnt 
to the ground. There was no theatre in Glasgow from this period 
till January 1785, when the Dunlop Street Theatre, erected by Mr 
Jackson, was opened by Mrs Siddons, Mrs Jourdan, and other per- 
formers. From this period the taste for theatricals increased so 
much, that a subscription was set on foot for a theatre upon a large 
scale ; and on the 24th of April 1805, the most magnificent provin- 
cial theatre in the empire was opened in Queen Street, at an ex- 



GLASGOW. 211 

pense of L. 18,500. It was let on lease for L. 1200 per annum ; 
but it was soon found that the taste for theatricals did not keep 
pace with the sums laid out for accommodation and splendour. The 
premises were then let at the reduced rent of L. 800 to others, who 
also failed to implement their engagement, and even when the rent 
was lowered to L. 400, it was paid with difficulty. The property 
was then sold at a price, only equal to the outstanding debts and 
ground rent, so that the shareholders got nothing. This splendid 
edifice was burned to the ground on the forenoon of the 10th of 
January 1829; a gas light having come in contact with the ceiling 
of one of the lobbies, leading to the upper gallery. After this 
catastrophe, the old theatre in Dunlop Street was enlarged and 
embellished by Mr Alexander ; and is found to be quite large 
enough for the play-going people of Glasgow and neighbour- 
hood. 

Cock-Fighting. In former times cock-fighting was so prevalent 
in this part of the country, that on certain holidays, school-boys pro- 
vided cocks, and the fight was superintended by the master. But 
as civilization advanced, this practice gradually disappeared, and 
at length the amusement in the estimation of many came under 
the denomination of cruelty to animals. During the latter part of the 
last and the beginning of the present century, cock-fighting in this 
city was conducted in a clandestine manner. In 1807, our cock-fight- 
ing amateurs, finding a vacant temporary building in Queen Street, 
made preparations for fighting a main, but when the sport had 
just commenced, a portion of the city and county magistrates made 
their appearance and dismissed the meeting. Since that period 
mains have occasionally been fought here without the interference 
of the authorities. Of late, however, the desire for this amusement 
has so much increased, that in this year (1835) a spacious build- 
ing has been erected for a cock-pit in Hope Street, on the joint 
stock principle. This building, which is seated for about 280 per- 
sons, has suitable accommodation for the judges, handlers, and feed- 
ers, and is inferior in nothing to the Westminster pit, but in its 
dimensions. The company who frequent the Glasgow cock-pit 
do not belong to the " exclusives;" for here we have all grades from 
the senator to the journeyman butcher. 

Corporation of Glasgoiv. Glasgow was governed by a Provost 
and Bailies so early as the year 1268. In 1605, the constitution 
of the burgh was settled in three distinct bodies, viz. the town- 



212 LANARKSHIRE. 

council, the merchants' and the trades' houses. The town-coun- 
cil consisted of certain persons from the rank of merchants and 
trades. In 1801, some alteration was made on the constitution; 
and from that period till 1833, the corporation consisted of a 
Provost, five Bailies, twelve Councillors from the merchants, and 
eleven from the trades rank, a master of work, and a treasurer. 
The Gorbals and water bailies were chosen from the council, who 
elected themselves. One-third went out of the council every year, 
and could not return for three years. The merchants' house sent 
a list of three persons to the council, from which they elected one 
to be Dean of Guild ; and in like manner the trades' house, when 
one of the three was elected convener. 

Since 1833, when the Burgh Reform Act passed, the Town- 
Council has been chosen by the Parliamentary constituency, con- 
sisting of upwards of 7000 persons, who pay a yearly rent of at 
least L. 10. The city is divided into five wards, each ward elect- 
ing six Councillors. The Dean of Guild and Convener of the 
Trades are elected by their respective houses. When added to 
the Councillors, they elect a Provost, five Bailies, a Treasurer, and 
Master of Work; one- third of the Councillors go out of office every 
year, but may be immediately re-elected. The revenue of the city 
varies from L. 15000 to L. 16000. 

Previously to the passing of the Reform Act, the burghs of 
Glasgow, Rutherglen, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, elected one in- 
dividual to represent them in Parliament ; but since that act has 
been in operation, the above-mentioned constituency for Glasgow 
return two Members to Parliament. The first Members under 
the Reform Act were Mr James Ewing of Levenside, and Mr 
James Oswald of Shieldhall, both merchants in Glasgow. 

In thus giving a brief account of the former and present 
constitution of the corporation of Glasgow, it has been shewn 
that the Burgh Reform Act has placed the management of the 
corporation affairs in the hands of Councillors elected by those 
who enjoy the ten pound franchise. That the time had arrived 
when a salutary Reform in the Scotch burghs became necessary 
is admitted by all who had the good of their country at heart ; 
abuses in the lapse of ages having crept into the management of 
many of them. 

It is, however, gratifying to know, that, for more than a century 
bypast, the managers of the corporation of Glasgow have been 



GLASGOW. 213 

distinguished for ability, purity of conduct, and integrity in the 
discharge of their multifarious duties. The city, from having had 
a mean appearance, is now the most splendid of any manufacturing 
city or town in the empire. Nor has their exertions been confin- 
ed only to the embellishment of the city ; for trade, commerce, and 
numerous benevolent institutions have prospered in their hands, and 
when they surrendered their trust to the Reformed Town- Council 
in November 1833, the funds were in a flourishing condition. 

Several years ago, when that able and indefatigable reformer, 
Lord Archibald Hamilton, advocated Burgh Reform in the House 
of Commons, his Lordship stated in the Committee of which he 
was Chairman, that the affairs of the city of Glasgow were con- 
ducted in the most honourable and open manner. Indeed, the 
faithful and disinterested management of the corporation concerns 
of Glasgow has long been acknowledged all over the country. 

Of the Reformed Town- Council the citizens of Glasgow have not 
yet had much experience. There is, however, one part of their 
conduct, which, as we consider it an evil, we animadvert upon, in 
the hope of repressing it in their successors. Some of the coun- 
cillors, unwarily, or it may be from ambition, pledged themselves to 
certain measures, and thereby became delegates of a party, instead of 
being representatives of the whole community. This is to be regret- 
ted the more, as a majority of the council have suspended a part 
of the local taxes for a purpose not affecting the general interest. 
Should this measure be carried into effect, which the best informed 
consider illegal, it will necessarily prevent their successors from 
improving the city, building churches, reducing church seat-rents 
for the poor, maintaining market-places, gaols, and other local ser- 
vices, for which such taxes were long since granted by royal au- 
thority or legislative enactment. 

It was to be expected that, in a great community like this, there 
would be some political demagogues who, intoxicated by the power 
conferred on them by the Burgh Reform Act, would abuse it ; but- 
let us indulge the hope, that, when the political effervescence has 
had time to subside, the electors and elected will join hand in hand 
for the public good without respect to political party, and that the 
future councillors, like many of those now intrusted with the munici- 
pal concerns of the city, will be men of integrity and honourable 
feeling, whose every effort will be to promote the good of the com- 
munity. 

LANARK. P 



214 LANARKSHIRE. 

Gaol and Court-Houses. For a number of years previous to 
1807, the gaol at the cross had become deficient in almost every 
requisite. Situated in the centre of the city, without court-yards, 
chapel, or infirmary, it contained no more than thirty-two apart- 
ments for the accommodation of prisoners of every description, col- 
lected occasionally from the populous counties of Lanark, Renfrew, 
and Dumbarton, and invariably at the justiciary circuits, having 
very slender accommodation for the local courts of justice, whilst 
that for the circuit court of justiciary was quite inadequate. Im- 
pressed with the necessity of affording more suitable accommoda- 
tion for the courts of justice, and more convenient and healthful 
apartments for prisoners, the magistrates and council, on the 13th 
of February 1807, resolved to erect a new gaol and public offices 
in a healthy situation adjoining the river, at the bottom of the pub- 
lic green. This building, which cost L. 34,800, contains, exclu- 
sively of the public offices, 122 apartments for prisoners. As 
there is a water-closet in each gallery, every individual prisoner, 
debtor and delinquent, has access to one of them, and to an unli- 
mited supply of pure filtered water from the Water Company's 
pipes ; and pipes are introduced into each court, from which they 
are daily washed, and the air in them frequently cooled in hot 
weather. There are two rooms, with anti-rooms, insulated from 
the gaol, for persons under sentence of death, and so constructed, 
that irons are never used. It is believed that this is the only pri- 
son in the kingdom where persons under sentence of death are 
not put in irons. Every room is provided with the necessary uten- 
sils at the expense of the corporation. There is a well-aired In- 
firmary room, though it is seldom used, from the healthiness of the 
prisoners ; and the chapel is seated to contain about 200 persons. 
The governor's house is so constructed, that, from his sitting par- 
lour, he can overlook both court-yards. The justiciary hall is so 
spacious as to contain about 500 persons. It is, however, much 
to be regretted that there are some radical defects in this gaol. 

The number of incarcerations in the gaol for debt has of late 
years happily decreased, whilst the incarcerations for delinquency 
have been rather on the increase. 

In 1831, it was ascertained for Government that there were 630 
persons incarcerated for debt, viz. on Justice of Peace decrees, 
110; Sheriff's decrees, 287; acts of warden, 61; letters of cap- 
tion, 150; warrants medit.fugce, 22. 

For delinquency, 758 ; viz. on criminal warrants, 679 ; deserted 



GLASGOW. 215 

from the army, 42; lawburrows, 11; breach * of sequestration, 9; 
breach of servitude, 5 ; breach of game-laws, 1 ; Crown debtors, 
now classified with delinquents, 1 1. During the last seven years 
there have been no deaths among the debtors, and only 4 among the 
delinquents. 

The average number of delinquents committed yearly during 
five years, ending on the 31st December 1834, was 667. From 
1765 to 1830, 89 persons were executed in Glasgow, of which 
number 5 were females. During the first 12 years there were only 
6 persons executed, whilst in the last 12 there were 37. During 
66 years previously to 1831, there were 26 in which there were no 
executions, 15 in which there was 1 each year; ten, 2; seven, 3; 
four, 4 ; one, 5 ; and two in which there were 6. From the 29th 
of September 1830, to the 20th of January 1834, 12 persons have 
been executed in Glasgow, viz. 1 1 males, and 1 female ; of whom 
6 were for murder, 1 for rape, 1 for hamesucken, 1 for robbery, 
and 3 for housebreaking and theft. From the 4th of May 1818, 
to the 8th of October 1834, 6 persons received sentence of death, 
but had their punishment commuted to transportation for life, viz. 
4 males and 2 females ; of whom 1 for murder, 1 for hamesucken 
and rape, 1 for robbery, and 1 for housebreaking and theft ; the two 
females for issuing forged bank notes. 

Bridewell. The Bridewell in Duke Street was opened on the 
8th of May 1798, and supported by the corporation funds for up- 
wards of twenty-four years. This building, which still remains, 
consists of six stories, and contains 105 cells. Although but ill 
suited for classification, it answered the purpose for a number of 
years; but, from the great increase of population, and consequently 
of crime, in the city and county, it was agreed that the new build- 
ings should be so large as to contain the city and county prisoners, 
combining the improvements which experience had pointed out. 
The authorities having procured an act of Parliament for assessing 
the city and county for building and maintaining a Bridewell, they 
erected a set of buildings so well suited for the purpose, as to be 
the admiration of all who have made prisons and prison-discipline 
their study. This prison, which adjoins the former one, was open- 
ed on the 25th of December 1824. It combines all the advantages 
of modern improvement, security, seclusion, complete classifica- 
tion, and healthful accommodation. 

The commitments in 1834 were as follows : 



216 LANARKSHIRE. 

Males above 17 years of age, ,- - - - 813 

Males below 17 years of age, - 222 

1035 

Females above 17 years of age, - - 864 

Females below 17 years of age, 68 

932 

Total commitments, - . 1967 

Remained on 2d of August 1833, - - 356 

Prisoners in all, - 2323 

Liberated during the year, - - 2030 

Remaining on 2d of August 1834, - 293 

The average number daily in the prison was 320 ; viz. males, 
162; females, 158. 

Abstract accounts for the year ended 2d of August 1834. 

To repairs on the buildings, - L. 156 10 

Salaries and wages, - - 835 14 11 

L.992 4 11 

By amount of prisoners' labour, &c. - L. 2182 6 2 

To victuals, bedding, cloaths, washing, me- 
dicine, coal, candle, furniture, machinery 
utensils, stationery, &c. - - 1664 6 

Cash paid prisoners for surplus earnings, 116 5 3 

1780 11 3 

Surplus to be deducted from salaries and wages, 401 1411 

Balance, being the cost of Bridewell for the year ended 2d August 1834, L. 590 10 

It appears from the above statement, that, besides the sum of 
L. 116, 5s. 3d. paid to inmates, the produce of the work perform- 
ed maintained all the prisoners, with a surplus of L. 401, 14s. lid. 
which surplus goes to lessen the expense of repairs on the build- 
ings, and the salaries and wages. The whole deficiency, amount- 
ing to L.590, 10s. divided by 1967, the number committed, shews 
that the net expense to the public for every committal is no more 
than 6s., the average period of residence being 59J days. Taking 
another view, the deficiency of L. 590, 10s. when applied to 320, 
the daily average of inmates, shews the expense of each prisoner 
to be L. 1, 16s. lid. per annum, 2s, lOd. per month, or about 
Sijfd. weekly. 

This distinguished establishment, so creditable to the city and 
county, while inferior to no prison for discipline and cleanliness, is 
conspicuous for the economy* with which it is managed. The bare 

* The following abstract statement of the General Penitentiary at Millbank, 
Middlesex, taken from the report of a committee, whereof the Right Hon. Lord 
Bexley was chaii-man, (ordered to be printed by the House of Commons on 10th of 
March 1831,) may be contrasted with the foregoing statement of the Glasgow Bride- 
well. 

On 31st December 1830, there were in the Penitentiary 566 prisoners, viz. males, 
405; females, 161. 






GLASGOVfc 217 

recital of the foregoing facts forms a high panegyric on the talents 
and industry of Mr Brebner, the governor. 

House of Refuge. During the last thirty years, several attempts 
have been made in this city to reclaim vagrant boys, but hitherto 
without effect. This arose chiefly from the youths being already 
confirmed in evil habits, and from the want of an asylum and rigid 
superintendence. To abate this moral pestilence, a subscription 
has lately been entered into, which now exceeds L. 10,500, for the 
erection of a permanent House of Refuge in this city. Four acres 
of the lands of White-hill have been purchased, and a plan by Mi- 
John Bryce, architect, combining all the recent improvements, has 
been adopted. To those who, like us, have long witnessed the de- 
pravity of a class of society to be found in all large manufacturing 
communities, this announcement must give great satisfaction, and to 
none more than to the Right Honourable the Lord Justice- Clerk, 
(Boyle,) who so often from the Bench, in lamenting the number 
and depravity of young thieves, recommended a house of refuge. 

The number of orphans, and, what is even worse, the number 
of children of depraved parents, thrown on the public without any 
one to take care of them, almost exceeds belief. A great propor- 
tion of these children are brought up in ignorance, in idleness, and 
vice, without the fear of God, and very little of man. To prevent 
those evils in the very young, and to mitigate those in more ad- 
vanced years, is the benevolent object of the managers of this in- 
stitution. 

While the infant and Sunday schools are thrown open to children 

Expense of the establishment, to the total amount of expenses incurred between the 
1st of January and 31st of December 1830, including the necessary repairs on the 
building, and the sum of L. 195, 13s. lid. for shoring the boundary wall, and 
L. 765, 10s. calculated for wages to the prisoners employed in the general service 
of the establishment, - L. 20612 7 

Deduct three-fourths of L. 765, 10s. allowed for pri- 
soners' wages, they being paid only one-fourth there- 
of, and the whole amount of such wages being in- 
cluded in the above sum of L. 20612, 7s., 574 811 

Gross expense, , L.20037 18 1 

By three-fourths of earnings of prisoners employed in 

manufactures, estimated at the usual rate, - 2197 13 10 

Net expense, .... L. 17840 4 3 

To which add the amount of articles supplied by his Majesty's 

Stationery Office, - i 143 2 9 

L. 17983 7 "o 

Mr Potter Macqueen, M. P. in his pamphlet on prisons, states, that the average 
expense of a culprit in the Millbank Penitentiary, in the years 1818-19-20-21, was 
L. 55, 15s. ; and Mr Crawford, in his report to the House of Commons in August 
1834, shews that prisoners in the county gaol of Lincoln cost L. 32 per head. 



218 LANARKSHIRE. 

of this class of society, an asylum in the House of Refuge will be 
found for those in more advanced years, where moral and religious 
instruction will be communicated, and mechanical trades learned, 
by which, with the fostering care of the managers, while in the asy- 
lum, and after they leave it, they may become useful members of 
society. 

Police. Till the appointment of a statutory police in 1800, the 
citizens of Glasgow performed the duties of watching and ward- 
ing. The buildings in Albion Street are very extensive, and were 
the first in Scotland erected for the exclusive purpose of police. 

Of the concerns of the establishment, which is placed under the 
management of the magistrates, and one commissioner for each of 
35 wards chosen by the rate payers, the following is an abstract 
for 1834: Disbursements L. 15,033, 13s. 6 Jd. The receipts arise 
from Is. per pound on rents exceeding L. 15, and on lower rents 
less proportionally. Besides the superintendent, collector, clerk, 
surveyor, and surgeon, there are 8 heads of departments, 3 lieute- 
nants, 58 officers, 135 night-watchmen, 8 coal weighers, 21 lamp- 
lighters, 50 firemen, and 20 supernumeraries ; in all 308 persons 
on the establishment. There are 2050 gas lamps with single jets, 
and 47 with 3 jets ; in all 2097 lamps. Of this number between 
800 and 900 are taken down in the summer months. 

Bridges. Bridges are a sort of edifices very difficult to execute, 
on account of the inconvenience of laying foundations, and wall- 
ing under water. There are three stone bridges, and one timber 
bridge over the Clyde at Glasgow, exclusive of Rutherglen stone 
bridge at Barrowfield in the Barony parish. 

The original timber bridge over the Clyde having gone into de- 
cay about the year 1340, Bishop Rae built a stone bridge at 
Stockwell Street in 1345. The bridge was originally twelve feet 
wide, and consisted of eight arches. In 1777 an addition of ten 
feet was made to its breadth, and two of the northmost arches, 
built up for the purpose of confining the river within narrower 
bounds. The communication between the city and the south- 
west parts of Scotland for more than 400 years was by this bridge. 
In 1820-21, it was greatly improved by the formation of footpaths, 
suspended on very tasteful iron framings. The bridge as it now 
stands is 415 feet long, and 34 wide within the railing. 

The foundation stone of the Jamaica Street Bridge was laid on 
the 29th of September 1768, by the Right Worshipful Provost 
George Murdoch, acting provincial grand master mason for Glasgow, 



GLASGOW. 219 

The bridge had seven arches, was 30 feet wide within the parapets, 
and 500 feet in length. The design was given by Mr William 
Mylne, architect in Edinburgh, and executed by Mr John Adam. 

The foundation stone of Hutcheson's Bridge was laid in 1794, 
by Provost Gilbert Hamilton, near the foot of Salt Market Street, 
to connect the lands of Hutchesontown with the city. It had five 
arches, was 406 feet long, and 26 feet wide within the parapets. 
On the 18th of November 1795, during an uncommonly high 
flood in the river, it was unfortunately swept away, after the pa- 
rapets were nearly completed. 

The foundation stone of a new bridge for Hutchestown was laid 
on the 18th of August 1829, by the Right Worshipful Robert 
Dalglish, substitute grand master mason for Glasgow, and precep- 
tor of the hospital. This bridge is built on the site of the for- 
mer one, from a design by Mr Robert Stevenson, civil-engineer; 
it is 36 feet wide within the parapets, 406 feet long, and has five 
arches. Mr John Stedman, contractor. 

The Timber Bridge at Portland Street, erected in 1832, is 30 
feet wide within the railing, has a carriage way and two side pave- 
ments. It was designed by Mr Robert Stevenson, civil-engineer. 
Mr William Robertson, contractor. 

The increase of trade and population in the city and adjacent 
districts having been such as to render the Jamaica Street or 
Broomielaw Bridge unfit for its purposes, the trustees resolved to 
remove it, and to erect in its stead a bridge which would afford 
more suitable accommodation, such as the increasing population of 
the neighbouring districts required. Having obtained an act of 
Parliament, they procured a design from Mr Thomas Telford, ci- 
vil-engineer, and contracted with Messrs John Gibb and Son, for 
building the bridge. It is faced with Aberdeen granite, and has 
a very gentle acclivity. It is 560 feet long over the newals, and 
60 feet wide over the parapets ; it has seven arches, and is wider 
than any river 'bridge in the kingdom. 

To commemorate the rebuilding of this bridge it was resolved 
that the foundation stone should be laid with masonic honours. 
Dr Cleland having been requested to act as grand director of the 
ceremonial, preparations were made on a magnificent scale. Ha- 
ving procured a commission for the Lord Provost to lay the foun- 
dation stone, from the Right Worshipful Henry Monteith of Car- 
stairs, provincial grand-master for Glasgow, the director request- 
ed the very Reverend Principal Macfarlan to preach the sermon 



220 LANARKSHIRE. 

in the cathedral, the Rev. Dr Macleod of Campsie, to act as grand- 
chaplain, and Mr Watson, superintendent of police, as grand-mar- 
shal. 

In addition to the civic and ecclesiastical authorities of the city, 
the procession was honoured by the Magistrates of the following 
burghs, viz. Rutherglen, Irvine, Renfrew, Paisley, Hamilton, 
Gorbals, Port- Glasgow, Greenock, Pollock- Shaws, Calton, Air- 
dries Anderston. Besides the Grand Lodge of Scotland, thirty-two 
provincial mason lodges attended the procession in all the splen- 
dour of the craft,* 

The details of this ceremonial, the most splendid that ever took 
place in Glasgow, have been preserved in a pamphlet, printed at 
the expense of the Trustees. 

Banks. The Bank of Scotland was established by charter in 
Edinburgh in 1695, and the following year in Glasgow; but was 
recalled for want of business in 1697. In 1731, it was again esta- 
blished in Glasgow, and recalled in 1733, from a similar cause. 
In 1749, the Ship Bank commenced business. This was the first 
bank belonging to the city ; and till lately it was called the Old 
Bank. Since 1749, a number of banks have been established in 
Glasgow. The Glasgow Arms Bank commenced business about 
the year 1753, the. Thistle Bank in 1761, and the Glasgow Mer- 
chants' Bank, and Messrs Watson's and Thomson's banking-houses 
were formed shortly afterwards. The Royal Bank of Scotland, 
which was established by charter in Edinburgh in 1727, sent a 
branch to Glasgow in 1783. The Glasgow Banking Company com- 

* The following is the inscription on a metallic plate deposited in the foundation 
stone : 

Broomielaw Bridge, Glasgow. 

The foundation-stone of a bridge across the Clyde at Jamaica Street, was laid on 29th 
September 1 768 ; and to afford more suitable accommodation, such as the increas- 
ing population and trade of the city and adjacent districts required, it was re- 
moved, and 

By the favour of Almighty God, the Hon. James Ewing, LL. D. F. R. S. 

Lord Provost, and one of the Representatives in Parliament for the city, 

Laid the foundation-stone of this Bridge 

On the third day of September 

Anno Domini M.DCCC.XXXIII. 

Mra of masonry 5833, 

In the fourth year of the reign of our most Gracious Sovereign William IV., 

Assisted by the Grand Lodge of Scotland and thirty-two provincial lodges, and by 

James Cleland, Esq. LL. D. Grand Director of the masonic ceremonial, in presence 

of the public bodies of the city, and neighbouring districts. 
Thomas Telford, Esq. F. R. S. L. and E. Architect for the Bridge ; Charles Ather- 

ton, Esq., resident engineer ; Messrs John Gibb and Son, contractors. 
Which undertaking may the Supreme Architect of the Universe bless and prosper. 



GLASGOW. 221 

menced operations in 1809, the Glasgow Union Banking Company 
in 1830, and the Western Bank in 1832. These banks, with the 
exception of the Arms, Merchants, Thomson's, and Watson's, 
still continue to do business in Glasgow. There are also in Glas- 
gow a branch of the British Linen chartered bank, and fourteen 
branches from provincial banks. 

Provident Bank. A provident or savings bank was opened in 
Glasgow on the 3d of July 1815, wherein deposits of Is. and up- 
wards are received, bearing interest at the rate of two and a-half 
per cent., when the sum amounts to 12s. 8d., and has lain one month 
in the bank. The following is a statement of the concerns of the 
bank for 1834. It is open every day for deposits, and twice a-week 
for payments. 

Amount of open accounts at the end of the year, - L. 39,861 4 

Received from depositors, exclusive of interest allowed during the year, 30,767 3 7 

Repaid to depositors, including interest, during ditto, - 30,462 11 

Interest allowed to depositors during ditto, 96411 10 
From the commencement of the bank on 3d July 1815, to the end 

of the year 1834, number of accounts opened, 24,039 
Amount of interest paid to depositors from commencement of the 

bank, to the end of year 1834, - - 10,66218 
At the end of the year 1834, open accounts under L. 5, 1380. 

It is very gratifying to know, that, during nineteen years, the 
working-classes in Glasgow have so managed their savings, as to 
entitle them to L. 10,662, 18s. interest, which, but for this insti- 
tution, might have been laid out for purposes quite unavailing in 
the hour of need. The country generally, and the industrious classes 
particularly, lie under deep obligations to the Rev. Dr Duncan of 
Ruthwell, the founder of the provident bank scheme. 

Post-Office. The arrangements of this office are not surpassed, 
if indeed equalled, by any out of London. In 1806, when Mr 
Bannatyne was appointed post-master, the establishment consisted 
of a post-master, 3 clerks, a stamper, and 6 letter-carriers ; and 
there were 4 penny post-offices attached to it for the delivery and 
receipt of letters in the neighbouring district. Receiving-houses 
in the town for letters to be taken to the post-office had been tried, 
and had been given up on finding that they were not used. There 
were two deliveries of letters made daily to every part of the town 
and suburbs. The Glasgow establishment in 1835 consists of a 
post-master, 10 clerks, 2 stampers, a superintendent of letter-car- 
riers, and 19 letter-carriers; and there are 26 penny post-offices, 
and 9 sub-offices attached to it, for the correspondence of the sur- 
rounding district. It has 12 receiving-houses distributed in the 
different parts of the town, the letters put into which are carried 



222 LANARKSHIRE. 

to the post-office, to be made up in the separate lines of mails, as 
they are successively dispatched. There are four complete de- 
liveries of letters now made daily to every part of the town and 
suburbs ; and an answer may be received the same day to a penny 
post letter put into the office, or a receiving -house, in time to be 
sent out with either of the two first deliveries. 

Post-Office revenue of Glasgow at the following dates. 
In 1781, . L. 4,341 49 In 1830, . L. 34,978 9 Oi 

1810, . 27,598 6 1831, . 35,642 19 5 

1815, . 34,784 16 1832, . 36,053 

1820, . 31,533 2 3 1833, . 36,481 

1825, . 34,190 1 7 1834, . 37,483 3 44 

Quarter ending 5th April 1834, - L. 9189 6 10 
5th July, 9227 19 5 

5th October, 9365 J5 2 

5th January 1835, - 9700 1 11 

Gross revenue for the year, L. 37483 3 4^ 

The number of penny post letters for Glasgow delivery, exclu- 
sively of those delivered through the 26 out-penny offices, was, 
from October 1833 to October 1834, 192,491; and the amount 
of the revenue derived from them, L. 802, Os. lid. When it is con- 
sidered, that, in 1833, the revenue was only L. 1700 more than in 
1815, whilst the population had increased in the same period up- 
wards of 72,000, and the increase of correspondence in a still greater 
ratio, we are led to believe that the revenue is greatly defrauded 
by private carrying. 

Rental and Stamps. The rental of the city and suburbs in 1834 
was L. 539,466. Amount of stamps sold in 1828, L. 91,213; in 
1830, L.103,802; in 1834, L.1 10,930. 

Water Companies. Prior to 1804, the city was scantily supplied 
by twenty-nine public, and a few private wells. In 1806, the Glas- 
gow Water Company was incorporated, and in 1808 the Cranston 
Hill Company. From their commencement, till 31st May 1830, 
the companies had laid out L. 320,244, 10s. Id. on their works, 
which are now considerably extended. In 1831 there were 38,237 
renters of water in the city and suburbs. Rates for 1834: Houses 
rented under L. 4, 5s. per annum ; ditto L. 4 and under L. 5, 6s. ; 
L. 5 and not above L. 6, 7s. 6d. ; all above L. 6, 6 per cent., or 
Is. 3d. per pound on rental. Public works ; high service, i. e. in the 
more elevated parts of the city, L. 12, 10s. for 1000 gallons per 
day ; low service L. 6, ditto ; workmen for drinking, 6d. per head ; 
founderies Is. per man ; lowest charge for a public work, L. 4. 
Counting-houses, 5s. to 10s. 6d. ; water-closets in ditto, 5s. to 
10s. 6d. ; horses, 4s.; cows, 3s. 



GLASGOW. 223 

Amount of Butcher-Meat, Bread and Milk, consumed in Glas- 
gow. As the office of Parliamentary Hide Inspector has lately been 
abolished, the amount of butcher-meat consumed in Glasgow can- 
not be ascertained with accuracy; we have therefore taken the 
amount for 1822, from Dr Cleland's folio Statistical Work, when 
the population was 147,043. 

Bullocks, 14,566. Average 28 stones tron,* 407,848, 

at 7s. L. 142,746 16 

Calves, 8,557, Do. do. at 36s. 15,402 12 

Sheep, 57,520, Do. do. 20s. 57,520 

Lambs, 1 68,637, Do. do. 6s. 20,591 2 

Swine, 6,539, Do. do. 20s. 6,539 

L. 242,799 10 

Tallow, hides and offals, particulars detailed, 61,179 4 5 

Total value of carcases, tallow, hides, &c. L. 303,978 14 5 

Bread In 1822, there were 64,853 sacks of flour baked in the 

city and suburbs, equal to 5,317,996 quartern loaves, which at 

8d.is - 177,266 10 8 

Milk In 1822, there were 1230 cows, each cow through the 

year supposed to produce on an average 6 Scotch pints of milk 
daily, equal to 2,693,700 pints of 105 cubic inches, in the year, 
at 6d. per pint, is - 67,342 10 

L. 548,587 15 1 
For increased consumpt from 1822 to 1835, suppose 15 per cent. 82,288 3 3 



Supposed value of butcher-meat, bread and milk in 1835, L. 630,875 18 4 

Public Green. There is probably no town of equal extent in 
the empire which can boast of such a park as the Green of Glas- 
gow, whether we consider its extent, its use to the inhabitants in 
its walks, its wells, and its trees, or its picturesque effect on the 
bank of a beautiful river. The sheep park at the bottom, and the 
ride and drive of two and a-half miles, give an air of grandeur to 
the whole. The Green contains 136 imperial acres, and there is 
grass growing on it now, where grass never grew before. The pre- 
sent state of this splendid park forms a great contrast with what it 
was before its improvements were intrusted to Dr Cleland. Twen- 
ty years ago, the surface of the Low Green was inundated by every 
swell in the river. The Calton Green was separated from the 
High Green by the. Camlachie Burn, and the High Green from 
Provost's Haugh by a deep gott or ditch, from which issued nume- 
rous springs, all of which are now contained in spacious tunnels. 
The Calton Green and the Haugh were so much destroyed by 
powerful springs, that, even with the assistance of open drains, the 
Green was so soft, as frequently to prevent walking on it even in 
the greatest drought, while in soft weather it was utterly impassable. 

* A Glasgow tron stone contained 16 Ibs. of 224 ounces. Meat is m>w sold by the 
imperial stone of 14 Ibs. of 1 6 ounces. 



224 LANARKSHIRE. 

The Camlachie Burn, which was formed into a dam for moving ma- 
chinery to raise water from the river for the use of the washing- 
house then opposite to Charlotte Street, being frequently stagnant 
in the summer months, became very offensive. At that period the 
only entries to the Green from the west were by crooked lanes from 
the Salt Market Street and the slaughter-house. At the bottom 
of the Green, now the site of the public offices, the corporation of 
skinners had a triple range of tan-pits supplied by filthy water from 
the Molendinar Burn, which ran open in the middle of a narrow 
street, and the slaughter-house was placed immediately to the west 
of the tan-pits on the bank of the river, now East Clyde Street. 
The dung of the slaughter-house, and the intestines of slaughter- 
ed animals were collected in heaps, and allowed to remain for 
months, long after putrefaction had taken place. A glue- work and 
a manufactory of therm from the intestines of animals recently 
slaughtered ; and rees fitted up for the retail of coals and culm, 
completed the nuisance. The bank of the river, east from the 
Stockwell Street Bridge was used by the police as a receptacle for 
the filth of the streets. 

Coal in the Green. Unsuccessful attempts having been made 
from time to time to find coal in the lands belonging to the cor- 
poration, Dr Cleland procured permission to make the experiment 
of boring in the green. He began by erecting a temporary building, 
into which none were admitted but two operatives and occasionally 
a mining engineer. The operation of boring commenced on 18th 
December 1821, and ended on 17th September 1822, the chis- 
el during that period having gone through various strata to the 
depth of 366 feet 1 inch, including various seams of coal. A re- 
gular daily journal of these operations he embodied in a report, ac- 
companied with folio engraved plans and sections exhibiting the 
extent of the coal field, and the thickness of seven seams found in 
the bore, viz. mossdale, rough ell, rough main, humph, splint ell, 
splint main, and sour-milk, containing in whole about 1,500,000 
tons; so that if the output was restricted to 15,000 tons annually, the 
coal field in the Glasgow Green would last 100 years. Although 
Dr Cleland has shown, and eminent mining engineers have subse- 
quently certified, that the corporation of Glasgow 7 is possessed of 
this valuable property, we have no desire in the present state of the 
funds, to see the beautiful green cut up even with a single coal-pit. 

It appears from the Rev. Mr Bowers' account of Old Monkland 
in the former Statistical Account of Scotland, that, in 1792, Mr 






GLASGOW. 225 

Hamilton erected the first steam engine in Scotland at Barrachine 
for drawing up coals from a pit. Mr Dixon's " Fire- Work" coal 
pit takes its name from its being the first of the Glasgow pits where 
coal was drawn up by fire or steam. * 



That the citizens of Glasgow have ever been loyal, patriotic, 
and generous, may be collected from the foregoing brief account 
of the city. When the country was suffering under civil war they 
raised an armed force in defence of their civil and religious liber- 
ties, and when menaced by the enemies of their country, they stood 
nobly forward in its defence. In times of local distress their liber- 
ality knows no bounds, and their support of religious and benevo- 
lent institutions has never been surpassed in any community. That 
the citizens of Glasgow have done honour to departed worth, re- 
ference is made to the statues and monuments erected in their city, 
and that their gratitude is not confined to the dead will be shewn 
from the following splendid acts : 

Mr James Dennistoun, of Golf hill, one of his Majesty's Deputy- 
Lieutenants for the county of Lanark, manager and principal part- 
ner of the Glasgow Banking Company, retired from business in 
1829. On that occasion a number of the principal inhabitants of 
the city and neighbourhood, taking into consideration the high 
character which Mr Dennistoun bore in the community, and the 
estimation in which he was held by all classes, resolved to request 
his acceptance of a public dinner as a mark of their esteem and 
regard. Mr Dennistoun having accepted the profered compli- 
ment, the dinner was given in the great hall of the Royal Ex- 
change Buildings on 2d December 1829. The Honourable Alex- 
ander Garden of Croy, Lord Provost in the Chair, Samuel Hun- 
ter, Esquire, Croupier, and thirty-six gentlemen of the first re- 
spectability acted as Stewards. Long before the chair was taken 
upwards of FOUR HUNDRED gentlemen had taken their places, f 

* It is a curious fact, which we believe is not generally known, that, previous to 
the year 1775, all colliers and other persons employed in coal works in Scotland, 
were, by the common law of the land, in a state of slavery. They and their wives 
and children, if they had assisted for a certain period at a coal work, became the pro- 
perty of the coal master, and were transferable with the coal work, in the same man- 
ner as the slaves on a West Indian estate were till lately held to be property, and 
transferred on a sale of the estate. Besides the law founded on the usage of the 
country and decisions of the courts, sundry Scotch statutes were enacted for regulat- 
ing this description of slavery. 

f At six o'clock the Lord Provost entered the hall, accompanied by Mr Dennis- 
toun, Sir John Maxwell of Polloc, Bart., Mr Campbell of Blythswood, M. P., Mr 



226 LANARKSHIRE. 

The company, which was most respectable, was composed of all 
political parties. As the festival was given in honour of the pri- 
vate virtues of a most excellent man, politics were excluded. The 
object in view, the respectability of the company, the talent dis- 
played in the speeches, and the sumptuousness of the entertain- 
ment, were never surpassed in this city.* 

A number of the inhabitants of Glasgow, " taking into their con- 
sideration that Dr Cleland, who had recently retired from pub- 
lic life, had discharged the arduous duties of an important office 
for upwards of twenty years, with honour to himself and great be- 
nefit to the community," called a public meeting, which was held 
on the 7th August 1834, when it was unanimously resolved that 
some mark of public approbation should be given to him. Ac- 
cordingly, the magnificent sum of L. 4603, 6s. was subscribed in 
a few weeks by 285 individuals of all grades of society, from his 
Grace the chief of the Scottish nobility to the industrious artisan. 
The committee of subscribers are now erecting an ornamental build- 
ing in Buchanan Street, which is to be handed down as an heir- 
loom in the family of him on whom they have conferred the dis- 
tinguished and unprecedented honour. The building is designated 
" THE CLELAND TESTIMONIAL." 

Maxwell, Younger of Polloc, M. P., Mr Robinson, Sheriff of the county, Mr Mon- 
teith of Carstairs, Mr Finlay of Castletoward, Mr Ewing of Levenside, Mr Camp- 
bell of Ballimore, Mr Dalglish, preceptor of Hutchison's Hospital, the Very Reve- 
rend Principal Macfarlan, the Reverend Professor Macgill, the Reverend Professor 
Chalmers, Mr Dennistoun of Dennistoun, Mr Fergus of Strathorn, Mr Stirling of 
Kenmure, Mr Houldsworth of Cranstonhill, Mr Buchanan of Dowanhill, Mr Smith 
of Carbeth-Guthrie, Mr Dunn of Duntocher, Mr Alston of Auchinraich, Mr Mac- 
farlan of Kirkton, Mr Kincaid of Kincaid, &c. &c. 

* The speech of the Lord Provost, in proposing the toast of the day, was distin- 
guished for fine feeling and graceful delivery, and the writer cannot resist the oppor- 
tunity to add the following part of it. After some introductory remarks his Lord- 
ship said, " We are assembled this evening to pay a tribute to the excellence of the 
character of the guest on my right, and certainly I hazard nothing when I say, that 
never was tribute more rightly deserved, or more sincerely offered, for the manifes- 
tation of our admiration of such genuine worth is alike due to him, and honourable 
to ourselves. Johnson said of Burke, that no one could by chance take shelter with 
him in a shed to shun a shower, without perceiving that he was a great man. Now 
it may be said of Mr Dennistoun with truth, that no one could meet him, however 
trivial the occasion, without perceiving that he was a good man. But I am well aware, 
Gentlemen, that you all know the estimable qualities for which our friend is so much 
beloved ; that you all know his warmth of heart, his social kindness, his unassuming, 
but manly manner, his liberality in business, and his generosity in friendship : and I 
feel most confident, that I speak not only the sentiments of every one present, but of 
every one who has the good fortune to know Mr Dennistoun, when I assert, that, if 
ever a man possessed the full and undivided esteem and respect of society during a 
long period of active usefulness, it was Mr Dennistoun, and if ever a man carried 
with him to the great enjoyments of domestic life, the affectionate good wishes of all, 
it was Mr Dennistoun j and, Gentlemen, I shall only add, because it is to the honour 
of humanity, that I do believe Mr Dennistoun is without an enemy." 



GLASGOW. 227 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 
Abstract view of the State of Society in Glasgow at various periods. 

From 1500 to 1550. Prior to this time the inhabitants of this 
city and neighbourhood were governed by churchmen, who kept 
them in such a state of ignorance and superstition as was truly de- 
plorable. Towards the end of this period the principles of the 
glorious Reformation began to be acknowledged, when it pleased 
God to raise up powerful agents in Edinburgh and Glasgow in the 
persons of Knox and Melville. 

.From 1550 to 1600. During this period the Reformation took 
place. The great body of the people, however, still retained their 
fierce and sanguinary disposition. This is strikingly marked in their 
being constantly armed. Even their ministers were accoutred in the 
pulpit. The number of murders, cases of incest, and other crimi- 
nal acts which were turned over to the censures of the church, but 
too plainly point out the depraved character of the people. 

From 1600 to 1650. The distinguishing character of the 
people during this division of time is marked by a certain malignity 
of disposition. Their belief in and treatment of witches, second- 
sight, &c. afford strong symptoms of superstition grounded on ig- 
norance ; and the profanation of the Sabbath, by working and riot- 
ing on that day, displays gross profanity. 

From 1650 to 1700. During the beginning of this period and 
the end of the former, the people, who had become more civiliz- 
ed, and paid more attention to moral and religious duties, were 
dreadfully harassed and persecuted by an intolerant government, 
who seemed determined to enforce a form of religion which was 
inimical to the people. The abdication of James II., and with him 
the exclusion of the Stuart family, brought about the happy Revolu- 
tion, which put an end to the religious troubles. 

The union with England, which took place soon after this period, 
opened up a spirit for trade hitherto unknown in this city, and 
the increase of population is truly astonishing. In 1774, at the 
induction of the Rev. Dr Burns, the Barony parish did not con- 
tain 8000 souls, its population now amounts to 85,385. This 
venerable and justly respected minister, (who it is believed is now 
the father of the Church of Scotland,) has exercised the ministerial 
functions in the Barony parish for a period of sixty-five years, viz. 
four years as assistant to Mr Laurence Hill, and sixty-one as the mi- 
nister of i\\Q largest parish in Scotland. Dr Burns has served a cure 
for a longer period than has fallen to the lot of any Presbyterian or 



228 LANARKSHIRE. 

Episcopalian clergyman in this city since the Reformation in 1560, 
and there has been no Roman Catholic bishop or archbishop since 
the renovation of the see in 1129, who held his office for such a 
length of time. This is a proof of good health and a sound con- 
stitution. But, what is of more importance to his parishioners, he 
unites evangelical principles with the meekness of a true Christian. 
His popularity, which increased through a prolonged life, was that 
which arises from a faithful discharge of duty. About two years 
ago (then in his ninetieth year) he retired from the more active 
duties of his station. In 1829 the Crown appointed Dr Black to 
be his assistant and successor, an appointment which gave entire 
satisfaction to the minister and the parishioners. 

66 At the commencement of the eighteenth century, and during the 
greater part of the first half of it, the habits and style of living of 
the citizens of Glasgow were of a moderate and frugal cast. The 
dwelling-houses of the highest class of citizens in general contain- 
ed only one public room, a dining room, and even that was used only 
when they had company, the family at other times usually eating 
in a bed-room. The great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers 
of many of the present luxurious aristocracy of Glasgow, and who 
were themselves descendants of a preceding line of burgher patri- 
cians, lived in this simple manner. They had occasionally their 
relations dining with them, and gave them a few plain dishes, put 
on the table at once, holding in derision the attention, which they 
said, their neighbours, the English, bestowed on what they ate. 
After dinner the husband went to his place of business, and, in 
the evening, to a club in a public-house, where, with little expense, 
he enjoyed himself till nine o'clock, at which hour the party uni- 
formly broke up, and the husbands went home to their families. 

" The wife gave tea at home in her own bed-room, receiving there 
the visits of her " cummers," (female acquaintances,) and a great 
deal of intercourse of this kind was kept up, the gentlemen seldom 
making their appearance at these parties. This meal was term- 
ed the "four hours" Families occasionally supped with one an- 
other, and the form of the invitation, and which was used to a late 
period, will give some idea of the unpretending nature of these re- 
pasts. The party asked was invited to eat an egg with the enter- 
tainer, and when it was wished to say that such a one was not of 
their society, the expression used was, x that he had never cracked 
a hen's heg in their house. This race of burghers living in this 
manner had, from time to time, connected themselves with the 



GLASGOW. 231 

individuals, or even companies trading extensively on their own 
capital were to be found. 

" The first adventure which went from Glasgow to Virginia, after 
the trade had been opened to the Scotch by the union, was sent 
out under the sole charge of the captain of the vessel, acting also 
as supercargo. This person, although a shrewd man, knew nothing 
of accounts ; and when he was asked by his employers, on his re- 
turn for a statement of how the adventure had turned out, told 
them he could give them none, but there were its proceeds, and 
threw down upon the table a large * hoggar' (stocking) stuffed 
to the top with coin. The adventure had been a profitable one ; 
and the company conceived that if an uneducated, untrained per- 
son had been so successful, their gains would have been still great- 
er had a person versed in accounts been sent out with it. Under 
this impression, they immediately dispatched a second adventure, 
with a supercargo, highly recommended for a knowledge of accounts, 
who produced to them on his return a beautifully made out state- 
ment of his transactions, but no fi hoggar.' 

" The Virginia trade continued for a considerable time to be car- 
ried on by companies formed as has been described. One of the 
partners acted as manager ; the others did not interfere. The 
transactions consisted in purchasing goods for the shipments made 
twice a-year, and making sales of the tobacco which they re- 
ceived in return. The goods were bought upon twelvemonths 
credit, and when a shipment came to be paid off, the manager sent 
notice to the different furnishers, to meet him on such a day, at 
such a wine-shop, with their accounts discharged. They then re- 
ceived the payment of their accounts, and along with it a glass 
of wine each, for which they paid. This curious mode of paying 
off these shipments was contrived with a view to furnish aid to 
some well born young woman whose parents had fallen into bad 
circumstances, and whom it was customary to place in one of those 
shops, in the same way that, at an after period, such a person 
would have been put into a milliner's shop. These wine-shops 
were opposite to the Tontine Exchange, and no business was tran- 
sacted but in one of them." * 

" We are indebted to the Scrap-Book of Mr Dugald Bannatyne for the above part of 
this abstract included in inverted commas. There are few individuals in any town who 
have been so very generally useful as Mr Bannatyne. For more than half a century he 
has devoted a great proportion of his valuable time and talents in promoting the mer- 
cantile and manufacturing interests of this city, and his long and friendly intimacy with 
his near relative DUGALD STEWART gave him a taste for literature which has greatly be- 
nefited his country. When the Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures in this city 



232 LANARKSHIRE. 

Prior to the breaking out of the American war, the " Virginians," 
who were looked up to as the Glasgow aristocracy, had a privileged 
walk at the Cross, which they trod in long scarlet cloaks and bushy 
wigs ; and such was the state of society, that, when any of the most 
respectable master tradesmen of the city had occasion to speak to 
a tobacco lord, he required to walk on the other side of the street 
till he was fortunate enough to meet his eye, for it would have beeri 
presumption to have made up to him. Such was the practice of 
the Cunninghams, the Spiers, the Glassfords, the Dunmores, and 
others ; and from this servility the Langs, the Ferries, the Clay- 
tons, and others who were at the head of their professions, and had 
done much to improve the mechanical trade of the city, were not ex- 
empt. About this period, profane swearing among the higher classes 
of citizens was considered a gentlemanly qualification; and dissipa- 
tion at entertainments was dignified with the appellation of hospi- 
tality and friendship ; and he who did not send his guests from his 
house in a state of intoxication was considered unfit to entertain 
genteel company. Latterly, the rising generation of the middle 
class, better educated than their fathers, engaged extensively in 
trade and commerce ; and by honourable dealing and correct con- 
duct, procured a name and a place in society which had been hi- 
therto reserved for the higher grades. Since the opening of the 
public coffee-room in 1781, the absurd distinction of rank in a ma- 
nufacturing town has disappeared. Wealth is not now the crite- 
rion of respect, for persons even in the inferior walks of life, who 
conduct themselves with propriety, have a higher place assigned 
them in society than at any former period of the history of the city. 

Families, as has been already said, who were formerly content to 
live in the flat of a house in the Old, have now princely self-contained 
houses in the New Town. Entertainments are now given more fre- 
quently, and the mode of giving them is materially changed. Persons 
who formerly gave supper parties and a bowl of punch, are now in the 
way of giving sumptuous dinners, entertaining with the choicest wines, 
and finishing with cold punch, for which Glasgow is so celebrated. 
The value of the table-service, and the style of furniture in the 
houses of many of the Glasgow merchants, are inferior to none in 
the land. In drinking there is a mighty improvement : formerly, 

was instituted in 1783, under the auspices of Mr Patrick Colquhoun, at that time Lord 
Provost, and a public-spirited and distinguished merchant in Glasgow, Mr Bannatyne 
rendered his assistance, and has held the office of secretary ever since Mr Gilbert Ha- 
milton's death in 1809. The original members of the chamber are now all dead, with 
the exception of its able and much respected secretary. 






GLASGOW. 233 

the guests had to drink in quantity and quality as presented by 
their hosts ; now every person drinks what he pleases, and how he 
pleases, after which he retires to the drawing-room, and drunken- 
ness and dissipation at dinner parties are happily unknown. Pro- 
fane swearing is considered highly reprehensible ; so much so that 
swearing in good society is never heard. The working-classes are 
better lodged, clothed, and fed, than formerly ; and since the for- 
mation of the Water Companies, they are more cleanly in their 
houses, and healthy in their persons. 

With the exception of Hutchison's Hospital, the Town's Hos- 
pital, the incorporations, and a few societies, our numerous chari- 
table and benevolent institutions, and the whole of our religous in- 
stitutions, have been got up during the last forty years. Since 
1791, when the former Statistical Account of Scotland made its 
appearance, the Bible and Missionary Societies, and the City and 
Parochial Missions, have been called into existence. These and 
similar institutions bid fair for improving the morals of the most 
worthless of our population. The inhabitants of this city are justly 
characterized as charitable and humane ; and on all proper occa- 
sions the feeling of compassion and of active benevolence is never 
wanting. Though this be the general, it is, however, by no means 
the universal character of the population, for there are many per- 
sons among us who live as if they existed only for themselves, and 
desired to know nothing but what may be conducive to their own 
private advantage. Persons who are placed in circumstances above 
the labouring artisan may be classed into three divisons. 

The first in order, but last in respect, are those who, though 
wealthy, or at least in easy circumstances, lend a deaf ear to the 
tale of woe, and neither contribute their time nor their means to 
the relief of the wretched. 

The second are those who give none of their time to the public, 
and whose charities are in a manner extorted through the influence 
of respectable applicants or the force of public opinion. Than 
this class, who may be considered the drones of society, there are 
none more ready to find fault with the administrators of the ge- 
neral concerns of the city, and none more anxious to grasp at that 
patronage which so justly belongs to thos'e who give so much of 
their valuable time to the community without fee or reward. 

The third class are those who voluntarily contribute their time 
and money to the service of the community in the various depart- 
ments of usefulness. Through the providence of God, this class 



234 LANARKSHIRE. 

of late years has greatly increased in number, respectability of cha- 
racter, and worldly estate, which, when taken in connection with 
other circumstances, have tended greatly to the increase of reli- 
gion, morality, and active benevolence. The spirit which actuates 
the benevolence of Glasgow is ever present in times of difficulty. 
The knowledge of this important fact should tend greatly to pre- 
vent discontent in the minds of the indigent, and mitigate their 
sufferings in times of distress. 

Since the commencement of the present century, Glasgow has 
greatly increased in scientific knowledge, and many of her citizens 
have rendered essential service to their country. 

The fourth meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, held in Edinburgh from the 8th to the 15th Sep- 
tember 1834, consisted of a number of persons, from all countries, 
many of them the most distinguished in Europe for scientific ac- 
quirements. While a considerable number of the citizens of Glas- 
gow were admitted members of the Association, the following were 
elected office-bearers, viz. Secretary to the Chemistry and Mi- 
neralogy Section, Thomas Thomson, M. D., F. R. S., Professor 
of Chemistry in the University of Glasgow. Members of Commit- 
tee, Charles Macintosh, F. R. S. and Charles Tennant, M. H. S. S. 
Member of Committee in the Natural History Section, Wil- 
liam Jackson Hooker, LL. D., F. R. S., Professor of Botany in 
the University of Glasgow. Secretary to the Statistical Section, 
James Cleland, LL. D. 



The following very valuable paper, drawn up by Principal Mac- 
farlan, came too late to be inserted in its proper place in this article : 
and though a very small part of it has been anticipated, our readers 
may be gratified to receive it entire. 

" The origin ,of the name Glasgow is like that of most other 
places, involved in uncertainty, and it would be useless to repeat 
the fantastic conjectures of antiquarians and etymologists, with re- 
gard to its meaning. Perhaps the most probable conjecture is that 
which derives it from the level green on the banks of the river, 
for many ages its greatest ornament. Glas-dchadh in Gaelic, pro- 
nounced Glassaugh, or with a slight vocal sound at the termina- 
tion Glassaughii) signifies the green field, or alluvial plain, and is 
strictly descriptive of the spot in question. The name of the town, 
as ordinarily pronounced by Highlanders, corresponds closely to 

3 



GLASGOW. 235 

this derivation. In ancient British, Glasgow has the same mean- 
ing, and it is applied to other places, having a similar locality in 
other parts of Scotland. 

" The origin of this city is lost in the obscurity of the middle ages. 
At the Roman invasion, the part of Scotland in which it lies was 
inhabited by a British tribe called by that invading people the 
Damnii, and was mostly included within their province of Valentia. 
On the retirement of the Romans, the provincials were left to their 
own resources, and their previous peaceful habits changed into a 
state of constant warfare in defence of their territories against, first, 
the inroads of the Northern Caledonians or Picts, then the inva- 
sion of the encroaching Saxons from the east, and latterly the as- 
saults of the martial Scots, who, emigrating from Ireland, settled 
in the districts now called Argyleshire and Galloway. With all 
these invaders they maintained a precarious conflict during a pe- 
riod of four centuries. From the researches of modern historians 
it appears highly probable that Alpine, the last King of the Scots, 
as a separate people, lost his life in combat with Strathclyde Bri- 
tons, near Dalmellington in Ayrshire, and not, as more generally re- 
ported, contending for the Pictish crown in the eastermost district 
of Scotland. About the middle of the sixth century, Kentigern, 
or, as his name appears in the ancient Welsh narratives, Cyndeyrn 
Garthys, makes a figure in their history as a distinguished eccle- 
siastic. He is associated as archbishop with the celebrated Ar- 
thur, then Sovereign Prince. His Episcopal seat is said by the 
same authority to have been established at Penrynrioneth, which 
was also the seat of the monarchy, and seems to have occupied 
nearly the present site of Dumbarton. Kentigern, from his pious, 
benevolent, and amiable character, seems to have acquired the ap- 
pellation of Mungo, used in several languages as an epithet of 
fondness and endearment. The conduct of Marken, the successor 
of Arthur, in insulting and banishing the Saint, was believed to 
be avenged by his premature death. The surname of Bountiful, 
bestowed on the next Prince Ryderick or Roderick, seems to have 
been acquired by his favour to Kentigern, to recall whom from ba- 
nishment was one of the first acts of his government. It has been 
reported by tradition, that the space now occupied by Glasgow had 
been previously covered by an extensive forest, within the recesses 
of which were celebrated the religious rites of the Druids. It is 
well known that the first teachers of Christianity generally esta- 
blished their churches on the spots which had, in the estimation of 



236 LANARKSHIRE. 

the people, been previously hallowed by the habitual performance of 
their devotions. It is probable that Kentigern, following this prin- 
ciple, founded his church here on the vestiges of the Druidical 
circle. This took place, as is commonly reported, about the year 
560, and he died in 601, leaving the infant town which had begun 
to spring up under the shadow of that stately church, the founda- 
tion of which he is said to have laid, and where at his death he was 
interred, under his paternal benediction. According to Spottis- 
wood, he was the pupil of St Sevirinus Bishop of Orkney, was dis- 
tinguished by the strict performance of all that were considered 
pious and meritorious exercises, and lived to a very great age. Af- 
ter his death, his memory appears to have been held in high vene- 
ration, and in many parts of Scotland there were religious houses 
which, as well as his own extensive see, claimed the patronage of his 
name and the benefit of his prayers. This account of the origin 
of Glasgow, drawn from unvarying tradition, and confirmed by no- 
tices scattered in contemporary chronicles, derives additional con- 
firmation from the armorial bearings of the see. These are de- 
scribed in Edmonstone's Heraldry, as follows: Argent a tree, grow- 
ing out of a mountain base, surmounted by a salmon in fesse, all 
proper ; in the salmon's mouth an amulet, or ; on the dexter side, 
a bell pendent to the tree, of the second. Discarding the monkish 
fables respecting the origin of each separate part of this cognizance, 
we may conclude with little danger of mistake, that the tree refer- 
red to the ancient forest which surrounded the cathedral, the bell 
to the cathedral itself, the ring to the Episcopal office, and the fish 
to the scaly treasures poured by the beautiful river below at the 
feet of the venerated metropolitan. 

" During 500 years the history of Glasgow presents an entire 
blank; but the existence and the importance of the see during 
that period, is demonstrated by the inquisition made in 1115, 
by David then Prince of Cumberland, and afterwards King of 
Scotland, into the lands and tithes previously belonging to the 
church of Glasgow. These appear from that document to have 
been of great number and extent, embracing a multitude of 
parishes in the southern and western districts of Scotland. This 
fact sufficiently shows that, during the period in which no tra- 
ces of its history can be found, the cathedral not only existed 
but was largely endowed. It may, however, have suffered many 
vicissitudes and even occasional demolition amidst the disasters of 
the kingdom of Strathclyde, the bloody contests of the Scottish 



GLASGOW. 237 

princes, and the fearful devastations of the north-men. In the 
beginning of the twelfth century, when the connection of the Scot- 
tish sovereigns with the Saxon and Norman kings of England 
gave stability to their authority and comparative tranquillity to their 
dominions, the church was revived, and the Episcopate reinstated. 
John Achaius, originally chaplain to David I., and afterwards High 
Chancellor of the kingdom, was consecrated Bishop at Rome in 
1115, and the restored revenue was speedily employed by him in 
restoring the dilapidated fabric of the cathedral. His labours to 
this end are said to have been completed, and the renovated pile 
to have been consecrated in 1 133. It is not certain whether that 
edifice had been, as was generally the case, erected at first on a 
partial and limited scale, or whether it was in one of the succeed- 
ing reigns, as is inferred from a charter for its reconstruction, de- 
stroyed by fire, but it is clear that the greater and by far the more 
splendid part of the fabric that still exists was built under the di- 
rection of Joceline, who became bishop in 1174, and that the choir 
was consecrated by him in 1197. During the same reign, (that of 
William I. or the Lion,) a charter was granted, erecting Glasgow 
into a royal burgh, in favour of the pious and holy Saints Kentigernus 
and Jocelineus and their successors. And for many ages this burgh 
existed under the auspices of the successive bishops. Innumerable 
circumstances, indeed, mark its ecclesiastical origin. Bishop Turn- 
bull, in 1451, founded the still existing university; and the growing 
importance of the town was obviously owing to the assemblage of 
ecclesiastics, many of them of great power and opulence, around 
the archiepiscopal residence. To this rank the see was elevated 
during the episcopacy of Bishop Blackadder, near the end of the 
fifteenth century. Bishop Cameron in 1435 enjoined his prebends, 
thirty-two in number, to erect houses for themselves in the vicinity 
of the cathedral, and always to reside there. As the city extend- 
ed, religious houses were multiplied. A collegiate church, to 
which the original name of St Mary's has been lately restored, was 
founded in the Trongate, and governed by a provost and eight pre- 
bends. A convent of Black Friars was established on the east, 
and one of Gray Friars on the west side of the High Street. The 
church of the former, rebuilt in 1699, still exists as one of the city 
churches, and their grounds are believed to have formed the ori- 
ginal part of the college gardens. Many chapels crowded the city 
and the suburbs, the names of most of which are now forgotten, 
and their revenues have disappeared. The University, as has been 



238 LANARKSHIRE. 

already mentioned, was founded by Bishop Turnbull under the 
authority of a bull issued by Pope Nicholas V. dated 7th January 
1451. It formed a corporate body, consisting of a Chancellor, Rec- 
tor, and Dean, with Doctors, Masters, Regents, and students in the 
several faculties into which it was divided. One of these was known 
as the psedegogium, or College of Arts. In 1459, James Lord 
Hamilton bequeathed to the principal regent of that College some 
buildings and several acres of land, on part of which the presenf 
College was afterwards erected. The College of Arts was restored 
and endowed by King James VI., in 1577, and its property has since 
been augmented from various sources. It is governed by the meet- 
ing of Faculty, or College meeting, consisting of the Principal 
and the Professors who originally belonged to, or have since been 
received into its body. This meeting exercises the administration 
of the whole revenue and property of the College, the patronage 
of eight professorships, and the presentation of the parish of Govan. 
They also administer discipline, either as a body, or through a 
part of their number called the Jurisdictio Ordinaria, amongst the 
College students. The University is governed by the Senate, con- 
sisting of the Rector, the Dean, and all the Professors, whether 
belonging to the College or not. Meetings of this body are held 
for the election and admission of the Chancellor and Dean of Fa- 
culty; for the admission of the Vice- Chancellor and Vice- Rector; 
for electing a Representative to the General Assembly ; for regu- 
lating and conferring degrees ; for the management of the libraries ; 
and for all other business belonging to the University. In the 
Comitia, where, besides the members of senate, all matriculated 
students have a place, the Rector is elected and admitted to his 
office, public disputations are heard, inaugural discourses are de- 
livered, the laws of the University are promulgated, and prizes for 
merit distributed annually." 

ADDENDA. 

A Jews synagogue was opened in this city in September 1823. 
Mr Moses Lisneihm is their priest, Hebrew teacher, killer, inspec- 
tor, marker, and sealer. It appears from a report of a Select 
Committee of the House of Commons in 1828, that in London the 
office of priest and killer merges in the same person, and that no 
Jew can use meat unless the animals are slain with a peculiar knife, 
and marked with Hebrew seals. The Feast of Tabernacles, which 
used to be celebrated by the Glasgow Jews in Edinburgh, is now 
observed in this city. 



GLASGOW. 239 

Edward Davies, son of Mr Edward Davies, optician, was the 
first that was circumcised in Glasgow. The rite was performed by 
Mr Michael on 18th July 1824. The Jews resident in Glasgow 
in 1831 were 47 in number, viz. males, 28, females, 19. Above 
twenty years of age, 28; below ditto, 19 ; born in the following 
countries, viz. in Prussian Poland, 11; in various parts of Ger- 
many, 12; in Holland, 3; in London, 5; in Sheerness, 10; in 
Glasgow, 6. The increase since 1831 is but trifling. 

A burial ground has been made for the seed of Abraham at the 
north-west corner of the Necropolis. It is separated from the 
Christians' burying-ground by an ornamental screen, on which are 
inscribed the beautiful and appropriate words from Byron's Hebrew 
Melody, beginning, " Oh ! we'ep for those that wept by Babel's 
stream." 

The community are greatly indebted to Mr James E wing, LL.D. 
one of the Members of Parliament for the city, for having project- 
ed the Necropolis, and to Mr Laurence Hill, LL. B. collector to 
the Merchants' House, for his unwearied exertions in promoting 
the interests of this beautiful and romantic cemetery. 

Tides in the Clyde. The following is taken from the valuable 
Tide Tables prepared by the late Dr Heron, Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in Anderson's University. The tide at Greenock is 
two hours earlier than at Glasgow. At places situated near the 
ocean, the tide flows nearly as long as it ebbs. At Greenock it 
generally flows rather above six hours but at Glasgow it flows 
only for five hours, and ebbs about seven ; this, however, is modifi- 
ed by the winds. 

The tide produced by the moon is nearly three times greater 
than that occasioned by the sun, and the former thus predominat- 
ing, the interval between the consecutive combined tides is found 
almost to coincide with the moon's progress in her periodic course. 
This interval, however, is modified by the distance of the lumi- 
naries from the earth, their declinations, and other incidental cir- 
cumstances. 

At new and full moon, the influence of the sun and moon unit- 
ed produces the elevation which is called spring tide. From these 
periods, the tides gradually decrease, until the moon arrives at the 
quadratures, when the high water is only the difference between 
the lunar and solar tides, and is termed the neap tide. The tides 
now increase daily, till the following spring tide, when the sequence 
already noticed recurs. Spring tides, however, do not happen on 



240 LANARKSHIRE. 

the days of full and change, nor neap tides on the day that the 
moon enters the quarters, but about two days after. 

The tide-wave rolling northward from the Atlantic Ocean, on its 
arrival at the British isles, divides into three branches ; one pro- 
ceeds up the English channel ; another enters St George's chan- 
nel, south ; the third flows round the west and north coast of Ire- 
land, and meets the second branch near the Isle of Man. 

The tide that flows up the Clyde is derived from the two lat- 
ter branches ; and it is easy to conceive how it must partake of the 
irregularities produced on them by the action of high winds, and 
hence the anomalies that sometimes are observed, when no appa- 
rent cause is operating on the Clyde itself. Likewise high winds 
in the Clyde affect the time and elevation of high water ; . and by 
considering the form and course of the Frith, it is obvious that a 
gale from a northerly quarter, by opposing the flow of the tide, 
will cause the time of high water to be earlier, and the height of 
the tide to be less than otherwise would be the case, while a gale 
from an opposite direction, acting in concert with the flowing tide 
will produce a contrary effect. 

Iron Steam-Boat. Since the part of the article relating to 
steam-boats went to press, a launch of rather a novel nature 
has taken place at the Broomielaw Harbour. Messrs Tod and 
M'Gregor, engineers, constructed a steam-boat, every part of 
which is of iron excepting the boards of the deck ; and having 
all her machinery and equipments complete, and her steam up, 
they placed her on a carriage in their works, from which she 
was taken on 16th July 1835 to the large crane at the harbour, 
and being lowered into the river, she immediately proceeded on a 
trial trip, when she went against a head wind at the rate of eight 
miles an hoar. This pretty little vessel, named the Plata, is 45 
feet long from stem to stern, 9 feet on the beam, and 17 feet over 
the paddle boxes. She draws 22 inches water, and her whole 
weight is eleven tons when her boilers are filled. She is propelled 
by two high pressure engines, each of five horse-power the cylin- 
ders are 6 \ inches diameter placed horizontally the stroke 2 feet 
4 inches. She is kept in motion for five hours with 5 cwt. of coals, 
and has accommodation for twelve cabin, and twenty-five deck pas- 
sengers. This vessel, built for river navigation in foreign parts, is 
the property of Mr Robert Jamieson, of the firm of Messrs 
Jamieson, M'Crackan, and Company. She is to be taken to her 
destination on the deck of one of the company's ships. 



GLASGOW. 241 

Old and New Style. The dates narrated in this account of the 
city prior to 1751 are in the old style, and those which follow that 
period are in the new. The following explains the cause of the 
change. 

In the year 1751, it was found that, from the year being comput- 
ed to be rather longer than it really was, it gradually encroached 
upon the seasons. It was found that the spring equinox, which at 
the time of the General Council of Nice in 325, happened on 
or about the 21st March, in the year 1751, happened about the 
9th or 10th, and that the error was still increasing, and would, if 
not remedied, cause the equinoxes and solstices to fall at very 
different times of the year from what they had done in time past. 
An Act of Parliament in 1751 (24th Geo. II. Chap. 23,) was 
therefore passed, proceeding upon the preamble of the facts now 
stated, and calculated to correct the error which had crept in, and 
to prevent the like happening again. Eleven days, therefore, were 
struck out of the following year to rectify the error ; and to pre- 
vent it happening again, the years 1800, 1900, 2100, and every 
hundredth year, were declared to be common years of 365 days, 
except 2000, and every four hundredth year, which were made 
leap years; thus taking away about three days in four centuries. 

Umbrellas. In 1782 the late Mr John Jamieson, surgeon, re- 
turning from Paris, brought an umbrella with him, which was the 
first in this city. For a number of years, there were few used 
here, and those were made of glazed cotton cloth. As almost every 
child at school, mechanic and servant are now provided with an 
umbrella, there are probably more than 100,000 of them in use in 
this city. 

Mode of Estimating Numbers at Field Meetings. As very erro- 
neous estimates are frequently made respecting the number of per- 
sons attending field-meetings, public executions, &c. it may come 
near the truth to estimate a promiscuous population standing close 
together at six to a square yard ; thus a park of an imperial acre 
will contain 29,040 persons, and a Scotch acre 36,624 persons. 

As Scots money is frequently referred to in the foregoing article, 
its value in Sterling money is taken from Dr Jamieson's Etymolo- 
gical Dictionary. 

Scots. Sterling. Scots. Sterling. 

A doyt or penny is . L. OJ^ A Merk or 13s. 4d. or two- 
A bodle or two pennies is 00 Q/g thirds of a pound is L. 1 1 ^ 

A plack, Groat,or four pence is 03), A pound is . . 018 

A shilling is . . 1 * ' 

July 1835. 



PARISH OF 

NEW MONKLAND, OR EAST MONKLAND. 

PRESBYTERY OF HAMILTON, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. JAMES BEGG, D. D., MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name. THE parishes of Old and New Monkland were formerly 
one parish, under the general name of Monkland, a name deriv- 
ed from the monks of the Abbey of Newbottle, to whom the lands 
belonged. The parish was divided into two in the year 1640, 
the eastern division being named New Monkland, and the western 
Old Monkland, 

Boundaries, Extent. The parish is in the middle ward of La- 
narkshire, and forms a part of the north boundary of the county. 
It is nearly ten miles in length from east to west, and seven in 
breadth near the middle, but narrower at both ends ; bounded on 
the south by the parishes of Bothwell and Shotts; on the east 
by those of Torphichen and Slamannan ; on the north by those of 
Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch ; and on the west by those of 
Cadder and Old Monkland. 

Soil and Climate. The soil is various. That in the north and 
west parts of the parish is the best, consisting partly of a strong clay, 
and partly of a dry soil ; which soils, when properly cultivated, are 
capable of bearing any kind of crops. The middle and east parts 
are of a mossy soil, and, in early seasons, yield ^ ~>od crops of oats, 
flax, potatoes, and rye-grass hay ; but in cold late seasons the oats 
do not ripen well. There are no hills nor mountains in the pa- 
rish, though the greater part of it is high. The highest lands are 
in the middle of the parish, and run the whole length of it from 
east to west, declining gently on each side to the rivers Calder and 
Loggie, which are its south and north boundaries. These high 
lands may be from five to six or seven hundred feet above the 
level of the sea, and a great part of them are covered with mosses, 
which in that elevated situation are not capable of improvement, 
except at a very great expense. 



NEW MONK LAND. 243 

Owing to the elevated situation of the country, the weather is, 
on the whole, rather cold and wet. For a great part of the year the 
winds are from the west and south-west; but in the months of April, 
May, and part of June, generally from the east. The severest wea- 
ther, with heavy falls of snow, is in general from the north-east. 
The common nervous fever, or typhus fever, seems to be the most 
prevalent disease. It is very frequently in some part of the parish. 
Consumptions, inflammations, and rheumatisms, are also frequent. 

Hydrography. The large reservoir for supplying the Monkland 
Canal, and the Forth and Clyde Canal, which covers about 300 
acres of land, is partly in this parish, and partly in the parish of 
Shotts. There is a mineral well near Airdrie, which in former 
times was much frequented, but is now neglected. The water is 
strongly impregnated with iron and sulphur. 

Geology. This parish, so interesting to the student of geo- 
logy, affords ample opportunities for studying the relations of 
the two grand series of rocks, the Neptunian and Plutonian. 
It is well supplied with whinstone or trap and sandstone. These 
are found in various places, and are convenient for building 
and making roads, &c. The parish also abounds with coal 
and ironstone of the best quality. In many places, different 
seams of coal are wrought, such as the ell coal, the pyatshaw, the 
humph, the main coal, and the splint. These seams are general- 
ly above the black band of ironstone, and below that there is the 
Kiltongue coal, and other seants not yet sufficiently explored. In 
some places the seams are thin, not exceeding two or three feet in 
thickness ; in other places of the parish, as Moffat, Whiteridge, and 
Ballochnie, the seams of coal are nine feet thick, of excellent qua- 
lity, and very valuable. Smithy coal and blind coal are also wrought 
in some parts of the parish. Many of these coals are carried to 
Glasgow by the ? I-onkland Canal, and from thence many are car- 
ried to the Highlands, and to Ireland. Many of them are also 
carried by the Ballochnie and Kirkintilloch railways to Kirkintil- 
loch, and from thence by the Forth and Clyde Canal to Edin- 
burgh. 

The ironstone is found partly in balls, and partly in seams ; the 
seams most common are the muscle band and the black band. The 
black band is by far the most valuable, and is generally found about 
fourteen fathoms below the splint coal. All the iron-works of 
Carron, Clyde, Calder, Gartsherrie, and Chapel Hall, are partly 
supplied with ironstone from this parish. 



244 LANARKSHIRE. 

Limestone is also wrought in some parts of the parish, parti- 
cularly on the north side of the parish, and at the west end, but 
not to any very great extent, as the Cumbernauld lime is of excel- 
lent quality, and generally used in this parish. Where the lands 
in the parish lie in the vicinity of the canal, or railway, or good 
roads, the minerals are considered of equal value, sometimes of 
more value than the surface. On the south side of the parish the 
metals in general dip to the south or south-west, towards the Clyde; 
but on the north side of the parish they in general dip to the east 
and south-east. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Land-Oivners. The chief land-owners of the parish are, Robert 
Buchanan, Esq. of Drumpellier ; John Campbell Colquhoun, Esq. 
of Killermont; Robert Haldane, Esq. of Auchingray; Sir William 
Alexander of Airdrie- House ; the Honourable William Elphin- 
stone of Monkland ; Alexander Gerard, Esq. Rochsoles ; George 
More Nisbet, Esq. Cairnhill ; Robert Jamieson, Esq. Arden ; 
Thomas Falconer, Esq. Brownieside ; Dr William Clerk of Mof- 
fat ; Dr James Tenant of Bredinhill ; William Steel, Esq. An- 
nathill; George Waddel, Esq. Ballochnie ; James M'Lean, Esq. 
of Medox. There are a great many other heritors in the parish. 
Few of the largest heritors are resident. 

Modern Buildings. The chief mansion-houses are those of 
Airdrie, Monkland, Rochsoles, Auchingray, &c. 

A very neat town-house has been lately built in Airdrie, con- 
taining a prison, police-office, and a good town-hall. The Mason- 
Hall in Airdrie is also a very good room. The foundation of a very 
large cotton-mill has been newly laid near Airdrie, which, when 
finished, will employ a great number of people, in teasing, carding, 
and spinning cotton. 

III. POPULATION. 

The population of the parish has been progressively increasing 
for a number of years past, both in the country part of the parish 
and in the town of Airdrie. The return of the population to Dr 
Webster, in the year 1755, gave 2713. The population at the 
time of the last Statistical Account, in the year 1792, was 3560. 
The following table exhibits the progressive increase of the popu- 
lation. 

In Airdrie. In country. Total. 

1801, 2745 1868 4613 

1811, 3474 2055 5529 

1821, 4860 2502 7362 

1831, 6594 3273 9867 



NEW MONKLAND. 245 

This progressive increase of population has been owing to the 
coal-works in the parish, and the iron-works in the vicinity, having 
been greatly extended, and to the weavers of cotton cloth for the 
Glasgow manufacturers having greatly multiplied, although at pre- 
sent they are very ill paid, and have poor wages. 

In the year 1833, there were in the parish 125 marriages. In 
the same year there were 238 children born in the parish, and re- 
gistered ; and 1 53 deaths, reckoning from the number of mort- 
cloths used. The number of proprietors of land above L. 50 of 
yearly rent is 68; there are, besides, a considerable number of 
smaller proprietors. 

In Airdrie, there were in 1831, 669 weavers above 20 years of 
age ; 223 coal-heavers, the number of whom is now greatly in- 
creased; and 160 ironstone miners, the number of whom is also 
greatly increased. 

Character of the People. In the country part of the parish, the 
people are in general strong and robust ; but in Airdrie many of 
the weavers are feeble and small in stature. Both in town and 
country, the people are in general neat and clean in their dress, 
particularly on Sabbath when they go to church. The dress of the 
women is perhaps finer than is suitable for their situation in life. 
Many of the people are intelligent and sober, but some of them 
are rather fond of litigation. Smuggling, at no great distance of 
time, prevailed to a certain extent, but has now almost entirely 
ceased. 

There have been 52 illegitimate births in the parish during the 
last three years. 

IV INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture. Some of the land in the north-west corner of the 
parish is very good and fertile, and may bring L. 2 or L. 3 per acre 
of rent yearly ; but the land from the church eastward is not so 
good, being of a poorer soil, and much in want of shelter, and 
may vary in yearly value from 10s. to L. 1, 10s. per acre. The 
rental of the landward part of the parish is about L. 12,000, and 
of Airdrie about L. 6700. If there were belts of planting running 
from north to south, at regular distances, to protect from the 
north-east winds in spring, the advantage would be great. The 
improvement of the parish is, however, gradually advancing, and 
many acres of waste land have been ploughed within these twenty 
years past; but the price of agricultural labour is too high, 
compared with the very low price of the produce of the land 

LANARK. R 



246 LANARKSHIRE. 

at present, and if some change does not soon take place, agri- 
culture must greatly decline, and the poor soils be entirely ne- 
glected. Several ploughing matches take place in the parish 
yearly, by which much emulation among the ploughmen is ex- 
cited, and those who obtain a first or second prize generally after- 
wards expect, and get higher wages. Much attention is paid to 
improving the breed of cattle ; and the Ayrshire breed is preferred, 
and generally prevails in the parish. During the late war, flax 
brought a good price, and many acres, from 500 to 800, were cul- 
tivated yearly ; but the price is now so low, that it will not yield a 
profit to the farmer, and is therefore now little attended to. 

Rate of Wages. Common labourers at present receive 10s. or 
12s. per week; but masons, carpenters, slaters, &c. receive 15s. or 
18s. per week. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

The only market-town in the parish is Airdrie, one of the new 
Parliamentary burghs, having all the privileges of a royal burgh, 
and along with Lanark, Hamilton, Falkirk, and Linlithgow, sending 
a'member to Parliament. Its population still is rapidly increasing. 
The villages of Coltston, Clerkston, Greengairs, and Kiggend, are 
also thriving villages. The post-office is in Airdrie, and there is a 
post twice in the day. 

Means of Communication. The turnpike-roads in the parish are 
the one from Edinburgh to Glasgow by Bathgate and Airdrie, which 
intersects the south side of the parish, and the new road from Car- 
lisle to Stirling, which intersects the whole parish from south to 
north. These roads have afforded a very great facility to the im- 
provement of the lands in their neighbourhood. The Balochney 
rail-road, which is in this parish, connects itself with the Kirkin- 
tilloch rail-road, and the Garnkirk rail-road, for carrying coals to 
Glasgow, and the Forth and Clyde Canal at Kirkintilloch, from 
whence they are carried by the canal east to Edinburgh, and west 
to Greenock and Ireland, the canal joining the Clyde near Old 
Kilpatrick. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church is situated about two miles 
from the west end of the parish, on an eminence, and is seen at a great 
distance from the west and north-west; it is far from the people 
in the east end o'f the parish, some of whom attend other churches 
more contiguous. The church contains 1200 sittings, and was built 
in the year 1777, and much repaired in 1817, and is at present in 
tolerable condition. One-fourth part of the sittings belongs to 



NEW MONKLAND. 247 

the people of Airdrie, which is situated about a mile and a-half 
or two miles from the church. The manse was repaired and en- 
larged in the year 1819, and is now in a comfortable state. The 
glebe contains ten Scotch acres of land, but it is of inferior soil. The 
stipend is 17 chalders, half meal, half barley, paid according to the 
fiars of the county, besides L. 10 for communion elements. There 
is a chapel of ease at-Airdrie connected with the Established Church, 
which contains about 650 sittings. The minister's stipend is L.120, 
raised from the seat-rents. There is another chapel built in Air- 
drie, fitted to accommodate 1200 sitters. There is also a small 
chapel at the village of Clerkston, occupied by a preacher of the 
Established Church, who preaches on Sabbath, and visits and 
examines the people in the village and vicinity through the week. 
The parish church, and these chapels, are in general well attend- 
ed. The average number of communicants in the parish church is 
between 1000 and 1100: and those of the Airdrie chapel are about 
400 more. 

There are four Dissenting or Seceding meeting-houses in the 
parish, two of which belong to the United Secession, one to the 
Old Light Burghers, and one to the Old Dissenters or Cameron - 
ians. Some of these meeting-houses are considerably loaded with 
debt, and some of the ministers are but poorly provided for. 

Education. The parish schoolmaster has a dwelling-house and 
garden, and about L.30 of yearly salary; his emoluments from 
school fees may amount to L. 30 per annum : and for collecting 
road-money, &c. he may have other L. 30. Besides the parish 
school, there are four other schools in the parish, built by sub- 
scription, viz. at Airdrie, Clerkston, Greengairs, and Coathill. At 
Clerkston and Greengairs there are also dwelling-houses built for 
the schoolmasters, but none of these have any salary. There are 
also eight other schools in the parish taught by private teachers, who 
depend entirely on their own exertions. In the parish school there 
are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, mensuration, 
Latin, and Greek ; but in all the other schools, reading, writing, and 
arithmetic only are taught. The general rate of wages is 3s. per 
quarter for reading, and higher for the other branches of education. 
There are about 800 scholars generally attending all the different 
schools. Besides these week-day schools, there are three Sabbath 
schools, so that there are very few but may be able to read if they 
choose to attend to the means of improvement within their reach. 

Library, fyc. In Airdrie there is a circulating library, and also 



248 LANARKSHIRE, 

a public reading-room, where the newspapers of the day, and various 
tracts and pamphlets are exhibited. . r , 

There is an Orphan society, supported by donations, subscrip- 
tions, and collections at the churches and meeting-houses occa- 
sionally, for clothing and educating orphans and other destitute 
children. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The number of poor on the roll 
is about 190 on an average, and the sum distributed monthly is 
between L, 50 and L. 60 Sterling, in sums to each individual of 
from 2s. to 10s. according to the circumstances. The money is 
raised by collections at the parish church and chapel of Airdrie, 
from mortcloth dues, proclamation of marriages, and assessments 
to make up the deficiency. The assessments may amount on an 
average to L. 467. The Dissenters give no part of the collections 
at their meeting-houses to the poors funds of the parish, although 
their poor are supplied from these funds equally with others. 
Among the agricultural part of the population, there is a great 
aversion to come on the poors funds ; they consider it degrading ; 
but that spirit is almost extinct among the manufacturing and mining 
population. 

Prison. In Airdrie there is a prison consisting of five cells or 
small apartments, which are dry, and in good order, and well' se- 
cured ; and in which riotous and disorderly people are confined, 
as a punishment for their criminal conduct. 

Fairs. There are two fairs yearly in Airdrie for the sale of 
cattle ; one of them is held in the end of May, the other about the 
middle of November; there is also a weekly market every Tuesday. 
The number of inns and alehouses is by far too great. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

Since the time of the former Statistical Account, the population 
and trade of the parish have greatly increased, and much of the 
land is better cultivated. Besides the toll-road and rail-road for- 
merly mentioned, the statute labour roads of the parish have been 
greatly extended and improved. The quantity of dung now rais- 
ed in Airdrie is considerable, which, with the Cumbernauld lime, 
and improved roads, affords the means of improving the land. Still, 
however, in the east and north-east parts of the parish, there is a 
great want of planting, and much of the land is very bare and 
naked, and far from being fertile. If summer fallowing were prac- 
tised, it would also be a great improvement ; but it is difficult to 
persuade farmers to deviate from the practice of their fathers. 



HAMILTON. 249 

The frequent associations and combinations which prevail here, 
and are connected with similar combinations in different parts of 
the country, to raise the price of labour, are very hurtful. They 
interrupt trade, and attempt what is impracticable, as the price of 
all labour must be regulated by the demand. They keep trades' 
people in a constant state of agitation, and make them spend much 
of their time and money in attending their frequent meetings. These 
combinations prevail most among the colliers, and the weavers. 
The great number of inns, alehouses, and spirit -shops that abound 
in Airdrie, and other parts of the parish, affords great temptations 
to idleness, and dissipation, which involve many families in po- 
verty and misery. Licenses on these houses should be greatly in- 
creased, so as greatly to reduce their number. 

July 1835. 



PARISH OF HAMILTON. 

PRESBYTERY OF HAMILTON, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. WILLIAM MEEK, D. D.) 
THE REV. WILLIAM BUCHAN, / 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 
Name. THE ancient name of this parish was Cadzow, com- 
monly pronounced Cawgo or Caygae, the etymology of which is 
uncertain. From " Acts of Parliament published by command of 
his Majesty," we learn, that the name of this parish was changed 
from Cadzow to Hamilton, by virtue of a charter granted by James 
Second of Scotland, to James first Lord Hamilton, dated 3d July 
1445. In the above carta erectionis we have the following words, 
" Et manerium dicti Jacobi, (i. e. of Lord Hamilton,) quod nunc 
le Orcharde nominator, jacen. in baronia de Caidzhow, erit in futu- 
rum principale capitale messuagium omnium baroniarum, superi- 
oritatis, et terrarum prenominatarum, cum pertinen. totius dominii 
predicti, et Hamilton vocabitur et intitulabitur ;" from whence it 
appears that the manerium or manor-house of the Hamiltons, si- 

* This Account was drawn up by the Reverend William Patrick, author of a 
" Popular Description of the Indigenous Plants of Lanarkshire," &c. 



250 LANARKSHIRE. 

tuated near where the palace now stands, was formerly called the 
Orchard. 

Boundaries, Extent, fyc. The parish of Hamilton is situated in 
the middleward of the county of Lanark, (of which the town of Ha- 
milton is the capital) between 55 48' and 55 43' 18" north latitude. 
From Maidenlee in the south to Bothwell Bridge in the north, it 
is six miles in length ; and from Rottenburn, where it meets with 
the parish of Blantyre on the west, to the bank of the Clyde op- 
posite Carbarns, where it comes into contact with the parish of 
Dalserf, on the east, the distance is exactly the same across. The 
Clyde forms the north and north-east boundaries for about five 
miles, separating it from the parishes of Bothwell, Dalzel, and 
Cambusnethan. On meeting with Dalserf, at the above point op- 
posite Carbarns, the boundary line takes a south-west direction, 
cutting off one house in the north-west end of the village of Lark- 
hall, crossing the Carlisle road about a furlong and a-half above 
the fourteenth milestone from Glasgow; and reaching the Avon 
opposite Fairholm, it runs along the banks of that water to Mill- 
heugh Bridge. After this, the parish of Stonehouse forms the 
south-east boundary for a mile and a-half. Between the farms 
of Langfaugh and Craigthorn hill, the parish of Glasford coming 
in, forms the south and south-west boundaries, as far as Rotten- 
burn. From this point to Bothwell Bridge, the parish of Blan- 
tyre forms the western boundary. Thus we have Bothwell on the 
north, Dalzel, Cambusnethan, Dalserf, and Stonehouse on the 
east, Glasford on the south and south-west, and Blantyre on the 
west. The figure of the parish is an irregular polygon. It con- 
tains 22.25 square miles, or 14,240 standard imperial acres. 

Topographical Appearances. Linnaeus remarks, that the ocean 
is the mother of the land ; and it may be said with equal truth, 
that the Clyde is the mother of the lower lands of Clydesdale. 
This noble river, rising in the higher regions of Crawford, traver- 
ses a whinstone or trap district till near the falls above Lanark. 
Here the rocks suddenly change from crystalline trap to sand- 
stone and shale. Through these softer materials the river seems 
to have forced a way. From a mild and placid stream, gently 
meandering through verdant meadows, and wide expanding pas- 
tures, it becomes all at once a turbid, unruly, boisterous torrent, 
deeply engulfed in gloomy defiles of perpendicular rocks, or rush- 
ing headlong over lofty precipices. Below the falls, the banks be- 
gin to expand, and at their bases fertile haughs or holms are form- 



HAMILTON. 251 

ed. About eight or ten miles below Stonebyres, the last fall on 
the Clyde, the banks of the river, receding to a more than usual 
distance, leave a great extent of plain or level ground. These 
low and fertile haughs, chiefly on the v/est bank of the Clyde, with 
the gently sloping ridge behind, constitute the parish of Hamil- 
ton. There are a few hundred acres on the east of the Clyde, 
which ought of right to belong to the parish of Dalzel. 

Meteorology. As a general rule, it is observable, that every 
300 feet of altitude make a difference of about one degree in tem- 
perature. Thus when the barometer is 29.5 in the lower grounds, 
near the town of Hamilton, it is 29.007 on the higher ridge in the 
west ; which ought to give an elevation of about 500 feet. The 
town of Hamilton is upwards of 80 feet above the level of the sea, 
thus we have an elevation of 580 feet. Many neighbouring 
ridges are much higher ; probably 750 or 800 feet. In these up- 
per regions the temperature is generally one or two degrees lower 
than in the more sheltered vales in the Clyde, and the harvest is 
from a week to a month later. But besides the differences indi- 
cated by the thermometer and barometer, there are also very vari- 
ous hygrometrical results. After long-continued droughts, the 
columns of air being denser and of greater altitude in the vales 
than on the heights, buoy up the clouds, till attracted by the lof- 
tier ridges on the east and west, their cohesion is dissolved, and 
their contents precipitated. In this way the haughs and lower 
grounds on the Clyde are often parched with drought, while the 
heights on every side are saturated with rain. The qualities of 
air contributing to these results, also tend to promote exhalation 
in the lower grounds, and to relieve the soil and atmosphere from 
the superabundant moisture, so inimical to vegetation in the high- 
er parts of the parish. From rain-gages kept here, and in a 
neighbouring parish, it appears that the average quantity of rain 
for five years was 20.003 inches. The average number of dry 
and wet days in each month has also been ascertained from tables 
kept for that purpose for ten years. The result is as follows : 

Dry. Wet. Dry. Wet. Dry. Wet. Dry. Wet- 

Nov. 23 7 Feb. 23 5 May, 24 7 Aug. 24 7 

Dec. 24 7 Mar. 26 5 June, 23 7 Sept. 22 8 

Jan. 25 6 Apr. 22 8 July, 21 10 Oct. 24 7 

72 20 71 18 68 24 70 22 
Total days, 84 wet, and 281 dry. 

The above is only an average, from which there are wide devia- 
tions. In 1826, there was scarcely a drop of rain during March and 



252 LANARKSHIRE. 

April, and the three summer months ; while in July 1828, rain 
fell on the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 
18th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 26th, 28th, 29th; and in August on the 
3d, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 13th, 14th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 24th. It 
thundered on the 5th, 8th, 12th. In September there were eight 
rainy days, and in October six. It generally thunders about the 
third Sunday of July, a fact observable from neighbouring sacra- 
ments, happening on that day, seldom passing without electrical 
explosions. 

The wind, on an average of years, is 230 days in the west; 
namely, about 55 days west, 55 north-west, and 120 south-west. 
It is 110 days in the east, namely, 25 east, 50 north-east, and 35 
south-east. It is seldom more than 25 days in the north and 
south. 

Registers of the thermometer and barometer, kept here for three 
years by Dr King, R. N. vary so little from those kept at Glas- 
gow, and published in the Glasgow Medical Journal, that it is un- 
necessary to give them a place. The barometer on an average 
ranges between 30.53 and 28.73. The thermometer is seldom 
above 75 in July, or below 15 in January. In the hottest days, in 
a small room facing the north, it fluctuates between 65 and 70. In 
mean monthly temperature, January is the lowest, namely, from 35 
to 38, and July the highest, from 58 to 60. February and No- 
vember are from 40 to 42 ; but November is the warmer of the 
two. The same analogy holds between March and October, the 
average heat being 45 to 47 ; but October is warmer than March. 
April is seldom so warm as September, nor is May so warm as 
August. The greatest heats and the heaviest rains are after the 
longest day. 

From the above remarks, the reader will be enabled to form a 
tolerably accurate idea of the climate. The air is in general re- 
puted healthful ; and the splendid scenery around affords abundant 
scope for pleasant and exhilarating excursions. Fogs are not fre- 
quent, and rains less so than at some other places a few miles dis- 
tant. Colds, consumption, fevers of different kinds, particularly 
a slow nervous fever, to be afterwards described, fluxes, and inflam- 
mation, in different forms, at times prevail here, as in other places 
around. Gravel and other calculous complaints are on the decline ; 
but inflammations, palsy, and apoplexy, are supposed to be on the 
increase, probably from what is termed the improved mode of 
living, and the more liberal use of ardent spirits and other stimu- 



HAMILTON. 253 

lating liquors. Small -pox, which, in the year 1787, carried off se- 
venty-five children in this parish, was for many years almost un- 
known. Of late it has reappeared, but in a less fatal form. Among 
the list of new diseases, we may mention dysentery, which was 
little known here till the spring of 1818. It appeared in that year 
in the months of March and April, and in the end of June, and 
in July, August, and September. Thermometer, in the first pe- 
riod, greatest height 67; least height 29. The last days of March, 
and the first six of April, were foggy and calm ; from the 8th to 
the 1 2th snow and rain fell ; from that to the end of the month, 
windy, with a few calm days. Wind, N. E. and E. A year or two 
after, this disease made its appearance among the cavalry in the 
barracks, and as their surgeon had never seen it before, he very 
prudently called in medical assistance from the town. It raged 
fearfully for some time ; but the terror it excited has of late almost 
entirely given place to that of its more formidable successor, cholera. 
From July to November 1832, sixty-three individuals, mostly fe- 
males, and many of them in the poorest circumstances, fell victims 
to this new and appalling scourge. The hospital near the barracks, 
and other incidental expenses, cost the parish upwards of L. 600. 
It has not since appeared in this place. The slow nervous or re- 
mittent fever, above alluded to, is a variety of the gastric fever of 
some authors, and is by many of our ablest physicians considered 
as being, perhaps, peculiar to Hamilton. It seems to have its 
source in the irritation of the digestive organs.* 

Frosts of long continuance are now of rare occurrence. The 
most remarkable were in the winters of 1708, 1715, 1739, (called 
the hard frost,) 1742, 1754, 1776, 1788, 1796, and 1813. The 
heaviest snows of late have been in March and April, as in 1820 
and 1827. In 1809, a heavy fall of snow, on the 31st of May, 
and again on the 5th of June, did great damage in the orchards 
and woodlands, by breaking down the branches of the trees then 
in full verdure. On the 5th February 1831, several persons in 
this neighbourhood were lost in the snow. 

Hydrography. The river Clyde and the other waters in the 
district are occasionally subject to great inundations. In 738, 

* The symptoms, according to an amiable and much lamented individual, the late 
Dr John Hume of Hamilton, are, ' Headach often very severe ; pain in the back and 
loins, and sometimes in the chest ; sometimes delirium, but transient ; never stupor, ex- 
cept immediately before death ; variable pulse, but in general quick ; frequent cough ; 
heat and dryness of skin, alternating with chilliness, nausea, vomiting of bilious 
matters, pain in the epigastrium and bowels generally, want of appetite, white 
tongue, either pure or mixed with red points, generally costiveness, and turbid urine. 



254 LANARKSHIRE. 

a flood destroyed 400 families. Grey, in his Chronicle, mentions 
another great spate on 25th and 26th November 1454, which 
brought down " hale housis, barnis, and millis," and obliged the 
inhabitants of Garion, near Dalserf, to take to their house-tops. 
To escape such catastrophes, the principal part of the Netherton 
stood on a high ground which the Clyde never inundated; and it 
was probably the fright which the above-mentioned flood occasion- 
ed that caused Lord Hamilton, the year following, to remove the 
Collegiate Church to the place where Hamilton Palace now stands. 
On the 12th of March 1782, the flood was nearly two feet higher 
than was ever remembered before ; and the river rose about sixteen 
feet perpendicular above the ordinary level of low water. It over- 
flowed a great tract of country, and appeared like an arm of the sea. 
The date of this flood, and the height of the water, are recorded 
on Hamilton Bridge. In the autumn of 1807, another great spate 
carried off a vast quantity of grain, then standing in the stook, and 
swept away the two centre arches of Hamilton Bridge. On the 
9th February 1831, on the melting of the snow, the Clyde rose 
at Blantyre Mills to the height of twelve feet nine inches above its 
usual level ; and at Hamilton Bridge it was within six inches of the 
flood-mark of 1782. 

Besides the Clyde, the course of which has already been de- 
scribed, the parish is traversed by the Avon, (an old British word 
which signifies the " water,") and nine smaller streamlets or burns, 
six of which fall into the Avon, and three into the Clyde. All of 
these have their origin in the high grounds in the west and south- 
west of the parish. By time and perseverance (like their mightier 
chief the Clyde,) they have forced their way through great chasms 
in the sandstone rocks, forming magnificent heughs or ravines of 
great magnitude, infinitely varied, and richly wooded. These con- 
stitute part of the " beauties of Scotland," of which a stranger pas- 
sing along the highway knows and sees but little. The Avon rises 
on the west, near the boundary line between the parish of Strath- 
avon and the county of Ayr. After running for many miles through 
a pastoral country, and the better cultivated tracts of Avondale and 
Stonehouse, it enters the parish of Hamilton, at Millheugh Bridge. 
About half a mile onwards, it is at length engulfed in a stupen- 
dous and rocky defile, equal in grandeur, variety, and picturesque 
effect, to the finest scenery of the kind in Britain. It bears no in- 
considerable resemblance to the celebrated banks at Roslin, near 
Edinburgh, but is finer, and on a more majestic scale. In many 

l 



HAMILTON. 255 

places the rocks tower up to the height of 250 or 300 feet, and are 
frequently crowned with stately oaks of great antiquity, and of sin- 
gular and romantic forms. These noble banks are everywhere 
densely covered with hard-wood of numerous sorts, and of various 
tints ; and at their summits on the west, Hamilton wood stretches 
far beyond. Near the centre of this gloomy chasm, the ruins of 
Cadzow Castle appear " like centinel of fairy land," on the summit 
of a lofty rock, nearly 200 feet above the bed of the Avon. On 
the opposite side of the river, on the east, the modern chateau or 
banqueting-house known by the name of Chatelherault, or Wham, 
arises with its red walls, its four square towers all in a line, its 
gaudy pinnacles, its globular and circular ornaments, and its beautiful 
flower garden. It was built after the model of the Citadel at Cha- 
telherault in Poitou, about 1732. Near the northern extremity of 
this romantic dell, and about three miles from its commencement, 
the ancient terraced gardens of Barncluith, (or Baron's Cleugh,) 
the property of Lord Ruthven, appear on the west bank of the Avon, 
remarkable not only for their site and design, for their formal 
walks and topiary work, but also as affording the best specimen ex- 
tant of an old garden in the French style, (misnamed Dutch, in 
compliment to William of Orange,) as it existed in the sixteenth 
century. After this, the Avon, beginning to emancipate itself from 
restraint, enters the haughs of Hamilton, and is lost in the Clyde, 
at Hamilton bridge.* 

Cadzow burn, which still retains the ancient name of the parish, 
rises in Wackenwae well, in Glasford, and runs through the town 
of Hamilton ; after which it enters the Duke of Hamilton's lower 
policy, where it is arched over nearly to the point where it joins 
the Clyde, at the old ford and boat-house below Hamilton Bridge. 
Barncluith burn, which enters the Avon about half a mile east of 
Hamilton, is remarkable for six falls, (all in Hamilton wood,) each 
from 5 to 6 feet high. The banks of this burn, immediately below 
the falls, seem anciently to have been of more consequence than at 
present. Within half a mile of each other, we have Quhitecamp, 
now Silvertonhill, Castle-hill, and Covant burn, although no traces of 
a camp, castle, or convent are now to be found, nor is any history or 
tradition of them preserved. The above waters are all clear pur- 
ling streams, running on a fine bed of sand and gravel, or on the 
bare sandstone or shale. The average breadth of the Clyde is 

* This spot has given rise to a beautiful and popular song, (attributed, by mistake, 
to Burns,) " Whore Avon mingles with the Clyde." 



256 LANARKSHIRE. 

from 80 to 100 yards. Its average velocity is from 2 to 8 or 10 
miles an hour. In some places it is 10 or 12 feet deep, and at 
some fords and streams it is scarcely 1. Its temperature in July, 
when the thermometer was 65 in the shade, was 60. 

The springs are all from the surface, and are formed by the in- 
tervention of clay and sand strata, the former holding water, and 
the latter permitting its free passage. The process of filtration is 
also promoted by the fissures in the metals, and the looser and more 
porous materials with which they are filled up. In well-digging, 
it is looked upon as a maxim, that there is no water till clay is 
reached, and penetrated quite through. Many of our best wells, 
however, are in the solid rock, and few of them more than 20 feet 
in depth. Their average temperature in July, when the thermo- 
meter was 65, was 50. In the beginning of November, when 
the thermometer was 45, the temperature of the springs was nearly 
the same as in July. Many of the wells in Hamilton hold a cal- 
careous substance (the carbonate and sulphate of lime) in solution, 
equal to a 1500th part of their volume. The carbonate of lime 
is a substance equally innocuous as common salt, and although 
the springs in which it occurs always produce a hard sort of water, 
which is not fit for washing or bleaching, yet for culinary purposes 
it is quite unexceptionable. There are several chalybeate springs 
in the parish, but none of these are in high repute. 

Geology. In forming an accurate and comprehensive view of the 
geology of this district, if we take the granite rocks of Galloway 
as the base, we have superincumbent upon them, 1. the greywacke 
of Leadhills and Wanlockhead ; 2. the red sandstone over which 
the Clyde is precipitated at Lanark ; and 3. the coal formation of 
the middle and lower wards, consisting of bituminous shale, coal, 
gray limestone, gray sandstone, and clay ironstone ; thus afford- 
ing a beautiful illustration of the transition and carboniferous 
epochs. The sandstone rocks are, for the most part, in great 
masses, repeatedly broken by horizontal and perpendicular fissures. 
They vary from a few inches or feet, to 50 or 200 or 300 feet in 
thickness. The strata, with few exceptions, dip in a N. E. di- 
rection towards the Clyde. The dip varies from three to twelve 
degrees, or from one to four feet in twenty. In many places the 
dip is one in six. There is a small stratum of whin or trap in the 
S. W. of the parish, which attains its greatest altitude at High- 
cross- Knoll. 



HAMILTON. 257 

The soil superincumbent on the above strata is of various sorts. 
The extensive valleys along the Clyde are of a deep fertile loam 
on a sandy or loose gravelly subsoil. A remarkable tract of sandy 
soil, several miles in length, and about a mile and a -half in breadth, 
commences at Cunningar, runs through the farm of Merryton, and 
southwards by Raploch in Dalserf, and Kittimuir in Stonehouse. 
On this soil it is observed that potatoes do not in general thrive 
well after the application of lime. In the middle of the parish 
the subsoil is mostly a yellow clay, (the Argilla communis of Lin- 
nseus.) In the upper and bleaker parts, a bluish or grayish clay 
prevails, more or less impregnated with gravel and other siliceous 
substances. This last is the very worst description of soil. There 
is little or no peat in the parish. The surface on the whole " not 
being broken by any great irregularities, the land is all arable, ex- 
cept some steep banks by the sides of the river and brooks, a few 
swampy meadows in the upper part of the parish, and such parts 
as are covered with planting or natural wood, the extent of which 
is considerable." The haughs on the Clyde are all of transport- 
ed soil, and seem at some former period to have formed the bot- 
toms of lakes ; for there is no haugh without its dam at the lower 
part of it, by which the water was no doubt once retained. Thus, 
the dam of the Hamilton haughs was a little below Bothwell Bridge; 
that of the Ross, Allanton, and Merryton haughs, at the camp of 
Dalzel. Dalserf, Dalpatrick, and Dalbeg haughs were dammed 
up at Garion Mill ; and the haughs of Overton and Thrippet, at 
Milton Bridge. At what period the waters forced a passage through 
these several barriers, it is impossible now to ascertain. The bottoms 
of all our rivers and burns are imbedded with gravel, consisting of 
the debris of granite, basalt, quartz, and various other descriptions 
of rocks. In the bed of Cadzow burn, at the flesh-market, there 
are water-worn blocks of granite, and boulders of highly indurated 
red sandstone of two or three feet diameter, imbedded in the solid 
rock. In Barncluith burn, there are also large blocks of granite 
several feet in diameter, lying upon a bed of shale. It is well-known 
that there are no granite rocks nearer than forty miles and up- 
wards, and the course of these burns is not more than six miles. 
The question, therefore, comes to be, whence do these strangers 
come? Large water-worn masses of pure basalt are also found in the 
bed of every torrent, and wherever the soil is dug into. 

Coal, lime, and ironstone, are found in various places. Coal is 
chiefly wrought at Quarter, about three miles south of the town of 



258 LANARKSHIRE. 

Hamilton. The same bed also extends a great way northwards in the 
direction of Glasgow, but owing to a slip in the coal metals between 
the farms of Simpsonland and Carscallan, a little to the north of 
Quarter, the coal is sunk nearly 100 fathoms below its usual level ; 
an accident which puts it almost beyond the reach of the inhabitants 
of Hamilton, Blantyre, and part of Bothwell ; the strata not rising 
up again till near Cambuslang. The existence of this remarkable 
fracture is indicated by the coal metals on the banks of the Avon, 
and on other burns below the place where the break occurs, all 
dipping to the south-west; whereas, above that particular spot, 
they, and indeed the whole strata of the district, with this single 
exception, dip to the north-east. The coal strata here resemble 
those throughout the county. At Quarter, the first bed worth 
working is the 10 feet or woman's coal, so called because it was 
once wrought by.females. This is a soft coal, which burns rapid- 
ly ; and although called the 10 feet coal, is in reality from 7 to 
14 feet in thickness. Fifteen fathoms lower down, the ell coal oc- 
curs, so called because it was at first found of that thickness ; but 
it is frequently from 4 to 6 feet thick. In the fire it cakes, or 
runs into a mass, and is much esteemed by blacksmiths. Ten or 
fifteen fathoms below the former, is the seam called the main-coal. 
This at Quarter is 5 feet 6 inches thick, and consists of four dis- 
tinct varieties of coal. 1st, The ground coal, undermost, 20 
inches thick, gummy and sooty. 2d, Immediately above it the 
yolk or jet coal, 6 inches thick, of a fine clear vitreous texture, like 
cannel coal, affording abundance of light. 3d, Parrot coal, 10 inches. 
4th, Splint coal, 30 inches. This is the coal now wrought both 
by shanks and ingoing pits. The shanks at Quarter are about 30 
fathoms. The mouths of the ingoing pits are on the banks of 
the Avon two miles above Hamilton. These pits communicate with 
each other ; and at their farthest recesses, swarms of flies are of- 
ten observed. They also abound with rats and mice. Below the 
main coal, the lump, hard, soft, and sour-milk seams of coal occur, 
each at the depth of about 15 fathoms, the one below the other. 
Between and above these, there are many smaller seams. The 
whole of the seams added together will give a thickness of from 
20 to 24 feet. Coal is also wrought to the south at Plotcock and 
Langfaugh, but on a smaller scale. Some trifling seams have been 
found at Devonhill, on the west side of the parish. The coal is 
brought from Quarter by a railway along the banks of the Avon, 
and is laid down at Avon bridge, half a mile from Hamilton, at 3s. 



HAMILTON. 259 

9d. a-ton. Here horses and donkeys are employed to cart it into 
the town, at from lOd. to 15d. per ton. The donkey carts are of 
great service to poor people, who get ten or twelve cwts. laid down 
at from 2s. 3d. to 2s. 6d. Upwards of 10,000 tons are here sold 
annually. About half that quantity is disposed of at Quarter to peo- 
ple on the Strathavon and Stonehouse side of the parish. There 
are various other collieries in the neighbourhood. 

There are two principal beds or posts of lime, namely, a 4 feet bed 
below the 6 feet coal ; and about 12 fathoms farther down, a 6 feet 
bed. The 4 feet bed crops out at Crookedstone, and the 6 feet 
bed at Boghead, in the south-west of the parish. This last is a 
dark lime of excellent quality, and is that which is chiefly made 
use of in building and agriculture. The tenantry on the Hamil- 
ton estate obtain it on very liberal terms. 

A seam of ironstone, about 18 inches thick, occurs below the 4 
feet lime, but it has never been wrought in this parish. It crops 
out at Crookedstone, and at Boghead. A similar seam, 15 fa- 
thoms below the splint coal, is wrought exactly at the same eleva- 
tion near Newhouse in Bothwell, on the opposite side of the Clyde. 
Balls of ironstone, from the size of a pea to several inches in dia- 
meter, abound in the fire-clay connected with the coal formation. 
Rich seams of this valuable material are disclosed by the cutting 
of the railway on the Avon. 

The above strata are the depositories of many organic remains. 
The following are a few of the most common and interesting. 
Turbo Uriiy Paludina flumorum, Phasianella angulosa et minuta, 
Seller oplwn Urn, in limestone, Terebratula affinis, and probably 
many more of the same genus; Productus Martini et Lonyispi- 
nus, the under valve has a few spines like mother of pearl ; Pec- 
ten papyraceus in shale ; Gryphcea minuta in a thin bed of 
clay above the lime ; Nucula attenuata and gibbosa, in till on 
the banks of the Avon. Small pieces of black mineralized wood 
(Phytolithus trunci) are found above the lime, so hard as to strike 
fire ; and yet the component parts so distinct, that the bark, the dif- 
ferent years growth, and the pith, can be easily distinguished. 
They seem chiefly of the pine genus. Impressions of several ge- 
nera and species of ferns (Phytolitha totalis) are found in the bed 
of the Avon near the coal mines. These are inclosed in pieces of 
water-worn schist or blaes, which ought to be carefully broken in 
order to obtain the impressions entire. The plants thus procured 
are chiefly exotics. There are several petrifying springs, particu- 



260 LANARKSHIRE. 

larly one on a small rivulet which falls into the Avon above Cad- 
zow Castle, where beautiful petrifactions othypna are found. Beds 
of fuller's earth (Argitta fullonica) and potter's earth ( Argilla 
leucargilla) are found in various quarters ; and in one part a very 
pure yellow ochre (Argilla lutea) in considerable quantities. 

Zoology. Under this branch, as the parish is not a little 
distinguished, a rather lengthened description may be allowed. 
Among the quadrupeds, we may mention Maries abietum, the mer- 
trick or pine-martin. It is very common here, producing its young 
in the old nests of the crow and magpie, on the summits of the 
loftiest trees. It is very ravenous, and is frequently caught in 
stamps. The weasel, ermine and foumart, abound ; and also the 
otter, badger, wild-cat, hedgehog, &c. The Ccrvus capreolus, or 
roe, is an occasional visitant. Five of these were seen in a flock 
in Hamilton woods last year (1833). That variety of Sorex ara- 
neus which has the " upper parts dusky-gray, under yellowish 
white," is occasionally observed. An individual has also a stuffed 
specimen, (killed here) of what appears to be the S. quadricaudatus 
of Linnaeus. 

The woods here are extensive, and vocal with birds. The four 
species which follow, have not hitherto obtained a place in the 
Scottish Fauna. 1. Pernis apivorus, honey buzzard, shot at Cha- 
telherault in the autumn of 1831. 2. Saxicola rubicola, stone-chat. 
This bird has built for many years at the root of a furze bush near 
Hamilton. It forms a curious road into its nest, about half a yard 
in length, through the long grass. The eggs are blue, with rufous 
spots at the larger end. A fine male of this species, shot a mile 
from Hamilton, is in possession of Mr Kirkland, weaving agent.* 
3. Curruca sylviella, lesser white-throat. This bird, supposed to 
be confined to England, is common here. The nest is sometimes 
in a hedge, but more frequently among long dry grass, by the side 
of a wood, four or five inches from the ground, and generally over- 
shadowed by a twig of bramble or some other shrub. The nest is 
more compact than that of the larger white-throat, which, in addi- 
tion to its numerous names, is here called " Beardy, and Blethering 
Tarn." The song of the sylviella is sweeter and more perfect than 
that of the common sort, and its eggs are also very different. 4. 
Curruca salicaria, or sedge warbler. An individual of this species 

* Since writing the above, I have seen another male of the ruUcola shot at Hes. 
pielaw, in this parish. A pair had been observed flying about during the summer, 
and probably had their nest there. 

4 



HAMILTON. 261 

is now in the collection of a person named Mowat. It was killed 
by a boy throwing a stone (last summer) near a marshy place on 
the Clyde. 

Among the rarer birds of Scotland, the following are pretty com- 
mon here : Fringilla montium, twite, or heather linnet. This bird 
gravely represented in some popular works on ornithology, as build- 
ing in France, and as being " occasionally caught by the London 
bird-catchers," is here common enough, and is well known to almost 
every schoolboy. The nest is generally in a heather bush, in a 
brae, or slight declivity, and is very skilfully concealed. It resem- 
bles that of the common linnet, but is smaller, and is mostly lined 
with wool. In autumn, especially when frost begins, they descend 
in flocks to the lower grounds. Muscicapa grisola, spotted fly- 
catcher : This bird, as far as can be ascertained, is in this district 
confined to the vale of the Clyde at Hamilton and Bothwell. It 
builds in out-houses and in wall-trees, in the most frequented 
places. It is a tame and silent bird, and disappears in September. 
Sylvia phaenicurus, redstart or red-tail, is exceedingly abundant. 
The Certhia familiaris also occurs in the parish. The Curruca 
atricapilla or black-cap is common, but here it seems to lose that 
varied and melodious song for which it is famous in the south, and 
on account of which it is sometimes called the mock nightingale. 
The Motacilla flava^ or yellow wagtail, is here called the Seed 
Lady. Motacilla boarula, or gray- wagtail, which some natu- 
ralists say is " chiefly observed in winter" is most common with 
us in summer, and builds among stones, and on the rocks by the 
sides of rivulets. It is asserted that the siskin, Fringilla spinus, 
builds here, but upon no sure authority. The goatsucker, the mis- 
sel-thrush, the dipper, the yellow-wren, the crested-titmouse, the 
bullfinch, goldfinch, starling, &c. are common. The missel-thrush 
builds in orchards, and lines with clay beneath the small wrack, ex- 
cept where the branches of the tree embrace the nest. Opposite these 
there is no plaster work, the branch itself affording abundance of 
shelter. A person kept a tame one in Hamilton, which sung remark- 
ably well. The Alcedo ispida, or kingfisher, builds here regularly. 

A large heronry may now be seen in Hamilton haughs. There 
were about thirty nests this season. The heron seems to prefer the 
loftiest trees for building on, especially those a little elevated above 
the rest, by the nature of the ground on which they stand. These 
birds are frequently attacked by the carrion-crow, on their return 
from their fishing expeditions, and the prey snatched from them. 

LANARK. S 



262 LANARKSHIRE. 

The jackdaw, although he in general prefers old ruins for his breed- 
ing place, builds here abundantly in the holes of the old oaks in 
Hamilton wood. In the month of May they spread themselves 
over dry old pastures, where they pick up vast quantities of insects, 
caterpillars, and beetles. At this season they forsake their old com- 
panions the rooks; but return to them again in autumn. A nest of 
the Cypselus apus, or swift, was got this summer with three young.* 

The following species are often shot: Lanius excubitor, cinereous 
shrike. It appears chiefly in autumn, and sometimes attacks the 
call-birds of the bird-catcher in their cages. Bombycilla garrula, 
wax-wing, or Bohemian chatterer. These are irregular visitants. 
Three individuals were shot in 1830 with heps in their stomachs. 
A vast flock of them appeared in the haughs of Hamilton in the 
winter of 1782. They are regarded as birds of evil omen. Loxia 
curvirostra, or cross-bill, Emberiza nivalis, or snow-bunting, Friri- 
gilla montifringilla, mountain-finch, or cock of the north, and 
many other winter birds are observed. No species of Picus or 
woodpecker has ever been observed in this part of Scotland. In 
winter many species of sea-fowl, chiefly first year's birds, are shot 
on the Clyde. The erne is often observed. Yunx torquilla was 
lately shot. 

Of the reptile kind, the Anguis fragilis, or blind-worm, is very 
common at Chatelherault. It is so brittle that it readily breaks 
if let fall, or when suddenly laid hold on. Having no poison fangs 
its bite is not venomous. It hides in holes in the winter, and is 
sometimes seen abroad in the spring, by the beginning of March. 
Some years ago a vast number of young vipers, with some old ones 
of great magnitude, were turned up when digging a plot of ground 
near Woodyet. These, in the true viper spirit, struck their long 
barbed tongues against the spades of the workmen with great vio- 
lence, and seemed very angry at being thus invaded in their an- 
cient domains. This species is very venomous. Vast quantities of 
frogs are sometimes found congregated in moist marshy places, many 
feet below the surface. About a hogshead-full were dug up some 

* About two years ago, many of the inhabitants of Hamilton were attracted to 
Mr Fisher's at Claud's-burn, in the neighbourhood of the town, to see a robin red- 
breast feeding a young cuckoo, which it had hatched. The little bird had been a pet 
during the winter, but leaving its master, and searching out for a mate in the spring, 
met with this misfortune. The toil of feeding so large a bird as the cuckoo, which 
by this time was flying about the orchard, soon compelled robin to apply once more 
to his former benefactor for assistance ; and it was curious to see the fond dupe come 
and peck worms, and other viands, out of Mr Fisher's hand, and carry them off di- 
rectly to his great insatiable pseudo- nestling. 



HAMILTON. 263 

years ago, near the margin of a spouty ditch, in the high parks of 
Hamilton. 

There are abundance of fish in the Clyde and its tributaries. 
Of these, the Leuciscus rutilus, roach or braize, is the most un- 
common. The other species are the salmon, trout, pike, perch, 
loach, minnow, lampreys, silver eels, and small flounders. The 
lampreys may be congregated in vast quantities by throwing a piece 
of carrion into the water.* 

That disputed species, the par or samlet of Pennant, abounds . 
at particular seasons. Dr Fleming, in his History of British 
Animals, observes, that this species is now " generally consi- 
dered as the young of Salmo trutta, or sea-trout, or of the sal- 
mon." That it is not the young of the sea-trout is certain ; for, al- 
though we have myriads of pars, no such species as sea-trout was 
ever found here. It may be said, they are spawned below, and come 
up the water; but it does not appear how so small a fish as a par 
could get over Blantyre dam, three miles below Hamilton. The 
lowering of the dam at Millheugh, on the Avon, now going on, 
will allow the passage of the salmon, but not of smaller fish ; and 
if after this the par is found above the dam, we may conclude it 
is the spawn of the salmon. Nous verrons. 

The eggs of insects seem to be distributed as universally, and 
with as much care, as the seeds of plants. The number of these 
" little wonders" inhabiting this part of Scotland is truly astonish- 
ing ; and, although some pretty good collections of them have been 
made, they have not hitherto been half investigated. The follow- 
ing are a few of the most interesting : Coleoptera, or beetles. 1. 
Silpha quadripunctata. An insect of the above species was found 
here in 1826. This is an exceedingly rare insect. 2. Rhagium 
bifaciatum. 3. Leptura quadrifaciata. To these we may add the 
three following species, namely, the Scarabaus melolontha, S. brun- 
neus, and S. horticola. Dr Rennie mentions the Melolontha or 
cockchaffer as occurring (in this end of the island) only at Sorn 
in Ayrshire. It is certainly fortunate for Scotland that an insect 
so very destructive in its habits is of so very rare occurrence; but 
still several places in this country are occasionally subjected to its 
ravages. In the summer of 1833, a great deal of grass was de- 
stroyed by this insect, and many thousands^ of them were caught 
at Chatelherault. 

* The horse- muscle, Mytillns anatimts and M. cygneus, are plentiful in the Clyde. 
They sometimes contain small pearls ; hut these are in general coarse and ill-coloured. 



264 LANARKSHIRE. 

Among the Hemiptera of this parish, we may now record Blatta 
Americana, which has probably been brought over in raw sugar. 
The cock-roach occasionally secretes itself in a pot of jam or jelly, 
where it attains an enormous size, and assumes a darker and more 
glossy hue ; but it loses somewhat of its activity by this over-indul- 
gence of its appetites. It is brought with baggage from sea, but 
soon disappears. 

Of Lepidoptera, there are here many rare species. Among the 
butterfly tribe we may mention, Vanessa Atalanta or red admir- 
able. This species is pretty common. The caterpillar is solitary, 
and feeds on the nettle. The butterfly appears in August, and, it 
has been said, lives through the winter. The Vanessa lo, or pea- 
cock butterfly, is more rare. The caterpillar feeds on the nettle, 
and the perfect insect appears in July. The Theda quercus, or 
purple hair streak, is found in May and June. The Hipparchia 
mcegcera, or gate-keeper, and the H. cegeria, or speckled wood, are al- 
so found. The Lyccena alsus, or small blue, is common here. The 
Hesperia Tages, or dingy skipper, and Vanessa cardui, or painted 
lady, may be also mentioned. Vast flights of this last species oc- 
casionally occur on the continent. It is one of the few insects found 
in all quarters of the globe. The following moths also occur : Sa- 
turnia Pavonia minor, or emperor moth. This is an early and ele- 
gant insect, appearing in April and May. The caterpillars feed on 
the bramble and dog-rose. Pygcera bucephala, or buff tip moth, 
is common in some seasons, and very rare in others. The Cerura 
vinula, or puss moth, Acherontia atropos, death's head moth, La- 
siocampa rubi, fox-egger-moth, Smerinthus populi, Zygcena JUi- 
pendula, Microglossa stellularum, Plusia gamma, and many other 
species occur. Biston betularis, is as if a pepper-box had been 
dusted on its wings. Abraxas grossulariata is common in some sea- 
sons, and in others very scarce. These keep chiefly to the lower 
grounds, and in many places, only 50 feet above Hamilton, are 
never met with at all. Among the fruit moths the Bradyepetes do- 
labraria, is the greatest scourge of the orchard. Various species 
of Hepialus, supposed to be found only in England, occur here. 
The Cleophora fagana, and Phragmatobia fuliginosa are very rare 
insects. 

Among the Hymenoptera, we may note Ichneumon luteus, I. 
manifestor, and two varieties of Chrysopa reticulata. 

Botany. As nearly all the phsenogamous plants have already been 
published in a " Popular descriptio-n of the indigenous plants of La- 



HAMILTON. 265 

narkshire," we will only mention the three following among the rarer 
species : 1. A variety of Antirrhinum repens. The stem is simple, 
and has four linear leaves in whorls from top to bottom. The 
whole plant is glabrous, and is found on an old wall, to the north of 
Hamilton wood. 2. Cnicus eriophorus. This magnificent plant 
is now common in waste ground at Woodyet. 3. Chrysocoma Li- 
nosyris, or flax-leaved-goldilocks. This plant, a native of the 
south, has lately appeared on the banks of the Clyde, in a very re- 
mote spot, in great abundance. The roots or seeds have proba- 
bly been brought down by the water. 

A description of the Cryptogamice of this parish and district is now 
in preparation. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Historical Notices. In 1 153 and in 1289, the old Scottish kings 
held their courts at Cadzow ; which continued to be royal pro- 
perty till after the battle of Bannockburn. This district has been 
occasionally the scene of important events, which, as they are well 
known in Scottish history, need not be here particularly noticed. 

Covenanters. In November 1650, Cromwell sent General Lam- 
bert, and Commissary General Whalley, to Hamilton, with five re- 
giments of cavalry to overawe the west-country Covenanters, or to 
bring them over to his own terms. They were there attacked by 
Colonel Kerr, with 1500 horsemen from Ayrshire. The Cove- 
nanters succeeded in securing a number of the horses; but Lambert 
having rallied his forces, overtook the " spoil encumbered foe" two 
miles west of Hamilton, killed Colonel Kerr and about 100 of his 
troops, and took many prisoners. 

On Sabbath 1st June 1679, Captain Graham, (afterwards Vis- 
count Dundee,) on his way to the field of Drumclog, seized, near 
Hamilton, John King, a field preacher, and seventeen other people, 
whom he bound in pairs, and drove before him towards Loudon 
Hill. Mr King, who was probably in disguise, is described by 
Crighton as a " bra' muckle carl with a white hat, and a great bob 
of ribbans on the back o't." The Covenanters, after their success 
at Drumclog, deeming it unlawful to fight on the Sabbath except 
in self-defence, returned to the field of action, where they offered 
up thanks to the Almighty for the victory they had gained ; after 
which they took some refreshment in Strathaven, and marched to 
Hamilton in the evening. Next day, (June 2d,) flushed with vic- 
tory, they resolved to make an attack on Glasgow. One division 
of them, commanded by Mr Hamilton, attempted to penetrate by 



. 



266 LANARKSHIRE. 

Gallowgate, and another party entered by the High Street, But 
Lord Ross had so completely barricaded the streets, and made such 
a resistance, that the Covenanters were soon compelled to retire, 
with the loss of Walter Paterson of Carbarns, and five of their 
party killed, and several wounded. After their repulse at Glasgow, 
they rallied on Tollcross muir, and returned to Hamilton. The 
more moderate party (June 20) drew up a paper, which afterwards 
obtained the name of the " Hamilton Declaration." The purport 
of it was to forbear all angry disputes and mutual recriminations 
for the present, to disclaim any intention to overturn the Govern- 
ment, civil or ecclesiastical, and to refer all matters of importance 
to a free Parliament, and a lawfully chosen General Assembly. This 
proposal was, of course, rejected by the violent party. Their guard 
was attacked in the night-time at Hamilton Ford, and one of their 
number (James Cleland) killed. On Saturday 21st June, the Royal 
army, under the Duke of Monmouth, about 5000 strong, reached 
Bothwell Muir, within two miles of the Covenanters' camp. On the 
morning of Sabbath, 22d June 1672, the Covenanters, amounting 
to about 4000 men, were posted between the Clyde and the town of 
Hamilton, on the brow of the brae near Bothwell Bridge. Rathiliet, 
Hall, and Turnbull, with three troops under their command, and 
one piece of brass ordnance, guarded that important pass. The re- 
sult of this most unfortunate rencounter is well known. The Co- 
venanters were put to flight. They fled with great loss chiefly in 
the direction of Glasford and Strathaven. Gordon of Earlston had 
reached the parish of Hamilton with a party of Galloway men, when 
they met their discomfited brethren at Allowshill, near Quarter, 
where Gordon was met and killed. A great number of the Cove- 
nanters found shelter in Hamilton woods ; and the amiable Duchess 
Anne Hamilton, requesting that the soldiers might not be permit- 
ted to enter her plantations, Monmouth instantly gave orders to 
that effect. About 1200 men were taken prisoners on the spot. 

Historical Notices. The Hamiltons were great opposers of the 
Union. In 1707, when that event took place, 500 troops assem- 
bled at Hamilton to resist it by force of arms. It was expected that 
7000 or 8000 would have met ; but the Duke of Hamilton disap- 
proved of the measure. 

In the year 1 744, a fire took place in Barrie's Close, which raged 
with unabating fury for eight days. The town's-people were at 
length so completely exhausted, that they were compelled to call 



HAMILTON. 267 

in assistance from the country. A whole street of houses was burn- 
ed, and their ruins were allowed to remain for many years. 

On the death of the Duke of Douglas in 1761, the house of Ha- 
milton, as male representatives of the Douglasses, laid claim to the 
estates, under a persuasion, that Mr Douglas, son and heir of Lady- 
Jane Stewart, sister of the Duke of Douglas, was a supposititious 
child, taken at Paris from the real parents. A long law-suit was 
the result. It was decided in Paris, and in the Court of Session, 
in favour of the Hamiltons ; but on an appeal to the House of Peers, 
was ultimately decided in favour of Mr Douglas, since created Lord 
Douglas. 

In 1777, Douglas Duke of Hamilton, coming of age, raised in 
Hamilton, for the service of the country, the 82d Regiment of Foot, 
which afterwards highly distinguished itself in the American war. 

On llth June 1782, the Duke of Hamilton, as Duke of Bran- 
don in England, was called to take his seat in the House of Lords 
as a British Peer. This paved the way to all the Scottish nobi- 
lity who have since attained similar honours and privileges. 

Eminent Men. This parish has been the birth-place and occa- 
sional residence of many eminent characters. The celebrated Dr 
Cullen, sometimes represented as born at Lanark in 1712, ap- 
pears distinctly from the session books of Hamilton to have been 
born two years later in the parish of Hamilton. Dr Cullen was 
magistrate of Hamilton for several years. The celebrated Lord 
Cochrane, now Earl Dundonald, spent many of his early years in 
the parish. The father of the late Professor Millar of Glasgow 
was parochial clergyman here ; as was also the father of the late 
Dr Baillie of London, and of his celebrated sister, Joanna Baillie. 

Family of Hamilton. The estate of Cadzow, now Hamilton, 
comprises more than one-half of the parish. It had remained in 
the Crown from a very remote antiquity, till 1316, when it was 
bestowed on Walter Fitz Gilbert de Hamilton, by Bruce, imme- 
diately after the battle of Bannockburn. It has continued in the 
hands of his descendants ever since. This noble family, although 
the first in the kingdom for rank, has not been above 600 years in 
Scotland. The first of them is supposed to have been an English 
gentleman of the line of Mellent and Leicester. In 1445, they 
were ennobled by the title of Lord Hamilton. In 1474, James 
first Lord Hamilton married the Princess Mary, eldest daughter 
of James II. King of Scotland, and widow of Thomas Boyd, Earl 
of Arran. By this connection his descendants came to be declared 



268 LANARKSHIRE. 

in Parliament, on the demise of James V., in the event of the 
death of Mary Queen of Scots, next heirs to the Crown, and have, 
in consequence, been ever since regarded as a branch of the royal 
family. They were created Dukes of Chatelherault, in France, 
on carrying Queen Mary thither. They were made Dukes of Ha- 
milton by Charles I. and Dukes of Brandon in England by Queen 
Anne. In consequence of the marriage of Anne Duchess of Ha- 
milton to Lord William Douglas, eldest son of William first Mar- 
quis of Douglas by his first wife, Lady Mary Gordon, the Hamil- 
ton family are now Douglasses by the male side. 

Buchanan, and some of his followers, represent the Hamiltons 
as dependents on the Douglasses, and as becoming great by betray- 
ing them to James II., who murdered the Earl of Douglas in Stir- 
ling Castle with his own hand, although he had a safeguard. It 
is farther asserted, that James III. forced the wife of Boyd, Earl 
of Arran, to forsake her husband, and marry Lord Hamilton. 
These statements, there is reason to believe, were invidious on the 
part of Buchanan, and made in order to please his patron the Earl 
Murray, a great enemy of the Hamiltons. Boetius (book 12, chap. 
5,) says, that the first daughter of James II. was married to Lord 
Boyd, who had by her a son and a daughter; and that after the death 
of Lord Boyd, this daughter of James II. was married to Lord Ha- 
milton; in that way the Hamiltons are "decorit in the King's blood." 
This edition of Boetius was translated by Bellenden, who, being 
contemporary with the lady, is better authority than Buchanan, 
who lived a century after. 

Silverton Hill. Silverton Hill, anciently Quhitecamp, the place 
from whence the Hamiltons of Silverton Hill take their title, has 
dwindled down to a small farm, which has repeatedly changed 
owners. This family broke off from the ducal house in 1449. Sir 
Frederick Hamilton of Silverton Hill, Bart, collector of the East 
India Company's revenues at Benares, is the fourteenth in descent. 

Earnock. The estate of Earnock, in the west of the parish, was 
for many generations the property of a family of the name of Ro- 
berton, the descendants of Robert, brother of Lambin Fleming, 
to whom Malcolm IV. gave these lands; part of which are now 
called Kennedies, and belong to Mr Roberton. Earnock was sold 
about fifty years ago to Mr Semple, and about 1810 to A. Millar, 
Esq. the present proprietor. 

Ross. One-half of the lands of Ross or Inveravon were, by Robert 
Loudon, brother to Alexander II., conveyed to the monks of Kel- 



HAMILTON. 269 

so, and the King granted a charter confirming the grant in 1222. 
The half belonging to the monks was obtained by John, the brother 
of Walter Fitz Gilbert, about 1339, and the other half from Da- 
vid, the son of Walter. Sir William Hamilton of Preston is the 
lineal representative of this family. The estate at present belongs 
to Captain Robertson Aikman. 

Motherwell. The lands of Motherwell on the east of the Clyde, 
now in possession of the Hamilton family, were given by Malcolm 
IV. to a person of the name of Tancard, a Fleming, and his son, 
Thomas Fleming, disponed them to the monks of Paisley. There 
is a famous well here, dedicated formerly to the Virgin Mary, and 
hence the name Mother-well. 

Nielsland. Nielsland was probably part of the territories of the 
Crocs of Crocstoun, who had the lands of Nielstone in Renfrewshire. 
This estate belonged, as far back as. 1549, to John Hamilton de 
Nielsland. The first of this family was a younger son of Hamilton 
of Raploch. In 1723, Grizel Hamilton, as sole proprietrix of Niels- 
land, &c. sold these lands to Margaret Bryson, widow of Mr John 
Muir, minister of Kilbride, in whose hands, and those of her heir, 
it remained for a few years. It is now the property of David Mar- 
shall, Esq. 

Barncluith. The estate of Barncluith belonged in ancient times 
to a family of the name of Machan, and came into the possession 
of a younger son of Sir Robert Hamilton of Bruntwood by marriage. 
Lord Pressmennan, a Senator of the College of Justice, and many 
other eminent individuals, were of this family. Of late, it became 
by marriage the property of Lord Ruthven. 

Allanshaw, Darngaber, Edlewood, Mirritoun, and Udstoun, 
formerly seats of different branches of the Hamiltons, are now mere 
farms. The Hamiltons of Fairholm, descendants of the fourth 
son of Thomas Hamilton of Darngaber, are still a good family in 
the south-east side of this parish. 

Antiquities Cadzow 'Castle. The most prominent antiquity 
in the parish is Cadzow Castle, already alluded to.* It stands in 
Hamilton- wood, on the summit of a precipitous rock ; the base of 
which is washed by the Avon. It is not known who were its found- 
ers ; although it is probable that Caw or Cay was the first of 
the royal race who took up their residence in this quarter. It con- 
tinued in the possession of the Crown until it was granted by Robert 
the Bruce to Sir Walter Fitz Gilbert. Ever since, with only two short 

* David I. dates his charter to the High Church of Glasgow from Cadzow Castle. 



270 LANARKSHIRE. 

interruptions, it has been in the hands of his descendants. The first 
of the interruptions alluded to was about the year 1581, when it fell 
for a short time into the hands of Captain Stewart. The other sus- 
pension (equally short in duration) was in 1654, when, by Crom- 
well's act of grace and pardon, William Duke of Hamilton, de- 
ceased, was excepted from all benefit thereof, and his estates for- 
feited ; reserving out of them L. 400 per annum, to his Duchess 
during her life, and after her death, L. 100 per annum, to each of 
his four daughters, and their heirs for ever. The Castle of Cad- 
zow seems to have been repaired at different periods. The keep, 
with the fosse around it, a narrow bridge on the south, over the 
fosse, and a well inside, are still in good preservation, and are all 
of polished stone, of a reddish colour. Several vaults, and the 
walls, probably, of the chapel, and other offices, are still visible. 
Cadzow Castle has been celebrated in a fine ballad by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott. The Castle of Darngaber (i. e. the " house between 
the waters," or, as some have supposed, the " hiding place of the 
goats,") in the S. E. side of the parish, is said to have been built 
by Thomas de Hamilton, son of Sir John de Hamilton, Dominus 
de Cadzow. Its ruins stand on a small knoll at the extremity 
of a tongue of land, where two rivulets meet. The foundations 
only of this ancient fortress can now be traced. They are entire- 
ly of flat shingly stones, without lime, and seem never to have been 
subjected to a tool. Small vaults have been discovered, which 
are not arched, but drawn together as conduits sometimes are. 
It is probable, therefore, that Thomas de Hamilton did not build, 
but only repaired, this Castle. 

The most perfect, and indeed, the only tumulus, properly speak- 
ing, in this parish, is at Meikle Earnock, about two miles south of 
Hamilton. It is at present about 12 feet diameter, and 8 feet 
high. It was formerly much larger, and hollow at the top. When 
broken into, several urns were found, containing the ashes of hu- 
man bones, some of them accompanied by the tooth of a horse. 
There was no inscription seen, but some of the urns, which were 
all of baked earth, were plain,^and others decorated with moulding, 
probably to distinguish the quality of the deceased. 

In the haugh, to the north of the palace, there is an ancient 
moat-hill, or seat of justice. It appears to be about 30 feet dia- 
meter at the base, and about 15 or 16 feet high, and is flat at the 
top. When it stood formerly in the midst of the town, it formed 
part of the garden of an alehouse, and was dressed with the spade, 



HAMILTON. f 271 

and adorned with plants. It cannot be less than eight or nine hun- 
dred years old, as no erections of the kind have been in use since 
the reign of Malcolm Canmore. Near the moat-hill is an ancient 
stone cross, about 4 feet high, bearing no inscription. It is said 
to have been the cross of the Netherton. 

In the south side of the parish a remarkable stone, about 6 feet 
high, but leaning considerably to one side, gives the name " Crook- 
ed Stone" to the district. It is of freestone, and evidently very an- 
cient. Mr Chalmers notices these bended stones as cromlechs, of 
Druidical origin. A neighbouring farmer lately set it upright; leav- 
ing posterity to wonder why it" was called " crooked stone." 

Among the antiquities of this place may be recorded the 
gardens at Barncluith. There are here three dwelling-houses 
and three gardens, namely, an orchard, a kitchen, and flower- 
garden. The flower garden is cut out of a steep bank on the 
Avon, two or three hundred feet high, and is divided into five terraces. 
These are flanked by terrace walls, covered with espaliers of va- 
rious descriptions. The borders of the walks are crowded with a 
variety of evergreens cut into fantastic forms. In the centre of the 
great walk is a handsome pavilion, fitted up with rustic chairs, and 
other curious pieces of furniture. Here a pair of house-martins 
have constructed a nest on the skeleton of a dolphin's head, which 
is nailed to the wall above the fire-place. These gardens and 
buildings were probably constructed by John Hamilton of Barn- 
cluith, commissary of Hamilton and Campsie, about 1583. This 
individual was son of Quintin Hamilton, who was killed fighting in 
the Queen's cause at the battle of Langside. Tradition says he 
was deeply skilled in mathematics. 

Palace. Hamilton Palace was originally a square tower, about 
20 feet long, and 16 feet wide. The old part of the house, as it 
now stands, was erected about 1591 ; and it was afterwards almost 
entirely rebuilt about 130 years ago. The front (now the back) 
facing the south, was ornamented with pillars of the Corinthian 
order ; and two deep wings were added, in the form of a Roman 
H, much in'the style of Greenwich Hospital. In 1822, additions, 
on an extensive scale, were begun under the present Duke by Mr 
Hamilton, as architect, and Mr Connel, (builder of Burns' Monu- 
ment at Ayr,) as builder, which promise to render the Palace of 
Hamilton one of the larg'est and most magnificent structures of 
the kind in Britain. The modern part consists of a new front, 
facing the north, 264 feet 8 inches in length, and three stories 



272 LANARKSHIRE. 

high, with an additional wing to the west, for servants' apartments, 
100 feet in length. A new corridor is carried along the back of 
the old building, containing baths, &c. The front is adorned by 
a noble portico, consisting of a double row of Corinthian columns, 
each of one solid stone, surmounted by a lofty pediment. The 
shaft of each column is upwards of 25 feet in height, and about 3 
feet 3 inches diameter. These were each brought in the block 
about eight miles from a quarry in Dalserf, on an immense waggon 
constructed for the purpose, and drawn by thirty horses. The prin- 
cipal apartments, besides the entrance hall, are, the tribune, a sort 
of saloon or hall, from which many of the principal rooms enter ; 
a dining-room, 7 1 by 30 ; a library and billiard-room ; state bed- 
rooms, and a variety of sleeping apartments ; a kitchen-court, &c. 
The gallery, 120 feet by 20, and 20 feet high, has also been tho- 
roughly repaired. This, like all the principal rooms, is gilded and 
highly ornamented with marble, scagliolo, and stucco-work. The 
stables and offices, now erecting between the town and the Palace, 
are every way worthy of the splendid edifice of which they are an 
appropriate accompaniment. The palace stands close upon the 
town, on the upper border of the great valley, about half a mile west 
of the conflux of the Clyde and Avon. As a curious statistical 
fact, we may state, that there were employed in building the addition 
to the palace 28,056 tons, 8 cwts. and 3 quarters of stones, drawn 
by 22,528 horses. Of lime, sand, stucco, wood, &c. 5534 tons, 
6 cwt., 1 quarter, 1\ Ibs., drawn by 5196 horses. In drawing 
22,350 slates, 62,200 bricks, with engine ashes, and coal-culm to 
keep down the damp, 731 horses were employed. Total days dur- 
ing which horses were employed for other purposes, 658J. In the 
stables, there are 7976 tons of stones, drawn by 5153 horses. Of 
lime, sand, slates, &c. 1361 tons, drawn by 1024 horses; besides 
284 days of horses employed for other purposes. The stables, 
according to plan, are only about half-finished. 

Picture Gallery. The interior equipments of Hamilton Palace 
are not less tasteful or magnificent than its exterior, and are a fair 
counterpart of the gorgeous pile in which they are contained. The 
collection of paintings, now greatly on the increase, has been long 
considered the best in Scotland. Daniel in the lion's den is a no- 
ble picture, and has often been described and admired. The por- 
traits of Charles I. in armour on a white horse, and of the Earl of 
Denbigh in a shooting dress, standing by a tree, with the muzzle 
of a gun grasped in his right hand, and the butt of it resting on 



HAMILTON. 273 

the ground, with a little black boy on the opposite side of the tree 
pointing out the game both by Vandyke are also master-pieces 
of art. An entombment of Christ by Poussin, an Ascension piece 
by Georgione, a dying Madona by Corregio, a stag-hunt by Sney- 
der, a laughing boy by L. Da Vinci, and an admirable portrait 
of Napoleon by David, painted from life, by permission granted to 
the present Duke of Hamilton, are all well known works of art of 
great value. The east staircase contains a large altar-piece by 
Girolamo dai Libri, from San Lionardo nel Monte, near Verona, 
of the Castieri family, with a Madona and child placed in a chair 
above them (vide Vasari, edition 1648.) In the breakfast-room 
is a picture by Giacomo da Puntormo of Joseph in Egypt receiv- 
ing his father and his brothers, into which is introduced the por- 
trait of Beronzino: (vide Vasari.) In the same room, by Luca Sig- 
norelli, the circumcision of the infant Christ, supposed to have been 
painted by Sodoma: (vide Vasari, edition 1648 :) and a portrait by 
Artonelli of Mycena, said to have been the first painter in oil, 
1474. This is still in a state of admirable preservation. The great 
gallery and principal apartments contain also a large collection 
of family portraits, and other paintings, by Vandyke, Kneller, Ru- 
bens, Corregio, Guido, Rembrandt, Titian, the Carraccis, Salva- 
tor Rosa, Carlo Dolce, Guercino, Georgione, Poussin, Spagno- 
letti, Reynolds, Hamilton, &c. Here, if any where in Scotland, is 

" An art akin to nature's self, 
So mighty in its means, we stand prepared 
To see the life as lively mocked, as ever 
Still sleep mocked death." 

A number of antique vases adorn the principal rooms, particu- 
larly one in the new dining-room, of giallo-antico, in the form of 
a tripod, of great beauty, and of extraordinary dimensions, being 
5 feet 3 inches in height, 14 feet 3 inches in circumference, and 9^ 
inches deep. The vase itself is supported by a circular central pil- 
lar of beautiful form/richly carved and fluted, and with three square 
fluted pilasters at the sides, each resting on a lion's foot, and termi- 
nating with a lion's head the whole standing on a base of beautiful 
African marble. In the breakfast-room and small drawing-room 
are two slabs of porphyry upon gilt bronze legs, formerly composing 
part of an altar-piece at Rome. Both slabs are of oriental por- 
phyry, of equal size, and of great beauty. In an adjoining room 
there is a cabinet covered with a slab of Malachite (Cuprum JEruyo, 
Lin.) of the most splendent lustre imaginable. There are also a 
great many antique cabinets in the different apartments, enriched 



274 LANARKSHIRE. 

with Mosaic and all sorts of precious stones ; particularly a casket 
of ebony ornamented with gilt bronze, and oriental stones in re- 
lief, formerly belonging to the Medici family. At the upper end 
of the gallery is the present Duke's ambassadorial throne, brought 
from his embassy at St Petersburgh, and placed between two an- 
tique magnificent busts of oriental porphyry, the one of Augustus 
and the other of Tiberius ; and on the walls, on each side of the 
throne, are two capital portraits of George III. and Queen Char- 
lotte, painted soon after their marriage. Fronting the throne, at 
the other end of the gallery, is a magnificent large architectural 
door of black marble, the pediment being supported by two orien- 
tal columns of green porphyry, unique in their kind, and supposed 
to be the finest of that material in Europe. These will afford a 
faint idea of the gorgeous splendour which reigns within the walls 
of Hamilton Palace. The collection of pictures may amount to 
about 2000 pieces, of which about 100 are at Chatelherault. The 
value of the prints alone in the Duke's possession, none of which 
are ever exhibited to strangers, and many parcels of which, I be- 
lieve, are not yet unfolded, are worth from L. 10,000 to L. 15,000. 
It is impossible to form any idea of the value of the paintings. 
Many of the cabinets are worth L. 1500; and a single table has 
been estimated at L. 4000. The value of the plate, including a 
magnificent gold set, is probably about L. 50,000. 

Earnock House, fyc. Earnock House is pleasantly situated on 
the higher grounds, in the west, amidst abundance of plantations. 
It is a modern square building, well adapted for a gentleman of mo- 
derate fortune. It has very fine pleasure grounds, and an excel- 
lent garden, tastefully laid out, and furnished with glass-houses 
both for fruits and plants. The houses at Ross, Fairhill, and 
Grovemount, are also large and handsome buildings, abounding 
with whatever can contribute to convenience or comfort. There 
are also respectable residences at Nielsland, Fairholm, and Edle- 
wood. There is a curious fog-house at Grovemount, of great di- 
mensions, tastefully conceived, and skilfully executed, which cost 
a considerable sum in fitting up. 

yew Prison, Sfc. On Tuesday, 10th June 1834, the foundation 
stone of the new prison and public offices was laid at Hamilton, 
with masonic honours.* The offices consist of a distinct building 

The glass vessel containing the coins, newspapers, &c. having been deposited be- 
neath the plinth of one of the intended columns in front of the public offices, was 
dexterously dug into on the night of the 2d November 1834, and the most valuable 
part of the hoarded treasure extracted. The thieves who thus bearded justice in its 
own peculiar domains have not yet been detected. 



HAMILTON. 275 

in front of the prison, of two stories. In the west end, in the lower 
flat, there are three rooms for the sheriff-clerk, with a record- 
room. The town-clerk has four rooms in the east end. In the 
centre, there is a court room, 37 feet long, and 32 broad. In the 
upper story, there is a large hall, for county meetings, &c. 47 feet 
10 inches by 32 feet, with an adjacent room, 15 feet by 12 feet 
1^ inch. The prison, which stands at a little distance behind, is 
three stories high. It is 80 feet 9 inches in length, and 32 feet 
4 inches in breadth, comprising in all 45 cells, and 6 water-closets, 
with a large day room for debtors, 19 \ feet by 13, and four other 
rooms for them, each 9 feet by 7J, besides two day rooms for other 
prisoners. The first flat, with 12 cells, is to be used as a Bride- 
well. The second flat has 16 cells and 4 day rooms. The up- 
per flat is to be appropriated to debtors. It also contains separate 
apartments for females. The governor's house stands between 
the public offices and the prison. In the under story, there is a 
kitchen, a servants' room and bed-room, and a bath for the gaol. 
There are four apartments in the upper story. The prison and 
governor's house are to be surrounded with a wall 15 feet high, 
inclosing a large court, half an acre in extent. These buildings 
are now in a forward state. They stand on the high grounds, to 
the west of the town, on the Blantyre road, near the Cavalry Bar- 
racks. The old prison and court-hall at the Cross, built in the 
reign of Charles I., are soon to be demolished. The present 
town-hall, near the old gaol, has also been bought up. The 
butcher-market, with shambles, stand on the brink of Cadzow 
burn, near the middle of the town. This is a modern erection of 
respectable appearance. The meal-market, in the Muir Wynd, 
has long been in disuse. The public fire-engines, ladders, &c. 
are kept here. There are other fire-engines belonging to the pa- 
lace and barracks ; and an old ladder is pointed out, which is said 
to have been used at public executions. The Cavalry Barracks 
are much in the style of those at Perth and Edinburgh. Besides 
stables, with accommodation above for the men, there are officers' 
barracks, an hospital, and riding-room. These occupy a large 
space of ground, and are surrounded by a high wall. 

III. POPULATION. 
The state of the population at different times is as follows : 

Years. Population. Years. Population. Years. Population. 

1755, 3815 1801, 5911 1821, 7613 

1791, 5017 1811, 6453 1831, 9513 

The total increase, since 1755, is 5698, or about 75 per annum. 



276 LANARKSHIRE. 

From a census taken some months ago, and which seems to be ac- 
curate, there has been an increase of 309, which may be attri- 
buted to the introduction and flourishing condition of a lace-ma- 
nufactory, which now employs a great many females. Out of 9822 
males and females, there are in this parish : 



Population. 
1313 under 
1247 
2027 
1614 
1200 - 
913 


Age. 
5 
5 to 10 
10 to 20 
20 to 30 
30 to 40 
40 to 50 


Population. 
623 
428 
218 
39 upwards of 

9822 


Age. 
50 to 60 
60 to 70 
70 to 80 
80 



Population of the town, by census, 1831, 7490 

in villages, - do. 500 

in the country, do. 1523 

The following tables of births, marriages, and deaths, are from 
authentic sources. The baptisms in the parish church for the last 
seven years were as follows : 



Years. 
1827, 
1828, 
1829, 
1830, 


Baptisms. 
146 
137 
124 
156 


Marriages. 
83 
69 
65 

97 


Deaths. 
177 
196 
248 
157 


Years. 
1831, 
1832, 
1833, 


Baptisms. 
145 
162 
136 


Marriages. 
79 
75 
98 


Deaths. 
261 
267 
220 



The average of baptisms is 143 ; and, if to these we add 200 
for the Dissenters, the whole will be 343. Considerably more 
than 200 per annum are baptized in the meeting-houses of the 
Dissenters ; but a large proportion of these are from neighbouring 
parishes. The average of marriages is 81. The average of 
deaths is 218. The number of males and females who died in 
each month, between November 1832 and November 1833, is as 
follows : 

Months. Males. Females. Months. Males. Females. 

November, 11 15 May, 10 8 

December, 10 6 June, 12 10 

January, 11 7 July, - 15 21 

February, 9 9 August, 7 16 

March, 9 8 September, 4 10 

April, 10 8 October, - 19 22 

60 53 67 87 

The whole gives 127 males, and 140 females. This was the year 
of the cholera, a disease which carried off many individuals, par- 
ticularly females. There appears in this parish to be one baptism 
per annum to 27 persons, one burial to 45, and one marriage to 
117 nearly. Throughout the whole of England the proportion is 
33, 49, and 120 ; and in Wales, 37, 60, and 136. The advantage 
is every way on the side of the above countries ; but this does not 
proceed from any superiority in their climate or mode of living, but 
merely from the fact, that the averages above alluded to, take in 



HAMILTON. 277 

town and country, whereas as regards this parish, they refer only to 
a manufacturing population, a great proportion of whom are doomed 
to damp shops, stooping postures, meager fare, and long hours. 
The rural districts of Scotland offer very different results. The 
following is the number who died monthly, between 1833 and 
1834. It will be found to fall short of the corresponding year 
above by 20 ; the number buried in the Relief burying-ground, are 
not included in this list. 

November, 14 February, 19 May, 22 August, 15 

December, 14 March, 15 June, 14 September, 18 

January, 19 April, 11 July, 13 October, 26 

47 45 49 59 

There are on an average about 10 still-born children per annum. 
In the cholera year there were 14. Some people occasionally ar- 
rive here at a great age ; but there are few at present above ninety. 
The property of the parish is possessed by 133 heritors. Be- 
sides the noble family, there are about eight gentlemen of indepen- 
dent fortune. Sixteen individuals occupy land to the value of L. 50 
per annum, and upwards. There are about 38 unmarried men, 50 
years of age and upwards ; 150 widows, and about 100 unmarried 
women, above 45. The number of families in the town is 1670 ; 
and in the country, 388. The average number of children in each 
family is 4^. There are 710 inhabited houses in the town, and 303 
in the country. About 8 houses are now building, and none are un- 
inhabited. Number of insane, fatuous, blind, deaf, dumb, 15. 
Many poor persons of this class were cut off in 1833. 

During the last three years there have been 110 illegitimate 
births in the parish. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Families connected with agriculture, (farmers 40, labourers 95,) 135 

Males employed in manufactures, (in the town, 1135, in the country, 122,) 1257 
Males employed in retail trade, and handicraft, (in the town, 639, in country, 102,) 741 
Merchants, bankers, and professional men, (in the town, 112, in the country, 24) 136 
Labourers not agricultural, (in the town, 193, in the country, 59,) - 252 

Males not included in the above classes, (in the town, 535, in the country, 131,) 666 
Male-servants above 20 years, (in the town, 16, in the country, 14,) - 80 

Male-servants under 20 years, (in the town, 3, in the country, 2,) - 5 

Female servants, (in the town, 170, in the country, 127,) 297 

Agriculture. The surface of this parish may thus be divided. 

Coarse and waste lands, - 2040 acres. 

Woods, ..... 2000 

Channels of rivers, sites of towns, villages, and roads, 2100 
Orchards, . . - 100 

Arable, 8000 

14,240 

The whole of this district is remarkably well-fenced and wood- 

LANARK. T 



278 LANARKSHIRE. 

ed; and when seen from the higher grounds on the east of the Clyde, 
appears like a large well-stocked orchard or garden. The coarse 
and waste lands are chiefly on the outskirts of the parish, in the south 
and west. The principal woods are Bar- Michael wood, (Michael's 
Fort,) near Bothwell Bridge, Ross wood on the Clyde, and Hamil- 
ton wood on the Avon, and Barncluith burn. Spontaneous coppices 
rise every where, near the sides of the rivers and burns, and where- 
ever the banks obtain a sufficient elevation, they are entirely veiled 
in a mass of foliage. Forest trees of all kinds, capable of standing 
the climate of Scotland, thrive, especially in the lower parts of the 
parish. Some of them attain to a great age. On poor land in 
high exposures, the larch, since it has been introduced, has thriven 
better than any others. Next to it is the Scots fir. The silver 
fir, the spruce, the Pinus balsamea or Balm of Gilead fir, the pitch 
pine, and the Pinus Canadensis are also often planted. In one 
place the Pinus cedrus, or cedar of Lebanon, has attained a good- 
ly size. But in Hamilton wood there is little or no fir, and the hard- 
wood is abundant. The " old oaks" behind Cadzow Castle cover se- 
veral hundred acres, and are evidently of great antiquity.* Many of 
the trees have attained an enormous size, measuring 36 feet in cir- 
cumference. One near Wood House, called the " boss tree," is ca- 
pable of containing at one time eight individuals of the ordinary size. 
The chase in which these venerable combaters of time are now vege- 
tating is browzed by about four-score white cows of the ancient Bri- 
tish breed. Their bodies are milk-white, their ears, muzzles, and 
hoofs black, and the shin in front, above the hoof, is mottled with 
black. They are perfectly docile, except when they have calves. On 
these occasions they manifest an uncommon attachment to their 
young, by carefully concealing them when dropt, and defending them 
when attacked. The varieties of the ox are very numerous, and may 
be multiplied to almost any extent. This variety bears the greatest 
resemblance in colour to the Madagascar, Tinian, and African ox. 
A good many fallow deer are fed in a field on the opposite bank 
of the Avon. 

Orchards. The cultivation of the orchards, although not carried 
to such a length, nor perhaps so well understood as in some of the 
neighbouring parishes, is still not entirely neglected. A great pro- 
portion of the houses both in the town and country have gardens 

* Some of these are English oaks, supposed to have been planted by King David, 
first Earl of Huntingdon, about the year 1140. 



HAMILTON. 279 

or orchards attached to them ; and when the fruit sold better than 
at present, these sometimes brought considerable sums. Pears thrive 
better than apples. Thejargonelle, when on the wall, arrives here at 
great perfection. Some very large crops have been gathered of late. 
Currants, gooseberries, and other small fruit are also cultivated in 
large quantities, and mostly disposed of at Glasgow. The goose- 
berries, however, have been greatly deteriorated of late in quality, 
by the injudicious practice of introducing new sorts from England, 
which is naturally not so good a climate for gooseberries as Scot- 
land. 

Husbandry. The crops sown here are, wheat, oats, pease, beans, 
barley, hay, some flax, and great quantities of potatoes. Wheat 
is raised on all the lands on the Clyde, and also on some of the 
farms in the higher part of the parish. It is either sown on fallow 
or after potatoes, but seldom after oats or pease and beans. The 
time of sowing is from the end of August to the 1st of November. 
The quantity sown is from 7 to 12 pecks, Linlithgow measure, 
per Scots acre; the produce from 8 to 16 bolls of the same mea- 
sure. Oats is the principal spring corn. From two-thirds to three- 
fourths of the land tilled is sown with this seed. Late seed is sown 
on the lower and earlier grounds, and early seed on the higher and 
later grounds. Tweeddale and Blainsley oats have long been known. 
The Polish, Essex, Friesland, or great Dutch and red oats have 
also been tried. But of the new sorts the potato oat is the best. 
From 12 to 18 pecks, county measure, are sown on the acre; and 
the produce varies from 4 to 18 bolls. Pease and beans are chiefly 
raised on the lower grounds. These are, for the most part, or- 
dinary horse-beans, and a kind of late gray pease, usually accom- 
panying them. From 14 to 18 pecks, wheat measure, are sown 
on an acre, and they sometimes yield as much as 18 bolls of the 
same measure. Formerly a considerable quantity of barley of an 
excellent quality was produced here, particularly in the lower parts 
of the parish ; but the backward springs, and cold inconstant 
summers, which began to prevail towards the end of last cen- 
tury, have almost banished it from this quarter of the country. It 
is now seldom sown, except for the purpose of cleaning and pre- 
paring land for the reception of artificial grasses. Red, white, and 
yellow clover, rye-grass, &c. are cultivated for hay and pasture, 
and no person now lays down land to rest without sowing the seeds 
of these plants upon it. The produce of hay is from one to three 
tons per acre, besides an after-growth, which is generally pastured 



280 LANARKSHIRE. 

on, or cut for green food, the autumn being seldom favourable for 
making it into hay. A little flax is occasionally sown for domestic 
use. Rye thrives well below trees, and might be profitably intro- 
duced into orchards. A great many new, or natural grasses, have 
been brought into cultivation ; but it remains to be seen whether 
this practice will turn out most profitable to the agriculturist or 
the seedsman. Potatoes are planted from the middle of April to 
the middle of May, principally in drills made by the plough. Many 
families in the town take small plots of ground for the season, from 
the neighbouring farmers, which they plant with this root. Large 
fields of potatoes are also sold in lots to the town's people when 
they are ready for digging. Upwards of twenty-four tons have 
been taken from an acre. Eighty bolls were this season produced 
on a single acre, about two miles from Hamilton. The rare oc- 
currence of famines in the present day is chiefly to be attributed 
to the abundance of this root; and yet, Cobbet, to establish a theory, 
would deprive the poor of this table, which " God has prepared 
for them in the presence of their enemies." The potatoes threat- 
ened a failure in some places about the end of the summer. When 
the diseased plants were pulled up, the seed was found to swarm 
with little black worms or maggots ; but whether these animals 
were the cause of the disease, or the mere attendants of that cor- 
ruption by which it was followed, we are not prepared to decide. 
The culture of carrot, turnips, cabbage, &c. is scarcely practised 
here, except in gardens. Turnips now sell at 3d. per stone, and 
carrots at 6d. 

The modes of cultivation and rotation of crops are so various 
that it is impossible to give any idea of the average quantity of 
land applied to any particular purpose. The dairy is here an ob- 
ject of considerable importance. The milk is mostly made into 
butter and butter-milk of excellent quality, and sold in the town. 
About 110 milk cows supply the town with sweet-milk. There 
are in the parish altogether about 900 dairy cows, besides young 
stock. The feeding of calves is also well understood, although 
a few still send slink or unfed veal to market ; a revolting prac- 
tice which, for the benefit both of seller and consumer, ought to 
be put down by law. The cows here are a slight variety of the 
Ayrshire breed. They are a little longer in the leg, rounder in 
the body, and not quite so heavy in the hind quarters;' but hand- 
somer, and equally good milkers. They are mostly red-brown, 
more or less mixed with white. A moderately good milk-cow gives 



HAMILTON. 281 

eight Scotch pints, or sixteen quarts a day ; and many of them give 
upwards of twice that quantity. During the summer months cer- 
tain cows have been known to yield a pound of butter per day. 
This, however, is much beyond the average produce of the dairy, 
and it is perhaps near the truth when we average each cow at from 
L. 4 to L. 8 of profit per annum. 

Rent of Land. The average rent of grazing is from L. 2, 10s. 
to L. 3, 10s. per cow or ox. Farms are mostly let on leases of 
nineteen years ; but in some instances they are only let from year 
to year. The rent is paid in money, or occasionally in grain. 
The amount paid varies with the soil. In the higher grounds few 
spots let on permanent lease for less than 15s. per acre; while in 
the lower farms on the Clyde the rent is as high as L. 3 and L. 3, 
10s. per acre. A very large proportion of the parish lets at from 
L. 1, 5s. to L. 2, 5s. per acre. Some fields near the town which have 
lain long in pasture have been let for a few years at upwards of 
L. 12 per acre. Much of the pasture in the haughs brings up- 
wards of L. 4 per acre. About 1500 cows and oxen are annually 
fed in this parish. The tilling of the ground employs about 280 
horses. Wilkie's iron plough is now almost universally used. 

Rate of Wages. Labourers have from Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. per 
day, with victuals, and 2s. without. When regularly employed 
their wages are from 9s. to 10s. per week. Women have from 6d. 
to lOd. per day. Upwards of 130 masons are now employed at from 
2s. lOd. to 3s. a-day. Mason's labourers have 10s. a-week; car- 
penters have about 2s. 8d. a day; or from 16s. to 18s. a week. 

Much has of late been done in fencing and draining. The 
hedges on the Duke's estate, in particular, are remarkably well 
kept. Among the disadvantages with which the agriculturist has 
to contend are, small farms, deficiency of capital, and competition 
for leases, by which too much is offered, and thus the farmer too 
frequently is little better than the servant of the laird ; at the 
same time, it ought to be remarked, that the rental of land is ge- 
nerally supposed to be somewhat lower here than in some other 
places in the neighbourhood. This may probably arise from the 
fact, that clay soils are cultivated at more expense than any other 
description, as requiring greater force of men, cattle and implements, 
and absorbing an immense quantity of manure. 

Quarries. There are six freestone quarries in the parish, wrought 
by upwards of fifty men. The number of colliers is about 120. 
The average gross rental of the landward part of the parish is 



282 LANARKSHIRE. 

L. 11,537, 6s. 3d.; and of the burgh L. 8638, 4s. 7d. Total 
L. 20,175, 19s. lOd. nearly. 

Produce. The average gross amount of produce raised, as far 
as can be ascertained, is as follows: 

Produce of grain of all kinds, - ' ' - . I,. 1 4,329 

Of hay, potatoes, &c. - - - - 7,336 

Of lands in pasture, - - 6,000 

Gardens, and orchards, - 600 

Coals, quarries, and metals, ... 3,000 

Miscellaneous produce, - 1,000 



Total yearly value of raw produce, - L. 32,265 

Cambric Weaving. Hamilton has been the principal seat of imi- 
tation cambric weaving since the introduction of the cotton trade 
into Scotland. The reeds run from 1200 to 3000, which are the 
finest setts that cotton has been wrought into. The number of 
looms in Hamilton is 1291, and in the country 53. This was 
at one time a thriving branch of trade, which in the course of fifty 
years added to Hamilton whole streets of houses, chiefly built and 
inhabited by industrious weavers. For the last fifteen or twenty years, 
however, it has been on the decline ; and, if possible, is still getting 
worse. The average wages are from 6d. to Is. 6d. per day; out 
of which must be deducted Is. a- week for expenses, and 10s. per 
annum for loom-rent. A house with a room and kitchen, and a 
four-loom shop, lets at from L. 5 to L. 6. Many of the older and 
more experienced hands better their circumstances considerably 
by teaching apprentices. The females are employed in winding 
weft, or in tambouring. 

Lace-Manufactory, fyc. The old lace-manufactory of this place, 
which was introduced by one of the Duchesses of Hamilton, has for 
many years been all but extinct. But about eight years ago a 
Mr Galloch introduced a new manufactory of lace, which was im- 
proved on by Mr John Go wans, and is still increasing. About twelve 
respectable houses are now engaged in this lucrative and thriving 
branch of trade, and new firms are daily forming. It employs 
upwards of 2500 females, in this and the neighbouring parishes. 
The lace is a sort of tamboured bobinette. Vast quantities of 
black silk veils of peculiar patterns are also manufactured here. 
There is a great and increasing demand for both of the above ar- 
ticles throughout the whole of Britain, and also in America, and 
the colonies. A weaver's wife can make higher wages at this trade 
than her husband. Many thousands of check-shirts have of late 
been manufactured here, and sent out to Australasia. The stock- 



HAMILTON. 283 

ing weaving, tanneries, saddle, and shoe trades seem to have dwin- 
dled away considerably, since the publication of the former Statis- 
tical Account. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Town. The town of Hamilton stands on a rising ground, gent- 
ly sloping towards the east, about a mile west of the conflux of 
the Avon with the Clyde. Cadzow burn runs nearly through it. 
The ancient town stood farther to the east, in the Duke's plea- 
sure grounds, and was called the Netherton. That part of the 
present town which stands near the flesh-market and the public 
green, appears to be the most ancient. The rocks behind the 
flesh-market are about twenty feet high, and were once occupied 
by a mansion, called the Ha' or Hall, of which an antique dove-cot, 
(which gives the name of Doo-cot-ha' to the place) is the only me- 
morial now remaining. On the opposite side of the burn, stood a mill, 
called the Ha' Mill, which has given the name of 1 " Shilling Hill" 
to the street where it stood. When the tun^ ton, or town collected 
round this place it was called Ha-mill-ton. So says tradition ; 
but history, which is more to be depended on, gives, as we have al- 
ready seen, a different and more satisfactory account. The date 
of the foundation of the lower town cannot now be ascertained. 
It has been long swept away. But that the upper town is also of 
great antiquity appears from the fact, that it was considerable 
enough to be erected into a burgh of barony in the year 1456 
by James II. In 1548, Hamilton was created a royal burgh by 
Queen Mary ; but Bailies James Hamilton and James Naismith 
consented to resign that privilege in 1670, by accepting of a char- 
ter from Duchess Anne, by which Hamilton was constituted the 
chief burgh of the regality and dukedom of Hamilton. A law- 
suit was entered into by the magistrates, &c. in 1723, before the Court 
of Session, for the restoration of their ancient rights ; but it was 
not till 1832, that the inhabitants were reinvested with the privi- 
lege of sending a member to the House of Commons. There are 
at present about 300 ten pound franchises upon the roll. At last 
municipal election, 126 voted on the radical interest, and 118 for 
the more moderate party. There were about 55 votes unpolled. 
The town is in the hands of a Provost, three Bailies, a Trea- 
surer, a Town- Clerk, and seven Councillors. Four new councillors 
are elected annually, the four eldest on the list going out. 

Revenues of the Town. The revenues of the town are consider- 
able, and arise chiefly from lands within the burgh, and shares in 



284 LANARKSHIRE. 

Hamilton Bridge, &c. The sums received and paid out by the 
treasurer, from 5th November 1833, to 15th October 1834, are 
as under : 

Sums received. Sums paid. 

Rent Roll, - L. 112513 6 Among these, some of the most promi- 

Note charged in rent-roll, 160 2 nent are, 

Sums recovered, - 59 22 2 For new prison, - L. 329 3 9 

The following are some of the items of Minister's stipend, - 229 

the above sums. Schoolmaster's salary, &c, 32 1 1 1 

Rental for crop, 1833, 6081211 Mortifications, - - 57 17 4 

From shares of bridge, - 55 5 Public lamps, - - 155 16 4 

Burgess Tickets, - 17 15 1 Support of streets, - 322 13 3 

Customs, - 39 3 94 Fire-engines and insurance, 834 

Street manure, - - 21 9 Law-suits, - - 223 15 3 

Green and holms crop 1834, 12 13 

Road money, - - 46 

Gas dividend, - - 14 Total discharge, includ- 

Tot. chargeagainst Treasu- ing a great variety of 

rer,includ. other sums is L. 2613 17 2 different sums, - L. 2796 2 Of 

The town-court is held on Thursdays. This is also the seat of 
the Sheriff-court for the middle ward. About twenty-five procura- 
tors are licensed to practise before it ; of whom eighteen belong 
to Hamilton. The court day is Friday. The Justice of Peace 
Court sits on the first Monday of every month. There are also a 
record of seisins, a tax-office, a stamp-office, and an excise-office. 

In 1816 a Trades Hall was erected in Church Street. There 
is a spacious hall in the upper storey for the meetings of the trades, 
while in the under flat there is every accommodation for a respect- 
able tavern. 

Besides numerous societies or trades, (which are all in terms 
of the act 5th William IV. chap. 40) there are a St John's Lodge 
No 7, and two other mason lodges, two gardener's societies, and 
a Wallace friendly society. 

Gas-Work. A gas-work, on a very elegant plan, was erected in 
Hamilton by subscription, in the summer of 1831, at the expense 
of L.2400. Three hundred L. 10 shares were subscribed, of which 
L. 8 has only been uplifted, and from the advance in the price of 
such shares as have been transferred, there is a fair prospect of the 
subscribers being liberally remunerated for their outlay. From ex- 
periments made at this work by Mr Burns, the present manager, 
it appears that a cubic foot of the richest cannel coal produces 
about 400 cubic feet of gas. The price of gas when sold by me- 
ter is 10s. per 1000 cubic feet, or Is. per 100 cubic feet. Every 
cubic foot is nearly equal to five imperial gallons ; of course 500 
imperial gallons only cost Is. which is at the rate of about 3d. per 
puncheon. Besides private lights there are now about 130 gas 
lamps illuminated throughout the town for nine months in the 



HAMILTON. 285 

year, from sunset to sunrise, with the exception of five nights at 
each full moon. 

Supply of Water. On Saturday, 24th May 1834, an attempt 
was made in this town to bring into operation the Burghs Police 
Bill (3 and 4 William IV. c. 46, 14th August 1833,) in whole or 
in part, but more especially as regarded bringing a better supply 
of water into the town. As the franchise in that case embraces 
all persons "occupying premises of the value of not less than L. 10," 
a great many individuals came forward and threw out the bill. It 
cannot, of course, be brought forward again in less than three years. 
It has since been proposed to form a water company, with a ca- 
pital of L. 2000, divided into 500 shares, of L. 4 each. The wa- 
ter is to be brought in pipes, from two different quarters ; the unit- 
ed distance of both places being about three miles, and the aver- 
age diameter of the pipes in which it is to be brought three inches. 
This proposal is not yet carried into effect. 

Means of Communication, *c. Hamilton is 1 Of miles S. E. 
of Glasgow, 36 W. of Edinburgh, 15 N. W. of Lanark, 7 N. 
of Strathaven, and 8 miles S. of Airdrie. The market-day is 
Friday. This town, along with Falkirk, Lanark, Linlithgow, 
and Airdrie, has the privilege of sending a Member to Par- 
liament. There are in the parish about 15 miles of turnpike 
road, and about 30 miles of parochial roads. The great Glas- 
gow and London road passes through the town ; and also an Edin- 
burgh and Ayr road. This last was made in the year 1755, and, 
if we except the road between Glasgow and Edinburgh, was the 
first great turnpike road which was made in Scotland. A new 
road to Ayr was lately opened, about seven miles to the south of 
this. A great improvement is now making in Hamilton on the 
London road, for the purpose of avoiding the brae in Muir Street, 
and cutting off the awkward elbow at the cross. The new line of 
road is upwards of 700 yards in length. Above Hamilton Green 
it crosses the rivulet Cadzow by a stupendous bridge of three 
arches, each 60 feet span. The top of the parapet wall is about 
60 feet above the bed of the burn. The contract is about L.2050. 
A handsome new bridge on the same line of road was lately thrown 
across the Avon. A few hundred yards above it, there is an old 
bridge of three arches, which is said to have been built at a very 
remote period, at the expense of the monks belonging to the mo- 
nastery at Lesmahagow. Hamilton Bridge over the Clyde, on the 
Edinburgh road, is a handsome structure with five arches. It was 



286 LANARKSHIRE. 

built by authority of an act of Parliament, and was finished in 
1780. It is still burdened with pontage for foot-passengers. Both- 
well Bridge over the Clyde, on the road to Glasgow, is undoubted- 
ly the oldest structure of the sort in Lanarkshire. It is not known 
when it was built. It was till lately only 12 feet wide, but it has 
now 32 feet of road- way. There is a private bridge over the Avon 
at Fairholm, and another at Ross. The Glasgow and London 
mail-coach passes through Hamilton twice a-d ay; at thirty minutes 
past eight in the morning, for London, and at fifteen minutes before 
one in the afternoon for Glasgow. There are Glasgow and Edin- 
burgh bags at thirty minutes to eight morning, thirty minutes to 
twelve noon, and at five afternoon. There is also a post between 
Hamilton and Strathaven. The gross revenue of the post-office 
here is at an average L. 982 per annum. Thirty years ago there 
was only one coach on the Wednesdays between Hamilton and 
Glasgow ; at present there are seven coaches daily, besides the 
mail-coach. Other seven coaches daily pass and repass to places 
south of Hamilton. About 128 horses are kept in the town, of 
which number seventy are employed in this trade. 

Flesh-market. The number of cattle slaughtered in the sham- 
bles at Hamilton during the following periods is as follows : 

Cows <$ oxen. Calves. Sheep. Lambs. Hogs. 

From 1st April to 30th October 1831, 428 548 924 39 22 

1st November to 30th April 1831, 445 534 960 202 19 

1st May to 31st October 1832, 311 420 1029 835 . II 

1st November to 30th April 1832, 354 424 615 2 20 

1st May to 1st October 1833, 270 310 859 758 13 

Consumed in 42 months, - '- 1808 2236 4387 1836 85 

Ecclesiastical State. The year 1585 is the epoch of the Pres- 
byteries of Lanark and Glasgow. About 1590, or earlier, the 
large Presbytery of Glasgow was dismembered, by the erection of 
the Presbyteries of Hamilton and Paisley. The parishes of Eagles- 
ham, Cathcart, and Carmunnock, belonged to Hamilton Presby- 
tery till 1596, when they were restored to Glasgow, and the parish 
of Kilbride substituted in their place. This Presbytery includes 
the fourteen parishes of the Middle Ward.* The oldest date in the 
Presbytery records is 6th September 1687. The oldest date in 
the parochial register is 15th January 1650. The books of the 
town-council go back only to 3d October 1701 ; but it is believed 
that many older ones, at a remote period, got into the possession 
of private individuals, and still exist. 

* A new Relief Presbytery has lately been established in this town, including ten 
congregations; Rev. Mr M'Farlane of Hamilton, Clerk. 



HAMILTON. 287 

The ancient parish of Cadzow, now Hamilton, included former- 
ly the chapelry of Machan, (i. e. the " little plain,") now the pa- 
rish of Dalserf. Chalmers, in his Caledonia, (Vol. iii. p. 683,) 
informs us, that " David I. with consent of his son, Earl Henry, 
granted the church of Cadihou,' with its pertinents, in perpe- 
tual alms to the church and bishops of Glasgow, and this grant was 
confirmed by the bulls of several popes, inter 1170 and 1186." 
The church of Cadzow, with the lands of Barlanerk and Badler- 
nock, became afterwards the appropriate prebend of the Dean of 
the see of Glasgow. In 1273, William Frazer, a younger son of 
the Frazers of Tweeddale, was Dean of Glasgow and Rector of 
Cadzow, when he was appointed Chancellor of Scotland. In 1454, 
Andrew Muirhead, a son of Muirhead of Sauchope, was Rector of 
Hamilton, and afterwards Bishop of Glasgow. Hamilton, by the in- 
fluence of the first Lord Hamilton, was made a collegiate charge 
in 1451 ; and thereupon a new church was built with a choir, two 
cross aisles, and a steeple, all of polished stone, and highly orna- 
mented. It was finished in April 1462, and George de Graham 
appointed Provost. The patronage of this establishment was vest- 
ed in Lord Hamilton ; but the patronage of the parish church of 
Hamilton continued, as before, with the Bishop of Glasgow. Man- 
ses, gardens, and glebes were provided for the provost and eight 
prebends; besides a manse, garden and glebe, for a chaplainry, de- 
dicated to the Virgin Mary. There is a farm at Edlewood still 
called the chapel. At the epoch of the Reformation, Mr Archi- 
bald Karry, " the vicar pensioner," had twenty merks yearly ; and 
the dean had L. 349 in money, 16 bolls of meal, 24 bolls of oats, 
and 24 capons yearly. A plate of the old collegiate church is given 
by Grose in his Antiquities of Scotland. This building continued 
till 1732. One of the cross aisles still remains, and is used as a 
burying-place by the Hamilton family. On a stone cross, on one 
of the walls, is cut out " Galatians, chapter vi. verse 14." 

After Popery had been abolished in Scotland, and the Presby- 
terian form of worship introduced by the act 1588, c. 99, had been 
established by that of 1592, c. 116 two ministers were settled in 
Hamilton, upon a provision of eighteen chalders of victual. Read- 
ers or catechists seem also to have been appointed in this parish. 
In 1574, Mr John Davidson, minister, together with the kirk-land 
of Hamilton, had out of the third of the deanery of Glasgow 
L. 82, lls. Id., and out of the third of the priory of Blantyre, 
L.27, 15s. 6d., together with L.23, and 18 bolls of meal out of 



288 LANARKSHIRE. 

the parsonage of Cambuslang. Mr Robert Raa, reader at Hamil- 
ton, had L. 22, 4s. 5d. of stipend. In 1590, Mr Davidson was first 
minister, and Mr Gavin Hamilton, second minister, of Hamilton. 
The latter had 4 chalders and 4 bolls of bear, 1 chalder 4 bolls of 
meal, and 12 bolls of wheat. Mr John Raa, reader, had out of 
the vicarage of Hamilton L. 4, 8s. lOd. and out of the deanery of 
Glasgow, L. 17, 15s. 6d. For many years after, there was only 
one minister, with a stipend payable out of the third of the dean- 
ery of Glasgow. By the act 1606, c. 1, the bishops were restored 
to their temporalities; and by 1617, c. 2, the manses, glebes, and 
other patrimony, with certain restrictions, were also restored. With 
the interruption only of the period of Cromwell's usurpation, epis- 
copacy continued down to 1689, when presbytery was fully restored. 
Soon after (May 13th 1692) Mr Robert Wylie, formerly minis- 
ter of Askirk, was admitted minister of Hamilton, on the under- 
standing, that, as formerly, he was to have a colleague. In that 
view, an address was presented to the presbytery, praying leave to 
give a call to Mr Alexander Findlater, who having been lately set- 
tled in the parish of Avondale, was very reluctant to quit his flock. 
Strong objections were accordingly made by Mr Findlater and the 
commissioners from Hamilton, which ended in a reference by the 
presbytery to the synod. After a good deal of procedure, which 
was carried the length of suspending Mr Findlater for resisting to 
be removed to Hamilton, he at length complied, and was admitted 
as second minister, January 9, 1695. Mr Wylie, the first minister, 
complains that " the presbytery were so far from assisting him in 
getting Hamilton provided with another minister, conform to their 
promise to him at his entry, that they did, without any valid ground, 
what in them lay to impede the same." Of all the heritors who con- 
curred in attaining this desirable object, none was more anxious to 
carry the measure into execution than Anne Duchess of Hamilton. 
The present church stands on a high ground (at one period) to 
the south of the town; but it is now more centrical, from the streets 
which have been built to the south and west. The body of the 
church is a circle with four cross aisles. The design, which in 
general is accounted very elegant, was by Adam the elder. It 
is capable of containing about 800 sitters. The minister of the 
first charge has a glebe of about twenty-seven acres, which was ex- 
cambed some years ago for three acres and a-half in the Ha- 
milton haughs. No manse has as yet been erected upon it. The 
minister of the second charge has a manse but no glebe. 1 he 






HAMILTON. 289 

stipend of both is the same, namely, 16 chalders, half meal, half 
barley, payable in money, at the highest fiar prices of the county, 
L. 5 Sterling for communion elements, and L. 2, 15s. 6d. to each 
of the ministers, according to use and wont. The number of com- 
municants male heads of families is about 260. The charge is about 
to be uncollegiated quoad sacra. A new church, capable of contain- 
ing 1100, and proposed to be in connection with the establishment, 
is now building.* Of the various sectaries prevailing here, the 
Relief is the most prosperous. There are two meeting houses of 
this persuasion, one built in 1761, in Muir Street; and another erect- 
ed in Brandon Street in 1832. The old congregation give their pas- 
tor L. 200 per annum, including a manse; the second congregation 
give L. 100 per annum, without a manse. An Antiburgher meeting 
house was erected at Blacks-well in 1761, and a New Light Burgher 
house, near the church, towards the end of last century. These are 
not in so thriving a state as their neighbours. A tabernacle, in con- 
nection with the Congregational Union of Scotland, has lately been 
re-opened in Black's-well, and an interim preacher appointed. The 
Old Scots Independents have a meeting house in an upper cham- 
ber in the Back-of-the-barns. The Macmillans or Cameroni- 
ans have also preaching in a hall once a month, and are attempt- 
ing to establish a station here. The Roman Catholics have public 
worship once a month in the Mason's Lodge. It is well attend- 
ed by the Irish. The priest comes up from Glasgow. There are 
few of any other sect. There are several Bible and Missionary 
Societies, and also a very useful Orphan Society, for which fre- 
quent contributions are made. The collections at the church door 
on public occasions are usually from L. 12 to L. 18. 

Sitting*, 
Parish Church, . . / ' . .' . 800 

St John's Church, . 1100 

Relief Church, Muir Street, . . . ,. . 1105 

Relief Church, Brandon Street, 940 

Antiburgher Church, Black's-well, . . . 582 

New Light Burgher Church, 700 

Congregational Chapel Black's-well, .''" 'V 1 ' '. 240 

Old Scots Independents, ;V ,,,'V. ' -.;*, .,>: ' 70 

5537 

The Cameronians have lately obtained a disjunction from the 
congregation at Wishaw-town, and meet regularly here once a 
month ; as do also the Roman Catholics once in six weeks. The 

* A proportion of not less than one-sixth of the whole is reserved for the poor. 
Fifty of the sittings are let at 2s. each, and the rest rise by a graduated scale of 3d. on 
each row till they reach 6s., which is the highest price of any in the church. 



290 LANARKSHIRE. 

number of families Dissenting or Seceding is 907 ; of Roman 
Catholic families, 45. 

Education. Number of schools in this parish at last examina- 
tion, and the number of scholars attending each. 

Scholars. 

Grammar-school, - 35 

13 English schools, - 722 

Boarding-school for young ladies, - 20 

Do. do. ... 50 

Writing school, - 80 

English School, Low- Waters, . 33 

Do. do. Earnock, - - 12 

Do. do. Darngaber, - - 45 

The salary of the grammar-schoolmaster is L. 34, 4s. : and his 
fees may amount to L. 50. As session-clerk he has about L. 30 
per annum. The fees paid at the grammar-school are 7s. 6d. 
for Latin, and 10s. 6d. for Latin and Greek, per quarter. The 
ladies' school fees are from 5s. to 10s. 6d. per quarter. The 
grammar-school of Hamilton is of ancient date, and has no doubt 
been instrumental in producing that superior civilization, courtesy 
of manners, and ardent pursuit of literature, for which many of 
the inhabitants of the place are supposed to be distinguish- 
ed. In 1588 we find Lord John Hamilton granting a bond, still 
in possession of the corporation, settling for ever on that school 
the yearly sum of L.20 pounds Scots. The present school-house 
is a venerable pile, near the centre of the town, containing a long 
wainscotted hall, emblazoned with the names of former scholars, 
cut out in the wood, as at Harrow. Many of these are from fo- 
reign climes, and from all parts of Britain. Pillans, Whale, Gil- 
lies, and other eminent teachers have been masters of this school ; 
and the present teacher, the Rev. George Shaw, is not inferior in 
classical attainments, assiduity and success as a teacher, to any of 
his predecessors. The ladies' schools have also been of great ser- 
vice in instructing the understandings, and in contributing to the 
accomplishments, useful and ornamental, of the female sex. 

The Hamilton Sabbath School Society has under its charge 7 
schools and 238 scholars. The number of scholars attending the 
Societies' schools are not so numerous as formerly, as a number of 
the town clergy have commenced Sabbath schools connected with 
their own congregations. These schools include above 300 young 
persons. 

Library, Sfc. There is a public subscription library in the town, 
which was instituted in 1808, principally through the instrumen- 
tality of the late Dr John Hume. It now contains upwards of 



HAMILTON. 291 

3000 volumes. For many years it prospered exceedingly ; but 
since the managers began to be chosen by popular election it has 
been gradually on the decline. There are several other public 
libraries, but all of them are on a smaller scale. A mechanics' 
institution was established about eight years ago, a good library 
collected, and lectures delivered regularly once a fortnight on a 
variety of interesting topics ; but as soon as the novelty of the thing 
ceased, its supporters gradually dropt away. But the inhabitants 
of this parish are not singular in preferring that sort of knowledge 
which costs the least trouble and expense. It has revived again 
with great spirit. 

Poor. The charitable institutions and other provisions made 
for the poor of this parish are considerable. 

1. The Duke's Hospital. This is an old building, with a bel- 
fry and a bell, at the Cross of Hamilton, which was erected in 
lieu of one which formerly stood in the Netherton. The pen- 
sioners used to reside here, but it is now more profitably let out 
for their behoof. It contributes to the support of 12 old men, 
at the rate of L. 8, 18s. each per annum, with a suit of clothes once 
in two years. It is proposed to increase the number to 15. 

2. Aikman's Hospital. This hospital was built and endowed 
in 1775 by William Aikman, Esq. proprietor of an estate in the 
parish, and some time merchant in Leghorn. The house stands 
in Muir Street. Four poor men have here a free house, L.4 per 
annum, and a suit of clothes every second year. 

3. Rae's Mortification. Mr John Rae, and a few other well- 
disposed people, formerly inhabitants, mortified money to the care 
of the town-council, the interest of which, L. 9, 2s. 4d., appointed 
for the relief of poor householders, is mostly paid to the poor 
yearly. 

4. Robertson and Lyon's Mortification. Mr Robertson was a 
native of Hamilton, and sometime sheriff-clerk of Lanark. It con- 
tributes L. 4 yearly to nine poor men. 

5. Miss Christian Allan, who died in 1785, bequeathed to the 
care of the kirk-session, for the behoof of the poor, L. 50, the in- 
terest of which is paid yearly. 

Besides the above, the kirk-session have, 

1. An orchard at Fairneygair, left some years ago by Mr Wil- 
liam Torbet, which lets at L. 10 per annum. 

2. A legacy of L. 50, the interest of which is to be divided 
among five poor female householders named by the kirk-session. 



292 LANARKSHIRE. 

3. A legacy of L. 50, of which little more than L. 30 was rea- 
lized, to be expended in clothing the most indigent of the poor. 

4. A donation of L. 100, the interest to be applied in educating 
twelve poor children. 

The collections at the church door amount per annum to about 
L. 90 ; average amount of mortcloth dues per annum, L. 30. 

The average weekly number of persons on the session funds is 
14. There are 238 poor people on the parish, supported at the 
rate of about L. 14 per week, or L. 800 nearly per annum. The 
allowance to each individual is from 6d. to 2s. 6d. per week. Im- 
mense numbers of beggars go about seeking alms; and people 
with passes from Glasgow (often forged) are numerous and trouble- 
some. Of late, many little children, from six to twelve years of 
age, are permitted to beg from door to door. Something ought 
to be done, for the sake of these poor creatures themselves, to put 
down this practice ; as it is well known that their parents are often 
able enough to work, and do work, but take this cheap mode of sup- 
porting their miserable offspring. 

Prison. The old prison in Hamilton was built in the reign 
of Charles L, and, although a handsome building in its day, has 
now gone much into disrepair. It has been bought up, and will 
soon all be removed, except the steeple, town clock, and bell. 
As this is the place of confinement for the delinquents of the 
Middle Ward, it may not be uninteresting to show the number of 
debtors and criminals confined here for the last twelve years. Be- 
sides the following, it ought, however, to be recollected, that many 
prisoners from this ward are taken to Glasgow. 

Year. Criminals. Debtors. Year. Criminals. Debtors. 

1823, 45 50 1830, 82 46 

1824, 40 50 1831, 84 31 

1825, 46 32 1832, 102 48 

1826, 50 36 1833, 98 54 

1827, 77 44 1834, 6 1 to 1 2th July 23 

1828, 70 31 

1829, 69 27 827 475 

It would appear that criminals are on the increase and debtors 
on the decrease. 

Fairs. Hamilton in former times was a great mart for lint and 
wool, and was attended by persons from all parts of the country. At 
present, however, that trade has taken a different channel, and only 
a small quantity of lint (and no wool) is now sold here. Our fairs 
have in consequence dwindled into a mere shadow of what they 
once were, and at present are little better than larger market days. 
There are five principal fairs m the year. 



HAMILTON. 293 

The absurd practice of keeping up the old and new style is still 
observed in our fairs ; but, fortunately, the terms are now all kept 
by the new style. 

Inns, Sfc. There are two inns in the town which keep post chaises, 
one that hires out gigs and cars. There are several excellent and 
very respectable secondary inns and taverns for the accommoda- 
tion of travellers, &c. 

There are 110 public-houses in the town and parish, in which 
ardent spirits or malt liquors are sold. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

An English traveller who visited Scotland in 1723, thus de- 
scribes the people : " The common people wear all bonnets, in- 
stead of hats ; and although some of the townsmen have hats, they 
wear them only on Sundays, and extraordinary occasions. There 
is nothing of the gaiety of the English, but a sedate gravity in every 
face, without the stiffness of the Spaniards ; and I take this to be 
owing to their praying and frequent long graces, which gives their 
looks a religious cast. Certainly no nation on earth observes the 
Sabbath with that strictness of devotion and resignation to the will 
of God. They all pray in their families before they go to church, 
and between sermons they fast; after sermon, everybody retires 
to his own home, and reads some book of devotion till supper, 
which is generally very good on Sunday, after which they sing 
psalms till they go to bed. There is no dinner prepared on the 
Sabbath, and, in inns, travellers are obliged to put up with bread 
and butter, or a fresh egg, or fast till after the evening sermon, 
when they never fail of a hot supper." According to custom, the 
eating department forms a considerable item in this English gentle- 
man's account. But the fasting here spoken of, and what relates 
to dress, (and, it is to be feared, some other practices,) have long 
passed away. 

About the middle of last century, and a good deal later, the prac- 
tice of hard drinking was very common. About the time of the Ame- 
rican war, politics and infidelity began to be introduced. Of late a 
reaction has taken place. Infidelity is no longer fashionable, and re- 
ligion is now either warmly embraced, or, if neglected in its essen- 
tial duties and requirements, it is uniformly spoken of with respect. 
Trade has also been equally fluctuating as manners, religion, and 
morals. At one period the malting trade formed no inconsiderable 
branch of industry in this town. Many memorials of this trade are 
still to be found, and the richest and oldest society in Hamilton is 

LANARK. U 



294 LANARKSHIRE. 

the Society .of Maltsters, although no such employment, as a distinct 
branch of trade, is now carried on. The linen trade, which at one 
period supported so many of the town's people, is now also nearly 
extinct. The imitation cotton cambric trade, which in 1792 had 
reached its maximum, has for many years been on the decline ; 
and it is to be feared that the formidable combinations among the 
weavers may in time cause the manufacturers either to invent new 
machinery, or to seek out some other channel for their work. While 
I now write, about 300 weavers are parading the streets with a web 
which had been given out by a house in town below the " table 
prices," which they prescribe to the manufacturer. At the same 
time, the weaving is paid at a rate which cannot procure for the 
workman the ordinary comforts, or even the necessaries of life. 
The lace trade, established here about eight years ago by a house 
at Nottingham, which sent down a number of English women, who 
took up schools and taught the tambourers here the art, is now in 
a thriving state, and is contributing greatly to the happiness and 
comfort of the community. The building of the addition to Ha- 
milton Palace, the erection of the new buildings already alluded 
to, the formation of Duke Street, which has just been completed, 
and many other improvements which are going forward, have con- 
tributed in no small degree to the support of a large portion of the 
community. Upon the whole, since the publication of the former 
report, this town and parish have increased in inhabitants, in wealth, 
in domestic comfort, in morals, in manners, and religion, as may 
be seen from the foregoing account. 

July 1835. 



PARISH OF GLASFORD. 

PRESBYTERY OF HAMILTON, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. GAVIN LANG, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Extent and Boundaries. THE parish of Glasford is about eight 

miles in length. Its figure, as laid down in the map, resembles a 

sand-glass, three miles and three-quarters at its broadest extreme, 

two miles in the opposite end, and about one-half mile in the 



GLASFORD. 295 

middle. It contains in all eleven square miles, or 5598 Scots 
acres. It is bounded on the north-west by East Kilbride and 
Blantyre; north, by Hamilton; south, by Avondale ; and east, 
by Stonehouse. 

Topographical Appearances. The parish is separated into two 
grand divisions, the moors and the dales ; the latter of which com- 
prehend a beautiful strath of land, that runs along the lower part 
of the parish, and is bounded on the one side by the Avon. The 
aspect of the parish presents in some places a gradual rise, but 
nothing that can be termed mountainous. The district of the 
moors is in many parts bleak and barren. Owing to its high po- 
sition the air is keen, but the climate is considered healthy. The 
soil may be reckoned of three kinds, moss, clay, and light loam. 
II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Chief Land-Owners. The chief land-owners are the Right Ho- 
nourable Lady Montgomerie, (Patroness;) George Alston, Esq. 
of Muirburn ; John Marshall, Esq. of Chapelton ; John Jackson, 
Esq. of Hallhill ; and William Semple, Esq. of Heads, &c. 

Antiquities. Three high stones stand upright on a small emi- 
nence upon the lands of Avonholm, respecting the origin of which 
there are various opinions. Some suppose they mark the resting- 
place of martyrs, and others that they are the tombs of noblemen ; 
but more probably they are remnants of Druidical superstition. Till 
within a few years the ruins of an ancient castle were to be seen very 
near the mansion-house of Hallhill. The late proprietor, John 
Millar, Esq. caused it to be taken down, when there were found 
some specimens of beautiful china, unfortunately broken, and a 
few other relics. It is said to have been a very strong fort, con- 
taining one spacious arch, under which an hundred men could be 
drawn up. The building was evidently more intended for defence 
than for a place of residence. There is a small enclosure at a 
place called Shawtonhill, in the western part of the parish, which 
is appropriated as a burying-ground by a few members of the So- 
ciety of Friends in Glasgow. It has not been used for a great 
length of time. The land is burdened with the sum of 12s. 2Jd. 
annually, which is paid by two possessors of the adjoining grounds. 
They are obliged to preserve the fence, which surrounds a space 
of nine falls. The ruins of the former church and belfry, built in 
] 633, are still standing in the grave yard, where also the tomb of 
a martyr is to be seen inscribed, " To the memory of the very 
worthy Pillar of the Church, Mr William Gordon of Earlston in 



296 LANARKSHIRE. 

Galloway, shot by a party of dragoons on his way to Bothwell 
Bridge, 22d June 1679, aged 65 ; inscribed by his great-grand- 
son, Sir John Gordon, Bart, llth June 1772." 

Eminent Characters. Mrs Isabella Graham was born in this 
parish. Her father, Mr J. Marshall, was a small proprietor at a 
place called Heads, from which he removed to the Abbey parish 
of Paisley. The piety and excellence of Mrs Graham require no 
comment here. A memoir of her was first published at New 
York, and reprinted in London 1816. In 1766, she left her na- 
tive country for America with her husband, and spent the greater 
part of her remaining days in that foreign land. She died on the 
27th July 1814. 

Mansion Houses. The principal of these are, Muirburn, Cru- 
therland, Avonholm, Westquarter House, Hallhill, Craigthornhill, 
and Heads, &c. 

Mills. There are two upon the Avon, one for oats, &c. and 
another for flour, erected in 1833. 

Parochial Registers. The earliest is dated 1692, when the Rev. 
Francis Borland was minister of the parish. They are rather 
confused from the first, and have not been regularly attended to 
for the last thirty-seven years.* 

* The following account of the sufferings of the people in the parish of Glasford for 
religion and non-conformity to Prelacy, about the year 1 660, appears to have been 
appointed by the kirk-session of 1694, to be inserted in their records. As exemplifying 
the persecutions of the time, it is thought not unworthy of being presented here at length. 

" Imprimis, Mr William Hamilton, minister in Glasford, who had been ordained 
minister of this parish about January 1644, and continued in the faithful and pa- 
tient exercise of his ministry here, till after the restoration of King Charles II., was 
in the year 1666 most injuriously silenced and thrust out of his charge by the then 
Bishop of Glasgow ; and when afterwards he was indulged to preach the Gospel at 
Strathaven in the year 1669, he was there confined within the bounds of that parish. 

" Hem, The parish of Glasford was injuriously fined in the sum of eleven hundred 
merks Scots, which they were forced to pay, upon the account that the curate's house, 
Mr Finlay, who was then incumbent of the ?aid parish, was by robbers broken up, 
about the year 1660, although no person of the said parish was anyways guilty of the 
fact, being done by strangers, who were afterwards apprehended and executed for the 
robbery ; at their death confessed the same, declaring that they had not done above 
two dollars worth of damage to the said Mr Finlay, his house or goods. 

" Item, Robert Semple in Craigthorn, William Semple Whitcraig, William Mar- 
shall in Four Pennyland, having been at the rising in Pentland Hills, were there either 
killed, or received their death wounds, in their testifying against the corruption of 
their times. 

" Item, John Hart, in Westquarter, who had been at the engagement at Pentland 
Hills, after his return home, was apprehended, carried to Glasgow, and there exe- 
cuted on the foresaid account. 

" Item, James Scouler arid Gavin Semple, having gone toward Hamilton to hear 
sermon, on the same day on which Bothwell Bridge skirmish fell out, were on their 
way thither both cruelly killed. 

" Item, John Semple in Craigthorn, sometime after Bothwell Bridge, in the year 
1684, was apprehended and cruelly used by soldiers, then laid up in Hamilton Tol- 
l>ooth ; afterwards carried to foresaid tolbooth, where he was barbarously handled, 
his fingers driven into the thummeking, and his legs driven into the bolts, and that 



GLASFORD. 297 

III. POPULATION 

In 1755 the population was - 559 

1792, .... 788 

1811, - - - - 900 

1821, - - - 1300 

1831, - - - ' - - 1730 

The increase is chiefly to be found in the manufacturing part 
of the community, and may be attributed to the encouragement 
given to feuing, by the proprietors of land around the village. 

both at one and the same time, for the space of five hours together, to increase his tor- 
ments, afterwards they condemned him to die, passing sentence of death upon him 

in the forenoon, and executing him in the afternoon of the same. The same John 
Semple of good report, well versed in the Holy Scriptures, by the very quoting of 
which he even dashed his persecutors. He bore sufferings with much patience. 

" Item, A sister of the foresaid John Semple, coming to see him while he was a pri- 
soner in Edinburgh, and to put on his dead clothes, the persecutors made her a pri- 
soner, also first in Edinburgh, then in Donnoter Castle. Likewise the mother of the 
said young woman named Janet Scott, going to see her daughter at Donnoter, she 
was also made a prisoner there ; afterwards they were brought to Leith to be sent 
over sea to America, but it was so ordered that both were reserved, and sent to Edin- 
burgh Tolbooth, where they lay in prison a long time. The whole time of the daugh- 
ter's imprisonment was about two years and three quarters of a year, and the mother's 
imprisonment was near two years. 

" Item, Janet Scott suffered much by the troopers coming at several times upon her, 
free quartering, and destroying her corn, grass, and meal, and driving away her 
horses and cattle, which she never after received, the said troopers carrying themselves 
rudely and barbarously to them in the house. 

" Item, In 1685, Michael Marshall and John Kay were both taken prisoners for 
their non-conformity, and banished and sent over sea to New Jersay in America. 
The said Michael Marshall staid several years in America. After the late happy re- 
volution, designing to come home, he was taken prisoner at sea, and was carried to 
France, where he was kept one year and a-half in prison, and endured great hardships 
before lie was delivered. 

"Item, Aboutthe said year 1685, Alexander Hamilton and John Struthersin Shaw- 
tonhill, John Semplc in Shawton, John Fleeming in Chapelton, John Walker there, 
James Scott there, John Paterson there, John Semple in Nethershields, William 
Semple there, Gavin Paterson there, John Marshall, elder and younger, Chapelton, 
and James Lowrie there, were sorely troubled and harassed by the then Lord Glas- 
ford, who caused a troop of soldiers to search for and apprehend them, upon pretence 
of conversing with, resetting and giving entertainment to persons who had been in 
arms against the established Government, and having been actually in arms them- 
selves ; upon which allegencies, the said persons were imprisoned fourteen days in 
Edinburgh, and put to much expense in employing agents to defend them, and al- 
though the said Lord Glasford summoned many witnesses to compea'r against them, 
yet could he not get anything proven against them. 

" Item, The parish of Glasford was much oppressed in the year before the rising at 
Bothwell Bridge, by the free quartering of a company of the Highland host, and by 
paying besides to each of them sixpence by day, besides hardships and robberies com- 
mitted by them upoirthe people of the said parish, while they quartered them. 

" Item, John Alston in Glasford Mill lay half a year in Glasgow Tolbooth for refus- 
ing the test. 

"Item, John Fleeming, Elder, in Chapelton, was imprisoned thirty-four weeks, partly 
in Glasgow, partly in Edinburgh, and partly in Burnthallin, for his refusing to take 
the test, and had the sentence of banishment passed upon him to America, although 
providentially it was not executed. 

" Item, William Semple in Nethershields was imprisoned in Stirling about three 
months, because of his refusing the test. 

"Item, Thomas Fleeming in Chapelton was, upon the account of his non-conformity, 
and going to the field preaching, much troubled by the Donnoter Hull-yards, who 
caused take an inventory of his goods in order to seize them, which cost him about 
l(j pounds Scots before he could get his goods set free, and himself delivered from the 
said oppression. As also the said Thomas Fleeming was apprehended by Laird tiyni 



298 LANARKSHIRE. 

Number of bachelors upwards of 50 years of age, - 7 
maids upwards of 45 years, - 9 

widowers, ----- 25 

widows, ------ 36 

Number of births during the last 7 years, at an average each year, - 45 

deaths, .- 24 

marriages, _--__._ 15 

Number of houses inhabited, .-__.. 269 

uninhabited, , . , - - - - - 1 

building, ""'"_ _ _ . _ 8 

The number of families employed in manufactures, * - - 123 

in agriculture, - - - 133 

The number of proprietors of land is 50. Of these 17 are non- 
resident, and 36 stand above L.50 in valuation. A considerable 
number of females are engaged at the loom, at which they spend 
usually fourteen hours each working day. For some years past the 
remuneration has not at all been adequate to their support, but is 
now much improved. Such a mode of life is not beneficial to the 
health or morality of females in particular. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture. As mentioned at the commencement of this ac- 
count, the number of Scots acres in the parish is computed to be 
5598. Of these 440 are reckoned not arable, being chiefly a deep 
moss. It is probable, however, that, in the course of a few years, 
the greater part of this waste will become cultivated ground, if 
farming operations continue to improve as they have done of late 
years. There is but little wood, and that little is planted. Beech, 
ash, and fir trees prevail. 

Rent of Land. The average rent of arable land is L. 1, 10s. per 
acre ; that for grazing a good cow, L. 3 ; sheep, 6s. per head. The 
breed of cattle is principally Ayrshire. A good deal of attention 
has been paid to rearing them. Oats are mostly cultivated here. 

upon the foresaid account, and forced to pay five pounds Scots before he could get out 
of his hands aga<n. 

" Item, Alexander Hamilton in Shawtonhill was taken prisoner by Gavin Muir, 
Laird of Sachopp and his men, on pretence of having been at a conventicle, and car- 
ried to Glasgow tolbooth, where he lay a month imprisoned. 

" Item, John Alston, Elder, in Glasford, was fined in three dollars, because he did 
not baptize his child by the curate Mr Davison, which he actually paid. 

" Item, John Marshall in Heads was imprisoned fourteen days in Hamilton tol- 
booth, because of his wife not hearing the curate Mr Davison. 

" Item, Gavin Paterson in Nethershields was fined in three dollars, which he accord- 
ingly paid, for his wife not hearing the curate. 

" Item, Ann Semple, spouse to Thomas Watt in Croutherland, was imprisoned 
fourteen days in Hamilton, for not hearing the curate. 

" Item, Thomas Watt, foresaid, was fined in three dollars, and John Young in Flatt, 
was fined in two dollars, which they both actually paid, upon the account of their 
hearing a sermon at the Torrance House, preached by Mr Robert Muir. 

" Item, Adam Fleemingin Shawtoii was imprisoned in Hamilton tolbooth, for lodg- 
ing Mr Matthew M'Koll two nights in his house, and was fined in fifty pounds Scots 
besides. 

" This account of sufferings within this parish, the session appointed to be insert 
in their register, adfuiuram vos memoriam." 



GLASFORD. 299 

More wheat, however, was sown during the last than in any pre- 
vious year. Potatoes are a prevalent crop. Nineteen years is the 
general term of leases. Some of these are conditional, which im- 
plies a liberty of resigning, provided that the parties are not satis- 
fied at the termination of such years as may be specified. The 
farm-houses may be considered rather comfortable ; a number of 
them have been recently built. There are three freestone quar- 
ries near the village of Westquarter, and one at a place called Flatt, 
from which most of the buildings are supplied. A large lime-work 
is in operation in that division of the parish, termed the Moors. 
Coal has also been found in different parts, but not in abundance. 
At present there is one colliery going on in the estate of Cruther- 
land, for the use of the property chiefly. 

Produce. The annual produce may be as follows : 

Potatoes, . . 40 acres Scots. 

Turnips, . . 10 

Hay, . . .261 

Oats, . . 320 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

There is no market-town in Glasford. Strathaven is the near- 
est, distant about two and a-half miles. The parish contains three 
villages, Westquarter, Chapelton, and Heads. The population of 
Westquarter is 501 ; of Chapelton, 558; of Heads, 68. 

Means of Communication. Letters are conveyed to these vil- 
lages from the post-town Strathaven, by a runner who goes daily. 
The turnpike-road leading from Strathaven to Glasgow, by east 
Kilbride, stretches four miles through the parish ; that from Strath- 
aven to Hamilton, about two and a-half miles. Two stage-coaches 
run in opposite directions, both from Strathaven, one by east Kil- 
bride, and the other by Stonehouse, to which there is easy access. 
The bridge over the Avon at Glasford mill is very narrow, and not 
in good repair. It is proposed to have it widened. That over the 
Calder at Crutherland is better. Thorn and beech hedges pre- 
vail, which are now obtaining much more attention than in former 
years. This is particularly visible in the moorland parts, where en- 
closures of any kind are few. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church, built in 1820, is situ- 
ated in the village of Westquarter, which is almost at one extre- 
mity of the parish, being distant from the other end six miles. It 
is in good repair, and calculated to contain 560 sitters. The 
manse was built in 1804. An addition and offices were erected in 
1833, which render it very commodious. The glebe and garden, 
&c. include between eight and nine acres of excellent soil. The 



300 LANARKSHIRE. 

stipend allotted in 1822 is sixteen chalders, half meal and half 
barley. There is no chapel or meeting-house here; but the num- 
ber of families attending Dissenting chapels in the neighbouring 
parishes is 130. Divine service is occasionally performed at 
Chapelton, three miles from the stated place of worship. The 
number of communicants amounts to 400. A female society for 
religious purposes was instituted in January 1835, likewise a paro- 
chial library for each division. 

Education. At Westquarter is one parochial school, in which 
are taught besides the common branches, Greek and Latin. The 
salary is 300 merks, or L. 16, 13s. 4d. with legal accommodation. 
The schoolmaster's fees amount to L. 32 per annum, and his 
emoluments from other sources to L. 6 per annum. There are 
two schools at Chapelton, one of which has a grant of 100 merks, 
or L. 5, lls. Id. and a school-house assigned to the teacher. Far- 
ther to the west at Mill-well is another school, to which is at- 
tached 50 merks or L. 2/1 5s. 6^d. with a school-house and garden, 
from the Right Honourable Lady Montgomerie, and L. 3 Sterling 
from the parish. These schools are so situated as to be accessible 
to all the different parts of the parish. In 1832 two Sabbath 
schools were opened, one at Westquarter, the other at Chapel- 
ton, at which 300 children usually attend ; and besides these there 
is an adult female Sabbath evening class containing 30 ; which in- 
stitutions are supported by collections. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The number of paupers regularly 
receiving aid in 1832 was about 30, and the average sum calcu- 
lated to each, L. 5, 10s. yearly. Besides these, others receive as- 
sistance in various sums. The assessment of the parish for that 
year was L. 170, 9s. 7d., and the collections at the church door 
during 1833 were L. 15, 6s. l^d. 

Charitable Institutions. At Westquarter, one male Friendly So- 
ciety, members, 112; one Female do. 23; one Temperance do. 
107. At Chapelton, three Friendly Societies, in all 214; one 
Temperance do. members, 41. 

These friendly societies are of great benefit not only to the in- 
dividuals connected with them, but to the heritors of the parish. 
They are calculated both to promote industry and excite a desire 
of independence. 

Inns, fyc. There are six houses in Westquarter and Chapelton 
that retail spirits. The demoralizing effects of these places of re- 
sort are too evident. 

July 1835. 



. 



PARISH OF 
AVONDALE OR STRATHAVEN. 

PRESBYTERY OF HAMILTON, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. WILLIAM PROUDFOOT, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name. THE parish is not unfrequently named Strathaven or 
Straven ; but Avondale is the proper name. Dale seems to be 
much more descriptive of the face of the country than Strath. 
There is a considerable town in the parish named Strathaven ; so 
that now Strathaven is the name uniformly applied to the town, and 
Avondale to the parish. I shall speak of the town and parish se- 
parately. 

Boundaries, Extent, fyc. Avondale is bounded on the north by 
the parishes of Glasford and Kilbride ; on the west by Loudon 
and Galston and Sorn ; on the south by Muirkirk and Lesmahagow ; 
and on the east by Lesmahagow, Stonehouse, and part of Glasford. 
It contains nearly 64 square miles, (32,000 acres,) and yieldsarental 
of nearly L. 20,000 a-year. The valued rent is L. 7650 Scots. 

Topographical Appearances. Though lying in rather a high dis- 
trict of the country, yet the lands are generally flat, rising gently 
from the banks of the river Avon, especially towards the west and 
south. There are several ridges and small hills in the parish, such 
as Kype's rigg, Hawkwood hill, Dungivel, and the hills on the 
boundaries of Ayrshire. There are also the interesting eminences 
called the Floors' hills, and the Kirkhill, but these are scarcely 
entitled to be named hills. None of these heights seem to rise 
more than 800 or 900 feet above the level of the sea. 

Climate and Soil. Upon the whole, the climate may be said to 
be rather moist ; but it is at the same time healthy. The inhabit- 
ants are in general a long-lived race. Many of them at present 
living are above eighty years of age, and one is above ninety. Per- 
haps in few places is there a finer race of men than in Avondale. 
They are tall and stout, and well-formed. There are no particu- 
lar diseases peculiar to the district. Throughout the greater part 



302 LANARKSHIRE. 

of the parish the soil is light and dry, and susceptible of great im- 
provement, especially in the higher districts. 

Geology. The rocks of this parish belong to the coal forma- 
tion of the secondary class. The common whinstone or trap which 
is found in great abundance in every part of the parish, exhibits at 
its junctions with the coal formation many interesting pheno- 
mena. Clay ironstone abounds. Limestone is very plenty in various 
districts ; and is wrought at three different places. There is also 
a sufficient supply of coal for burning the lime in the immediate 
vicinity of the kilns. But though perfectly fitted for burning the 
lime, this coal is not accounted sufficiently good for family use. 
Coal used for family purposes is brought from the works of Quarter, 
in the parish of Hamilton, and Marlage, in the parish of Dalserf. 
The distance to each is about five miles ; and 14 t;wt. can be laid 
down at Strathaven for 5s. 

Hydrography. The Avon is the principal stream in the parish, 
which it divides nearly into two equal parts. It rises on the con- 
fines of Ayrshire, and runs nearly east by north. It is a beautiful 
stream, with gently sloping banks ; but which unfortunately are al- 
most entirely destitute of wood. Indeed the want of wood is felt 
throughout the whole parish, especially in the upper district of it. 
There are several smaller streams which join the Avon in its pro- 
gress through the parish. There are Cadder and Pomilion on the 
north ; and Givel, or Geil, Lochar, Lowhere, or Lockart, and Kype, 
on the south. On this last stream at Spectacle-eye-miln, about a 
mile to the south of Strathaven, there is a considerable waterfall. 
The waters of the Kype fall over a precipice of about fifty feet. The 
scenery in the neighbourhood has been much admired. Trouts abound 
in all these streams. Salmon used to be found at the very source 
of the Avon, till some erections were raised lower down the river, 
which for some years has prevented them from ascending. Report 
says that arrangements are now making to permit the fish again to 
ascend ; so that we are in the expectation of being once more vi- 
sited by this delightful fish. 

Zoology Grouse^ fyc. Vast quantities of grouse are to be found 
on the moors in the higher districts of the parish. His Grace the 
Duke of Hamilton has some thousands of acres in sheep pasture, 
and kept for grouse shooting. Perhaps few places in the south of 
Scotland are more favourable for game than the Strathaven moors. 
Partridges abound in the low lands. Plovers and ducks, &c. are 
to be found everywhere. 



A VON DALE. 303 

Horses and Cows. The real breed of Clydesdale horses is 
reared here in considerable numbers. Tradition states, that, at a 
remote period, one of the Dukes of Hamilton sent a superior breed 
of horses to Avondale. They were kept in the castle ; and from 
these and the common mares of the country have sprung the real 
Lanarkshire or Clydesdale breed of horses. It has been alleged, 
that of late this breed has been injured by being too much crossed 
with lighter horses, intended more for coaches and the saddle. They 
are, however, still to be found here in great perfection and beauty. 
The cows kept here are of the Ayrshire kind. They are reared 
in great numbers. Indeed, it is said that this race of cattle can 
be obtained here as pure as in most places in Ayrshire. It has 
been alleged that the Ayrshire farmer, when tempted by a price, 
will part with tKe very best of his stock ; while with us, the farmers 
retain the best, and part with thos^e which are accounted not so va- 
luable. 

Strathaven veal has long been held in high estimation. It is rear- 
ed here in great quantities, and sent both to Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow ; but chiefly to the Glasgow market. In preparing the animals for 
market, they are kept in a dark place, and fed with great care. The 
ordinary price of fed veal is from L. 3 to L. 5. But a much higher 
sum has been obtained for those particularly large and well fed. 

Botany. Hippuris vulgaris (rare) is found in Moss Malloch; 
Utricularia vulgaris, in Lochgate Loch ; Eriophorum vaginatum, in 
the moors ; Sherardia arvensis, in dry corn fields ; Plantago ma- 
ritima, near Drumclog ; Parnassia palustris, in wet moors ; Nas- 
turtium terrestre, in the rivulet near the Relief manse ; Ophioglos- 
sum vulgatum, in high wet pastures ; Lycopodium selaginoides, moors 
in several places; Sphagnum cuspidatum. East Lochgate; Dicranum 
flexuosum.) moss east of Hawkwood-hill ; Bryum attenuatum, near 
the head of Unthankburn ; Merulius crassipes, on the roots of de- 
cayed trees ; Helvella mitra, Bonnanhill. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Antiquities. A Roman road can be traced for a considerable 
distance in the parish. It runs along the south side of the Avon, 
and passes the farm of Walesley. On the farm of Gennerhill some 
shoes or sandals of Roman manufacture have been found, and also 
some small coins. A few years ago some coins were also discovered 
on the lands of Torfoot, near to Loudoun-hill, and on the very 
line by which the Romans when crossing the Caledonian forest, 
must have marched towards the west coast. 



304 LANARKSHIRE. 

Proprietors. In this parish there must be nearly 200 heritors. Con- 
sequently, property is very much subdivided and broken down. His 
Grace the Duke of Hamilton is patron of the parish. He is superior 
of nearly the whole, and proprietor of more than one-fourth of the 
lands. In Hamilton of Wishaw's account of the Sheriffdom of 
Lanark, it is stated, that " this baronie of Avendale did anciently - 
belong to the Bairds, and thereafter came to Sinclair, and from 
them to the Earle of Douglass, with whom it continued several 
ages; and after his fatall forfaulture in anno 1455, it was given by 
King James the 3d to Andrew Stewart, whom he created Lord 
Avendale, and it continued with him and his heirs until 1538 or 
thereby, that he exchanged it with Sir James Hamilton for the 
baronie of Ochiltree, in the Parliament 1543, from which time it 
continued with the successors of Sir James Hamilton until it was 
acquired by James first of that name, Marquis of Hamilton, and 
continued with his successors since." There are twelve commis- 
sioners of supply in the parish. The principal properties are Nether- 
field, belonging to Miss Young, Overton, Lambhill, Newton, &c. 

Parochial Registers. The following records are at present in the 
possession of the kirk-session of Avondale. Minutes of the kirk- 
session, Vol. i. from 1660 to 1701 ; Vol. ii. from 1734 to 1757 ; 
Vol. iii. from 1779 to 1827 ; Vol. iv. from 1827 to 1834. Regis- 
ters of births, Vol. i. from ] 699 to 1785 ; Vol. ii. from 1785 to 1834. 
Registers of proclamation. Vol. i. from 1723 to 1755; Vol. ii. from 
1775 to 1834 : A bound book containing a copy of Shawtonhill's 
mortification : The Acts of the General Assembly, Vol. i. from 
1638 to 1649 ; Vol. ii. from 1690 to 1715 ; Vol. iii. 1715 to 1724. 

Remarkable Occurrences. The people in this parish suffered 
much from the " Bloody Claverhouse," who frequently visited this 
district during the " persecuting times." He never forgot the 
defeat which he experienced at Drumclog in this parish, on Sab- 
bath the 1st June 1679. On that day the country people had 
met for worship in great numbers, many of them armed, and de- 
termined, if attacked, to defend themselves. Claverhouse rested 
his men some time in the town of Strathaven, and then marched 
west about six miles, when he came in sight of the Covenanters at 
Drumclog, a farm belonging to the Duke of Hamilton, about two 
miles to the east of Loudouri-hill. The armed part of the con- 
gregation marched steadily forward to meet him, and chose their 
situation with much skill. It was at the foot of a gently rising 
ground, with a small rivulet in front, the banks of which were so 



AVONDALE. 305 

soft that the horses of the dragoons were unable to pass. In en- 
deavouring to cross this little stream, the military were exposed to 
the deadly aim of the country people, who from all accounts be- 
haved with uncommon coolness and steadiness. Claverhouse him- 
self was in imminent danger. He was the first to carry the news of 
his own defeat to Glasgow. Auchengelloch in this parish was 
also famous for its conventicles ; but as it is quite inaccessible to 
cavalry, it does not appear that the people ever experienced any 
interruption. At this latter place, a small stone monument was 
lately erected, pointing out the place, where the " remnant of the 
covenant," far out in the wild and the waste, met together to hear 
the glad tidings of salvation proclaimed to them. 

I grieve to be under the necessity of noticing a " rising" here 
of a very different description in ]819, a rising in open re- 
bellion against lawful authority, and intended against both the 
altar and throne. I refer to the attempt of a few deluded persons 
calling themselves " Radicals" who, with something like weapons in 
their hands, marched from this place towards Glasgow, under the 
command of a James Wilson, whose life was soon after forfeited to 
the outraged laws of his country. It does not appear that Wilson 
ever contemplated carrying matters so far as to become an open re- 
bel against the laws of his country ; but he had infused a spirit into 
his companions which he was unable to control. This rising was in 
the utmost degree contemptible, for it comprised no more than 
thirteen individuals, deluded by a false report that a general rebel- 
lion had taken place in Glasgow. It has been remarked that none of 
those who joined in the ludicrous crusade afterwards experienced 
any thing like prosperity. 

III. POPULATION. 

In 1801 the population was . 3623 

1811, . . . . 4353 

1821, .... 5030 

1831, .... 5761 

Popidation of the town in 1831, . -'/ . . . 3597 

Number of families in the parish, . -.- ., * . 1246 

chiefly employed in agriculture, . V' . 31 1 

in trade, manufactures, or handicraft. 672 

The number of weavers in both town and parish may be said to 
amount to nearly 800. Many of the weavers are proprietors of 
their own houses, and upon the whole are diligent and industrious. 
There are several extensive dealers in cheese and cattle. In these 
two departments, there is perhaps more business done in Strathaven 
than in all Lanarkshire, with the exception of the city of Glas- 



306 LANARKSHIRE. 

t 

gow. A branch of the Glasgow Union Bank has been establish- 
ed here for some time. The inhabitants are a well-informed, 
reading people. 

Marriages. In 1828 the number of proclamations in order to 
marriage was 50. In 1829 it was 58; in 1830, 61 ; in 1831, 54; 
in 1 832, 61 ; in 1833, 65 ; and in 1834, 56. Among the lower classes, 
large gatherings at weddings are very common. There is uniform- 
ly a race for the broose. When the distance from the house 
of the bridegroom is considerable, the company ride on horseback ; 
the bridegroom and bride, and as many as can crowd together tra- 
vel generally in a chaise or coach. The broose., or contest who 
shall first reach the house of the bridegroom, is then very keenly 
maintained by the young men belonging to the different districts 
of the parish ; and if the parties belong to different parishes, much 
anxiety is displayed by each party to get before the other, and 
obtain honour to their parish. 

Births. The number of births cannot be accurately stated, as 
they are not regularly recorded in the parish register. 

Burials. The number of burials here in 1828 was 147. In 
1829, 114; in 1830, 114; in 1831, 134; in 1832, 199. (This 
season we were visited with Asiatic Cholera, of which 50 of our 
people died.) In 1833, 156; and in 1834, 115. 

Customs, Sfc. Much time is lost, and no small expense unnecessa- 
rily incurred, by the way in which funerals are conducted in this 
parish. Great numbers of both men and women usually attend and 
sit together and receive their "service" together in the barn or place 
of meeting. Though warned to attend at twelve o'clock, they sel- 
dom make their appearance till much later, and do not leave the 
place of meeting with the body before two o'clock ; and having 
perhaps to travel several miles, the interment is seldom over 
till towards four o'clock. In general, three " services" are given, 
two glasses of wine, and one glass of whisky or rum. A practice 
prevailed at one time very generally here, but which is now begin- 
ning to wear out, of collecting vast numbers of the friends and 
neighbours together, to witness the " chesting," or putting the body 
into the coffin. The writer of this has witnessed forty persons pre- 
sent on such an occasion ; after which they generally drink tea, 
perhaps in the same apartment with the coffined remains of their 
departed friend ; and, except when some pious influential person 
is present, it is to be feared that the conversation is not altogether 
becoming the occasion. 



AVONDALE. 307 

In both town and parish the inhabitants are hospitable, kind, and 
obliging. They are also cleanly, sober, and industrious. 
IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture. It has already been stated that the parish contains 
32,000 acres : of these rather more than the half have been cul- 
tivated ; and about 2000 are in undivided common. 

Within the last thirty years the rental of the parish has been 
doubled. Vast quantities of moss and marsh have been reclaim- 
ed, and are now yielding most abundant crops. The Strath- 
aven moss, consisting of about 200 acres, and which, little more 
than half a century ago, was perfectly worthless, is now drained 
and improved, and is perhaps more productive, than any land 
in the parish. Some of it is let as high as L. 4 an acre. Through- 
out the whole parish, the farmers are actively and extensive- 
ly engaged in fur draining their lands. They in general open 
a drain in every furrow, which they fill up to a certain depth with 
stones ; and as there is plenty of whinstone in every district of the 
parish, this process may be carried on to any extent, and to very 
great advantage. The rental of the parish might be increased to 
a very great amount. 

This is a pastoral district, and the dairy produce is what the 
farmers chiefly depend upon for the payment of their rents. The 
Dunlop cheese is made here as good as in any part of Scot- 
land. In many parts of the parish little more land is cultivated 
than seems necessary for the support of the cattle. The lands, from 
one end of the parish to the other, are very favourable for pasture. 
There are, however, excellent crops of oats raised everywhere, 
bear or big, barley, and on some farms to the east of Strathaven, 
excellent wheat. Great quantities of potatoes are also planted, 
which are chiefly disposed of to the farmers in the low country for 
seed. Though the soil be peculiarly adapted for turnips, yet they 
are not extensively cultivated ; and in a district where so many 
cattle are reared, and so much food required, it seems not a little 
strange that this should be the case. 

Rent of Land. In the lower parts of the parish, and in the vici- 
nity of the town of Strathaven, the lands are well cultivated, and very 
productive. Some of them sold during the war as high as L.I 40 an acre 
for cultivation. Even now, L. 100 and L. 105 an acre can be ob- 
tained for land in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. There, 
the annual rent of land is about L. 4 an acre ; at a distance from 
the town, the rent falls much lower. 



f- 
308 LANARKSHIRE. 

The gross produce of the parish I am unable to ascertain with 
accuracy. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Roads, Sfc. In every part of the parish the roads are excellent 
and kept in good repair. It is greatly in favour of Avondale that 
two turnpike roads, the one leading to Ayr, and the other to Muir- 
kirk, run nearly parallel to one another from the town of Strath- 
aven to the western extremity of the parish, the one on the north 
and the other on the south side of the Avon. The other roads 
kept by the parish statute labour extend to perhaps sixty miles, 
and cost the parish, including every thing, about L. 300 a year. 
There are about 30 bridges over the different rivulets in the parish, 
but in general they are too narrow. The road commissioners em- 
ploy a clerk, treasurer, and overseer, (who is in general the same 
person) at the very moderate salary of L. 15 a year. He super- 
intends all their road operations, and has improved the bridges and 
lines of communication very much. 

Town of Strathaven. Strathaven was erected into a burgh of 
barony in 1450. It had an extensive common, which has now all 
become private property. There is a weekly market, besides a great 
many annual fairs. It is ruled by a baron bailie, who is appointed 
by the Duke of Hamilton. For some years past the town has been 
deprived of this functionary, or if there be a person appointed to 
that situation, he is non-resident. The population of the parish 
of Avondale and town of Strathaven may be stated now to be 
6000. The population of the town in 1781 was 1444. In 1791 
it had increased to 1610, and in 1831 to 3000; and at present it 
may be rated at 4000. 

Strathaven lies prettily at the end of a small ridge of eminen- 
ces on the banks of the little stream of Pomilion, which runs through 
it, and divides it nearly into two equal parts, and contributes greatly 
to its cleanliness and comfort. It has the appearance of being a very 
old town. The houses in the old part of it are very much crowd- 
ed together, and the streets are narrow and irregularly built, It 
is built in the immediate vicinity of the castle, which is now in 
ruins. No doubt the cause of the narrowness of the streets, and 
the crowding of the houses so much together, was, that the inha- 
bitants wished to be under the protection of the castle. Though 
now in ruins, the castle is still a beautiful feature in our landscape. It 
is said to have been built by Andrew Stewart, grandson of Murdoch 
Dukeof Albany, andmusthavebeenaplace of considerable strength. 



AVONDALE. 309 

It stands on a rocky eminence on the banks of the little stream 
of Pomilion, whose waters flow round the greater part of it. In for- 
mer times it is highly probable that it was entirely surrounded by this 
stream, and that the approach to it was by a drawbridge.* Of late 
years, some excellent houses have been built, and new broad streets 
formed in the town. A number of neat small villas have been erect- 
ed by some of the wealthier citizens in the neighbourhood. A 
few years ago, a number of the inhabitants formed themselves into 
a company to supply the town with gas, which seems to be suc- 
ceeding well. Many of the private houses, and almost all the shops 
are lighted with gas ; and it is expected that all the streets will 
soon be lighted in the same manner. 

Means of Communication. -There is a post-office here, and a 
runner to Hamilton every morning at nine o'clock. There is a 
very ready communication with Edinburgh, Glasgow, Ayr, and 
Hamilton every day. The improvement in this respect must ap- 
pear very striking to the old inhabitants. About sixteen years ago, 
there was not even a caravan to Glasgow, and there was no inter- 
course with either Edinburgh or Glasgow, but by a carrier's cart, 
or on horseback, or by sending to Hamilton for a post-chaise. 
Since that time the road between Edinburgh and Ayr by the Ga- 
rion Bridge has been opened, so that now we have not only coaches 
to all these places every day (except Sunday) but also post-horses 
and chaises, gigs, and cars in abundance. 

Markets, Sfc. There are excellent markets here of all kinds. 
Butcher-meat can be got at all times only little (if at all) inferior to 
that of Glasgow. In the town there are three butchers, who deal 
extensively, and seven bakers, all of whom seem well employed. 
There is also a brewery. We have a regular market every Thurs- 
day, which is well attended, and much business done. The coun- 
try people have a very bad practice of not coming to market till 
four or five, or perhaps six o'clock in the evening. They seem to 
think that by this they gain a day's work, but they must in conse- 
quence be often late in returning to their families. It is strange x/^ 
that though there are here weekly markets, and a great number 
of fairs, there are no markets or times fixed for hiring servants, 

* It is said that the late Duchess Anne of Hamilton, commonly known by the 
name of the good Duchess, took refuge here during the usurpation of Cromwell, and 
never forgot the kindness which she experienced from her tenants and vassals in these 
days of her distress. She died in 1716. After this the Castle of Avondale fell very ra- 
pidly into decay. No attention seems to have been paid to it ; and it is now fast 
mouldering away. 

LANARK. X 



310 LANARKSHIRE. 

which occasions not a little inconvenience both to masters and ser- 
vants, as they have to travel either to Douglas or Glasgow, and 
thus incur both much expense and fatigue. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church was erected in 1772, 
and stands on the west side of the town of Strathaven. It for- 
merly stood in the church-yard, a little to the east of the castle, 
one of the most beautiful situations in the place. It says little 
for the taste of the heritors of formers days, that they permitted it 
to be moved to its present site. Even when first built, it was far 
too small for the inhabitants ; and that no attention was paid to the 
application of the people of Strathaven to have it enlarged, which 
they offered to do in part at their own expense, evinced a very 
improper spirit on the part of the heritors. After it was built, 
it remained unseated for considerably more than twenty years ; 
and after it was seated, more than one law-suit before the Su- 
preme Court took place respecting the division of the seats. It 
is seated to contain about 800 sitters, so that there is here 
a grievous deficiency of church accommodation. The 4000 in- 
habitants of the town have a legal title to only 24 sittings in 
the parish church. About two-thirds of the country population, 
and a great number in the town, profess to belong to the Esta- 
blished Church ; but of course there must be among these many 
who do not attend public worship; and on inquiring the cause 
of absence, they meet us daily with the unanswerable reply, " we have 
no seat/' In consequence of the deficiency of accommodation in 
the present church, and the unkind manner in which they had been 
used by the then heritors, the inhabitants erected the present Re- 
lief meeting-house, to contain about 900. There is also a place 
of worship here connected with the United Secession body seated 
for fully 60 0. The usual attendance at the first of these places 
is said to be 1000, and at the latter 350. The parish church is 
well attended. Many of the country people come from the distance 
of 6, 7, 8, and some of them nearly 9 miles. Those who are most 
distant are very seldom absent, and scarcely have I ever heard a 
complaint seriously made on account of their distance from church. 
Parochial Visitations. Ever since the Reformation, the mini- 
sters of Avondale have been in the habit of visiting and catechis- 
ing the people every year. That good practice is still kept up. 
The diets of examination in the country are remarkably well at- 
tended ; those in the town not so well ; and here also the visits 
must be less frequent. 



A VON DALE. 311 

The present manse was built about twenty years ago. It is an 
excellent house, and is in a good state of repair. It was the pri- 
vate property of the former minister. After his death, the house 
and about six acres of land were bought by the heritors, and an 
excambion took place of the old manse, and that part of the glebe 
which lay on the side of the great road to Ayr near the church, 
and the present manse and lands adjoining. This transaction was 
agreeable and beneficial to all parties. It improved the living,, 
and turned out well for the heritors. The glebe consists of about 7| 
acres. There does not appear to be any grass\ glebe. The pre- 
sent glebe was augmented to its present size by the repeated ex- 
cambions which have taken place. The stipend is fixed at 19 chal- 
ders, half meal, half barley, and L. 10 of communion elements. 
There are also L. 5 annually paid by the Duke of Hamilton, being 
a mortification by the late Duchess Anne. The amount of stipend 
for crop 1884 was L. 281, 3s. 4d. On account of the number of 
heritors, and the difficulty of collecting the stipend, the present 
minister has to employ a factor. 

There is a catechist here, or a preacher of the Gospel, who as- 
sists the parish minister. He preaches one-half of the year, visits 
the sick, and catechises the parish. He is appointed by the noble 
family of Hamilton, who pay him, as fixed by the late good Duchess 
Anne, the annual sum of 500 merks. 

Education. The parish schoolmaster has the maximum salary, 
and a good house and garden. His fees may amount to L. 25 
per annum. Many good scholars have been taught here. Alto- 
gether there are 13 schools in the parish, and the number attend- 
ing them at last annual examination was somewhat under 600. 
There are also several evening schools and Sabbath schools well 
attended. There is scarcely any child above six years of age 
unable to read. If any, the fault must lie with the parents, as 
the schoolmaster, most generously, is willing to teach them gratis, 
where the parents are poor, and the parish supplies the ordinary 
school books. The master keeps borders. The branches taught 
in the school are, Latin, Greek, English, English grammar, and 
writing, arithmetic, geography, mensuration, and mathematics. 
There is a small portion of land attached to the school at Gil- 
mourton, with a schoolmaster's house and school-room ; and a le- 
gacy of fifteen shillings a-year was lately left to the small school 
at Barnock, near Peelhill. These are the only schools that have 



312 LANARKSHIRE. 

any thing like an endowment. The others are kept by persons at 
their own risk. 

Libraries. There is a good library, instituted in 1809, and con- 
taining from 1100 to 1200 volumes. There are also some smaller 
libraries, intended chiefly for the young persons attending the Sab- 
bath schools. 

Inns, fyc. In the town of Strathaven there are excellent inns, and 
the very best accommodation and attendance ; at the same time, it is 
much to be lamented that so many persons should be licensed to sell 
spirituous liquors. The certificate of the clergyman is not essen- 
tial, in order to obtain a license ; and the authorities have occa- 
sionally been less scrupulous than they ought to have been in 
granting it. In the town of Strathaven alone, no fewer than 
thirty-five persons are licensed to sell spirituous liquors. 

Charitable and other Institutions. A savings bank was com- 
menced here fully twenty years ago ; but, as it did not meet with 
proper encouragement, it was given up. In all probability this was 
owing to the preference given by the people to enter Friendly So- 
cieties. There are here five of these ; some of them have been in 
existence for 100 years. At first, these societies prospered exceed- 
ingly, and did much good ; afterwards, they were not so prosper- 
ous ; but they are now put on a better footing, and are likely to do 
well. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The number of persons receiving 
parochial aid has for some years past been rather on the increase. 
The number on the roll at August 1834 was 98. They were paid 
during the year the sum of L. 510; L. 50, besides, were dis- 
tributed as occasional aids to about forty poor persons not on the 
roll. Our poor's assessment at present is greatly increased in con- 
sequence of several of our paupers being in a state of derangement. 
One of them is boarded in the Lunatic Asylum of Glasgow ; and 
some of the others are kept by friends in the parish, at a very high 
weekly allowance. The funds necessary for the support of the poor 
are made up by the annual interest of mortifications, (amounting 
to L. 800,) which yield at present L. 32 a-year, and a compulsory 
assessment; the one-half of which assessment is raised from the 
heritors, according to the valued rent of their lands ; and the other 
half from the householders, (including resident heritors,) in pro- 
portion to their means and substance. The average annual collec- 
tion at the church door is under L. 14. 



AVONDALE. 313 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

It seems not a little remarkable that no public works or mills 
have been erected at Strathaven or in its neighbourhood. Abun- 
dance of water to drive machinery might be obtained at a trifling ex- 
pense. An embankment might be erected at Hapton's Craigs for 
perhaps less than L. 100, which might supply any number of mills 
every day of the year. The excellence of the roads and the ready 
communication with Glasgow and the Clyde, as well as the healthi- 
ness of the situation, are all most favourable for such undertakings. 
I am of opinion that Strathaven is only in its infancy ; and that 
from its locality, and from the industry and enterprise of its inha- 
bitants, it is likely to rise speedily into importance. 

Enclosures and plantations would improve our scenery exceeding- 
ly. This is all we require to render the place really beautiful. 
Many of the smaller heritors have planted to a considerable extent 
of late, and are still laudably persevering in their operations. But, 
in general, their belts are too narrow, and they do not seem to plant 
the best kind of trees for our district. They chiefly put in the larch 
and the Scotch fir, which do well for a time, but are not long lived. 
Let these be mixed with hard wood, and generations to come will 
be benefited by them. The Duke of Hamilton has done much of late, 
and is still doing much, in draining his lands, and putting in hedge- 
rows along the sides of the great roads to Ayr and Muirkirk, and 
in some of the cross fences between his several farms : it would 
lay Avondale under unspeakable obligations, if his Grace would 
proceed a little farther, and give us broad belts of planting. In a 
few years, he or his family would receive an ample return in the 
improvement of the scenery, the increase of their rental, and tho 
gratitude of their tenants. 

July 1835. 



PARISH OF BLANTYRE. 

PRESBYTERY OF HAMILTON, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. JAMES ANDERSON, MINISTER.* 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name. THE name of this parish is probably derived from the 
Gaelic, Bla'-an-tir, a warm retreat, which is perfectly descriptive 
of the site of the village of Blantyre, and more or less of the whole 
district. 

Extent, Boundaries. The parish of Blantyre is a long stripe of 
rather low-lying land, stretching nearly in a direct line from north 
to south. From Haugh-head on the Clyde, near Daldowie in the 
north, to the burn between Crottangram and East Crutherland in 
the south, it is exactly 6 miles and 2 furlongs in length. The 
breadth is very variable : the narrowest part at Blantyre Craig, 
near the Priory, is about 3 furlongs; the widest part between Both- 
well Bridge on the east, and Greenhall on the west, 2 J miles ; the 
average breadth is about 1 mile. It is bounded by the parish of 
Glasford on the south ; Hamilton and Bothwell on the east ; Old 
Monkland on the north; and Cambuslang and Kilbride on the 
west. It contains 6.50 squsfre miles, 3307 Scots acres, and 41 70.732 
imperial acres. It is commonly divided into 24 ploughgates, of 
from 80 to 100 acres each. 

Climate. The climate is nearly the same as in the neighbouring 
parishes ; and the average quantity of rain falling has been well as- 
certained both by rain-gages kept in this parish, and in other 
places immediately on its border. From a rain-gage kept by 
R. D. Alston, Esq. of Auchinraith, we have the following results : 
From April 1, 1833, to March 31, 1834, 35 T 4 n inches; from 
March 31, 1834, to April 1, 1835, 26 T \ inches. During the 
months of April, May, June, and July of this year, we have 6 T 7 S in- 
ches. As compared with a rain-gage kept at Castle Toward, the 
rain falling here is nearly one-half less. 

* Drawn up by the Rev. William Patrick, and Mr George Miller, Blantyre 
Works. 



BLANTYRE. 315 

Hydrography. The principal streams in the district are the 
Clyde and the Calder. The Clyde enters this parish a little be- 
low Bothwell Bridge, and forms the boundary between it and Both - 
well for upwards of three miles. At the above point, it seems at 
some former period to have forced its way through the opposing 
sandstone rocks, which here nearly approximate each other. At 
the ferry-boat at Blantyre works, the Clyde is 79 yards broad, 
and immediately opposite the works, 104 yards. Its average 
velocity is from one to three miles per hour. On 25th July, 
the thermometer being 76 in the shade, its temperature was 
68 of Fahrenheit. The Clyde is here a majestic river, of 
considerable depth, and of a darkish colour, gliding smoothly 
and silently along between the lofty wooded banks and beau- 
tiful and richly adorned undulating fields of Bothwell and Blan- 
tyre. Immediately below Bothwell Bridge, the banks present a 
thin sprinkling of wood, with occasional orchards. About a mile 
and a-half farther down, in a snug retreat, almost concealed by the 
rising grounds on either side, the lofty walls of Blantyre works ap- 
pear; where a busy population, and the rushing noise of machinery, 
contrast strangely with the silence and repose of the surrounding 
scenery, and seem as if intended to bring into competition the works 
of nature and of art. The lofty woods of Bothwell on the east, 
and of Blantyre on the west, with the magnificent red walls and 
circular towers of the old castle of Bothwell, and the shattered 
remains of Blantyre priory on the opposite side, on the summit of 
a lofty rock, add greatly to the beauty of the scenery a little far- 
ther on. The banks begin to decline before they reach Daldowie, 
and the river leaves the parish amidst fertile fields and wide ex- 
panding haughs. The whole, on a summer day, when the sun is 
shining, is inexpressibly beautiful. The Calder rises in Elrig Muir 
in Kilbride, and is at first called Park-burn, afterwards Calder water, 
and at length Rotten Calder. It enters this parish at the point 
where it is joined by Rottenburn, and, except about a mile at the 
place where the Basket ironstone mines, &c. come in, forms the 
western boundary till it falls into the Clyde in the north, at Turn- 
wheel, near Daldowie. There are several falls or cascades in its 
course, and its banks are all along richly and romantically wooded. 
It may be from sixty to eighty feet wide, and runs on a shallow 
gravelly bed, and not unfrequently on the bare rock. There are 
other three streams in the parish, besides their feeders. The Red 
burn rises in the farm of Park, in the west, and falls into the Clyde 



316 LANARKSHIRE. 

a little below Bothwell Bridge. A second burn rises at Shott, a 
little to the south-west of the manse, and a third at Newmains, 
both falling into the Clyde. 

The parish is in general well supplied with water. At Blantyre 
works, there is a well 42 fathoms deep, supplied with so copious 
a spring, that an unbroken and never-failing stream of water gushes 
through a pipe at the surface of the earth summer and winter. This 
pipe discharges 20 gallons of water per minute ; 1200 in an hour ; 
and the enormous quantity of 28,800 gallons in twenty-four hours. 
There is a mineral spring at Park, on the west side of the parish, 
which has long been held in high repute for sore eyes, scorbutic 
disorders, and a variety of other complaints. The water is sul- 
phureous or hepatic, and tastes like rotten eggs. Besides sulphur, 
it contains a considerable quantity of the muriate and sulphate of 
lime. When taken at the well it is very strong; but when carried 
far, if not well-corked, the hepatic gas evaporates so completely, 
as to render it scarcely distinguishable from common spring water. 
Many years ago, when sea-bathing and steam-boats were less fre- 
quent than at present, this well was resorted to by many respect- 
able families from Glasgow and its neighbourhood. Several other 
hepatic springs appear on the banks of the Calder, particularly one 
at Long Calderwood, on the outskirts of this parish, on the lands 
which formerly belonged to Dr John Hunter of London. Hard or 
mineral water is chiefly found where coal, iron, and lime prevail ; 
and calcareous and chalybeate springs are also abundant. The 
average temperature of the best springs here is about 50. 

Geology and Mineralogy. The geognosy of the parish of Blan- 
tyre is similar to that of other neighbouring parishes. Owing to the 
break in the coal formation, which occurs between Hamilton and 
Quarter, none of the principal seams of coal are wrought for many 
miles to the north of that particular spot. Coal has, however, been 
wrought on a small scale at Calderside and Rottenburn ; but there 
are only some thin seams, found beneath the seventh bed of coal, 
or sour-milk coal, as it is termed by the miners, all of a lean qua- 
lity, and generally much interlaced with laminae of stone, blaes, 
and shiver. As a general rule it may be remarked, that the coal is 
always beneath the freestone, and the limestone beneath the seventh 
seam of coal, or about 73 fathoms below the upper coal. In this part 
of the country, however, the limestone generally comes to the sur- 
face after the other metals above it run out. Limestonejs now wrought 
at Auchentiber, towards the upper or southern end of the parish. 






BLANTYRE. 317 

There are two seams, one about 20 inches thick, and a second 3 
feet, or 3^ feet thick. The space between these seams is filled 
up with 18 or 20 inches of blaes or pullet, full of shells and other 
organic remains. The upper seam is about 28 feet from the sur- 
face. It is a dark brown limestone, excellent for the mason and agri- 
culturist, but too coarse for plaster. Limestone has also been wrought 
on a small scale at Calderside. Ironstone abounds in this parish. 
At Blackcraig, near Calderwood, on the borders of the parish, 
seventeen seams of ironstone may be counted, the one above the 
other; a sight, it is believed, not to be met with anywhere else in 
the world. Ironstone is wrought in the Basket mines, the mouths 
of which are in Kilbride ; but the beds of minerals run into the 
parish of Blantyre. The upper seam, called No. 1, consists of 
a small band about 6 inches thick. No. 2 is about 7 inches thick, 
and, like all the other seams, lies in small bands or joints like flags 
of pavement. Between this and the upper band the seams of 
limestone above alluded to occur, and about 10 feet of blaes 
(slate clay and bituminous shale,) full of ironstone balls. No. 3 
is from 4 to 14 inches thick; its average thickness may be 
about 10 inches. There is a good seam of balls between this 
seam and No. 2, and from 4 to 6 feet of blaes. Beneath 
No. 3 there is a seam called the Lunker band, which consists of 
great balls lying in no regular position. But the richest seam of 
all is that called the Whitestone, 25 fathoms below No. 3 ; like it, 
this seam lies in joints, and is of the same thickness. Clay dikes 
intersect the mines in different directions, which always throw the 
metals up or down, in proportion to their thickness. A white sort 
of substance, like cranreuch or hoar-frost, which almost melts 
away when grasped in the hand, is also occasionally found adher- 
ing to the roof and sides of the mines. This is an efflorescence of 
alumina, and is found in various parts of Europe in aluminous schist. 
The section of rocks seen at Calderside consists, first, of the upper 
or anvil band of limestone, about 14 inches thick. It derives its 
name from the lime rock being dislocated throughout, and appa- 
rently weather worn, so as to form blocks resembling a blacksmith's 
anvil, and some of them are not unlike the skeleton of a horse's 
head. These are probably some of the figured stones alluded to 
in the last Statistical Account. Below this band, there is a stratum 
of 10 feet of blaes (slate clay and bituminous shale) ; this is suc- 
ceeded by the middle seam of limestone 2 feet thick, beneath which 
is 3 feet of blaes, (slate clay and bituminous shale,) overlaying 



318 LANARKSHIRE. 

the under bed of limestone, which is four feet thick There are 
a great many petrifactions in the blaes, of which hundreds may 
be picked up. In the waste beside the mines where the blaes 
lies mouldering away under the influence of the sun and air, they 
occur in myriads, and are carried away in great numbers by the 
curious. These organic forms belong principally to the Coral- 
loides, such as Astroitae, Millepores, Escharse ; Cornu Ammonis, 
&c. also occur. Entrochi are also in abundance, and are here 
termed limestone beads. When joined together, so as to as- 
sume a lengthened circular form, they are called Entrochi ; when 
found separately, as they generally are, they are called Trochitse. 
Associated with the above beds, there are about twelve inches 
of a dark -coloured ferruginous stone containing just so much lime 
as to make it valuable for Roman cement. It was analyzed some 
time ago, and the result proved so satisfactory as to induce a scien- 
tific gentleman in the neighbourhood to commence the manufac- 
ture of this cement, which is said to be superior to any produced 
in England. This stone, when submitted to the fire, falls down 
like gray ill-burned limestone. Not far from Calderside, a great 
curiosity is to be seen in the shape of part of a tree rising out of 
the bed of the river completely silicified. The tree inclines to the 
bank which the Calder has laid bare. Part of the stem only re- 
mains in an upright growing position, from which proceed two 
root-shoots dipping into the bed of the stream, each from 13 to 
14 inches in diameter. The tree does not belong to the palm 
family, as is often the case in such instances, but appears to have 
been an elm or ash. From a specimen carefully detached, it seems 
to be formed of a close-grained whitish sandstone, containing small 
specks of mica, and pretty closely dotted with minute spots of 
oxide of iron, about the size of needle points. Some fields adjacent 
to the church are of a fine rich loam. From the church to the Clyde, 
towards the north-east, the soil is in general a strong deep clay ; and 
when properly cultivated is exceedingly fertile. At the northern 
extremity, which is surrounded by the Clyde, and where the banks 
become low, there is a flat which consists chiefly of a sandy soil. 
From the church, towards the south end of the parish, the soil is 
clay, but more light and free than in the lower part, and is in ge- 
neral of a very poor quality. In advancing farther from the church, 
towards the southern extremity, which is the highest land in the 
parish, the soil becomes gradually more of a mossy nature, and at 
last terminates in a deep peat moss. 



15LANTYRE. 319 

Zoology. About three years ago a new fly appeared in this and 
some neighbouring 1 parishes, which has become the terror of eques- 
trians, and of the groom and hostler, on account of the severe wounds 
it inflicts on the horse, making him plunge and start, and often fly 
off at full gallop in spite of all the exertions of the rider to restrain 
him. It is of the dipterous order, and very much resembles the 
common house-fly. The wings are marked with iridescent spots, 
and the back of the abdomen is of a light brownish colour. It is ex- 
tremely vivacious, and when caught is always full of blood. It is 
probably the Stomoxys cakitrans of Fabricius. In this district it 
is called the cholera or new horse-fly, having first appeared in 
the year when the above disease began to commit its frightful 
ravages.* 

Botany. In the Clyde, that rare and elegant plant Senecio 
Saracenicus, may be seen growing in great profusion along with 
Convolvulus sepium, Tanacetum. vulgare, &c. Melica uniflora 
and Gagea lutea are found in the woods on the Clyde ; Verbascum 
thapsus at Calderwood ; Vinca major et minor, Geranium phceum, 
Aquilegia vulgaris. Veronica montana, Helleborus viridis, Draba 
hirsutum, and Ophrys ovata, at Blantyre priory. Paris quadri- 
folia has been found on the banks a little above Calderwood, and 
Malva sylvestris is common in the woods about Crossbasket. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

The barony of Blantyre belonged anciently to the Dunbars of 
Enteckin. At the time of the Reformation, the Priory of Blan- 
tyre, like other religious establishments, was suppressed, and the 
benefice, which was but small, given by James VI. to Walter Stew- 
art, son to the Laird of Minto, one of his servants, and treasurer of 
Scotland. He was first commendator of the priory, and in 1606 
was created Lord Blantyre. The barony itself was purchased by 
the first Lord Blantyre, and was almost all feued out in small par- 
cels, which still hold of his descendants. The land in this parish 
is now distributed among forty-six heritors. The rental of the 
highest is L. 300, and of the lowest L. 5 per annum. 

Eminent Men. The late John Miller, Esq., Professor of Law 
in the University of Glasgow, had his residence at Millheugh in 
this parish, and is buried in the churchyard at Blantyre. James 
Hutton of Calderbank, Thomas M'Call of Craighead, and R. D. 
Alston of Auchinraith, have also handsome country seats. 

* For a catalogue of the birds and other animals in this parish, see the account of 
the parish of Hamilton. 



320 LANARKSHIRE. 

Parochial Registers. The parochial register seems to be entire 
from the year 1667. 

Antiquities. The principal antiquity in the parish worthy of no- 
tice is the ruins of Blantyre Priory. These are situated on a lofty 
rock on the banks of the Clyde, exactly opposite the ruins of 
Bothwell Castle. Both it and the castle are built of a fine-grain- 
ed redrcoloured sandstone rock, like that out of which Cadzow 
Castle at Hamilton has been constructed. The priory is now 
almost entirely fallen into decay, only one vault remaining entire, 
a couple of gables, with a fire-place, and part of the outer walls. 
It seems, however, to have been the occasional residence of Lord 
Blantyre so late as the time of Hamilton of Wishaw, who wrote 
his " Description of the Sheriffdom of Lanark" about the begin- 
ning of last century. Little account can now be given of the 
origin and history of this establishment. It seems to, have been 
a cell of the Abbacy of Jedburgh,* (and founded by Alexander II.) 
to which these monks generally retired in the time of war with the 
English. It appears that Friar Walter of Blantyre was one of 
the Scotch commissioners appointed to negotiate the ransom of 
King David Bruce, taken prisoner in the battle of Durham 1346. 
Frere William, Prior of Blantyre, is a subscriber to Ragman's Roll. 
Walter Stewart, Commendator of this place, was Lord Privy Seal 
in the year 1595, and shortly after treasurer, upon the Master of 
Glammis' dismission. This is the same who was afterwards creat- 
ed Lord Blantyre. 

It is mentioned in the last Statistical Account of this parish, that 
urns have been dug up at different times in several parts of the parish; 
and that some of them were found in a large heap of stones. In the 
centre of the heap, square stones were placed so as to form a kind of 
chest, and the urns were placed within it. They contained a kind of 
unctuous earthy substance, and some remains of bones were scat- 
tered around them. " Strong impressions of fire were also evident 
on many of the stones. About three years ago, a stone coffin of 
the above description, with an urn standing in one corner of it, 
was turned up at Shott, near the parish church. A skull almost 
entire was found in it, and nearly the whole of the teeth are in 
good preservation. The urn was of baked earth, seemingly only 
sun-dried, five and a-half inches high, and the same across the 

* Spottiswoode says it was a cell of Holyroodhouse. In Bagimont's Roll it was 
only taxed L. 6, 13s. 4d. The Archbishop of Glasgow latterly presented the Prior 
to his living. 

3 



BLANTYRE. 321 

mouth. It was partially ornamented with rude impressions made 
on the clay when soft. Fragments of six larger urns, more highly 
ornamented, and better burned, were found in other parts of the 
field. This field is now called Arches or Archer's Croft, Stone 
coffins have also been found at Lawhill, Greenhall, &c. There is 
a singular conical hill at Calderside, which goes by the name of 
the Camp Know. It is 600 feet in circumference, and was an- 
ciently surrounded by a ditch. Near the same spot, a subterranean 
structure made of flags like the sole of an oven, was lately dis- 
covered. 

III. POPULATION. 

Population in 1755, - - 496 

1801, - - 1751 

1811, .. - 2092 

1821, - -'> * 2630 

1831, - - 3000 

By a census taken of the landward part of the parish about three 
years ago, (excluding Blantyre works,) it appears that in the vil- 
lage of Blantyre there were 50 families and 255 individuals. A 
hundred of these were under fifteen years of age. In Old Place 
and Hunthill there were 23 families and 112 individuals, of whom 
43 were under fifteen years of age. Barnhill contained 43 families 
and 213 individuals, of whom 92 were under fifteen. There were 
24 families in Auchinraith, and 106 individuals, 52 of whom were 
under fifteen. In the country part of the parish, there were 593 
souls, of whom 285 were males and 308 females ; about 260 of 
these were under fifteen years of age. The whole population of 
the rural district, including villages, was 1279 souls, of whom 624 
were males, and 655 females. 

The proclamations of marriage in 1832 were 30 The births in 1832 were 61 
in 1833 32 in 1833 70 

in 1834 23 in 1834 63 

Average, 28 Average, 64 

No register of deaths has. been kept. The number of proprie- 
tors of land of L. 50 and upwards is 28. Number of families by 
last census, 514. 

Number of families chiefly employed in agriculture, 49 

employed in trade, manufactures, and handicraft, 326 

IV INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture. The agriculture here is of a mixed sort, partly 
grain, and partly dairy. The ground is nearly all arable; not 
more than 500 acres remaining constantly in waste or in pasture. 
Blantyre moor was anciently a common, but by an agreement be- 



322 LANARKSHIRE. 

tween Lord Blantyre and his vassals it was subdivided and great- 
ly improved. The peat on this moor becoming dry and unfit for 
use, it was exchanged for Edge moss about fifty years ago, where 
turf or peat for fuel is cut when required. There are four or five 
acres of undivided common at Blantyre farm, and a few other small 
patches scattered in different parts of the parish. The parish in 
general is richly and tastefully wooded, but no plantations of great 
extent occur. 

Rent of Land. The average rent of land per acre is L. 1 ; but 
some pieces of land let as high as L. 4 or L. 5 per acre. The 
rental of the parish is L. 2579. 

Husbandry. Very few sheep are kept, and the cows are almost en- 
tirely of the Ayrshire breed. The general duration of leases is nine- 
teen years, but as most of the farmers have long tacks or feus of their 
lands, they are generally considered as lairds, and few leases of the 
above description, or to so large an amount, occur. Draining has 
been practised here to a great extent, and one individual has of 
late laid down 2500 tons of stones for that purpose. The farm 
houses in general are superior to those in the neighbouring pa- 
rishes. About 96 horses are kept in the parish ; 450 cows ; and 
250 pigs. 

Produce. Average gross amount of raw produce raised in the 
parish : 

Produce of grain, hay, potatoes, &c. . L. 4127 

Pasture, &c. . 13-50 

All other produce, . V r . 2260 



Total L. 7737 

Manufactures Blantyre Mills. The first mill at these works 
was erected in the year 1785, by the late Mr David Dale and his 
partner, Mr James Monteith, for the spinning of that kind of cot- 
ton yarn usually denominated water-twist. In 1791, another mill 
was erected for the spinning of mule-twist, both of which are driven 
by water power from the Clyde. The number of workers employ- 
ed in the spinning-mills is 458, and the total number of spindles 
in the mule and water-twist mills is 30,000. In the year 1813, a 
weaving factory was built containing 463 looms,* which is partly 
driven by water and partly by steam power. At present, an ex- 
tension of the looms is going forward, which will increase the num- 
ber to between 500 and 600. The hours for the mill workers, 
five days in the week, are from six o'clock in the morning, till 

* The numher of hand-loom weavers in the parish is 128. 
4 



BLANTYRE. 323 

a quarter from eight in the evening, forty-five minutes being allowed 
for breakfast and one hour for dinner. On Saturday the workers 
only remain nine hours in the mill, making in whole sixty-nine 
working hours in the week.* 

In addition to spinning and weaving, another branch of business 
has been carried on at these works for the last forty years, namely, 
the dyeing of Adrianople or Turkey red upon cotton yarn. It 
was the second work of the kind erected in Scotland, and the co- 
lours have long been celebrated for their richness and perma- 
nency. 

The total number of males employed at all the works is 362 ; 
the number of females 553. The water power is estimated at 150 
horse, the steam at 60, total, 210 horse power. 

The village for the workers is contiguous to the works, and is 
pleasantly situated on a rising ground which overlooks the Clyde. 
The company, Messrs Henry Monteith and Company, erected a cha- 
pel seven years ago in connection with the church of Scotland, suffi- 
cient to accommodate 400 sitters. A clergyman was appointed 
the following year, one-half of whose stipend is paid by the com- 
pany, the other half by the sitters. The secular affairs of the 
chapel are conducted by a committee chosen annually, one-half of 
whom are Dissenters, the other half belonging to the Established 
church. The chapel is so arranged that during the week it is em- 
ployed as a school-house. The schoolmaster is appointed by the 
company with a salary of L. 20, along with a free house and gar- 
den. The rate of wages is regulated by the company. The ave- 
rage number of day-scholars is 136, and the average number of those 
at the evening class is 56. 

The rapid increase of the population in this parish is entirely 
owing to the mills. 

The people at these works are in general as healthy as their 
neighbours in other parts of the parish, many of them attaining a 
great age. This month, one of the mechanics died aged ninety- 
four. There is an overseer at present in the service of the com- 
pany, seventy-seven years of age, who has been employed for- 
ty-eight years within the walls of the mill. There are several 
others between eighty and ninety who still enjoy good health, 
and not a few between seventy and eighty, some of whom are fol- 
lowing their usual avocations. Many workers are now employed 
who have been upwards of forty years in the service of the com- 

* The hours are regulated in terms of the late Factory Act. 



324 LANARKSHIRE. 

pany. As a class, it must be confessed that they are much more 
healthy than the mill-workers in large towns. 

In general, the working people marry young, and in all cases where 
any degree of care is exercised they live very comfortably. Many of 
them have brought up large and respectable families. The village 
is kept clean and neat ; to insure which, the company provide both 
watchmen and scavengers. With regard to the habits of the people 
they may be said to be cleanly. To encourage this desirable ob- 
ject, the company built a public washing-house several years ago, 
to which the householders have access in rotation ; and a large 
bleaching green on the banks of the river, with a good exposure, 
capable of accommodating ten times the amount of the population, 
has also been provided. The village is supplied by means of force 
pumps at the works, with both soft and hard water. The ordinary 
food of the workers is much better than that of the agricultural la- 
bourers in the neighbourhood. A considerable quantity of butcher's 
meat is consumed every week in the village. There are also seve- 
ral shops or stores from which the people derive the advantage of 
competition and low prices. 

There has been a considerable library established among the 
workers for several years past, and measures have now been taken 
for extending it considerably. A funeral society was established 
fourteen years ago. Among other provisions on the death of a mem- 
ber or his wife, the heirs receive L. 4, and for a member's child 
L. 2, to defray funeral expenses. There is also a poors' fund for the 
sick and destitute, to which the company contribute L. 21 annually. 
The management is vested in the workers, who elect new mana- 
gers every six months. The average number obtaining relief is 16. 
The average sum expended annually is L. 75. An association for 
religious purposes was instituted in 1822. The average annual 
amount that has been voted to sundry societies at the yearly gene- 
ral meetings has been, for the last ten years, upwards of L.20. The 
Blantyre Works Temperance Society was formed in 1830, since 
which period it has had at an average from 60 to 70 members. 

The population of the village at present is, males, . 743 

females, . 1078 



Total, . 1821 

Belonging to the Established Church, . 1041 

Dissenters, . i - 592 

Episcopalians, .'.*. 39 
Roman Catholics, . 149 

Any worker known to be guilty of irregularities of moral conduct 
is instantly discharged, and poaching game or salmon meets with 



BLANTYRE. 325 

the same punishment. The general character of the population 
is moral, and in many instances strictly religious. Fighting or 
brawls in the village are unknown. It cannot be said they are 
much given to the discussion of politics, though several newspa- 
pers come to the village. Living in one of the " fairy neuks" of 
creation, religious and moral, well fed and clothed, and not over- 
wrought, they seem peculiarly happy, as they ought to be. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

The village of Blantyre, where the church and manse stand, is 
beautifully situated in a rich level country overtopped with tall trees, 
many of them of great age and beauty. It is 3 miles from Hamil- 
ten, 4 from Kilbride, 7 from Eaglesham, and 8 miles and 2 fur- 
longs from Glasgow. There are in the parish about 3 miles of 
turnpike road, and 20 miles of parish roads, which are always 
kept in excellent repair. 

Ecclesiastical State. The church was built in 1793, and is in 
pretty good repair. It affords accommodation for 360 sitters ; but 
if galleries were erected it could accommodate 200 more. The 
chapel at the mills affords accommodation for 400 sitters. The 
manse was built in 1773, and underwent a thorough repair in 1823. 
It is now one of the best manses in Scotland. The glebe consists 
of about twelve acres, four at the manse, and eight acres at Blan- 
tyre moor. The former is worth L. 2, 10s., and the latter worth 
L.I per acre. The stipend is L. 116, 18s. 7j|d. in money, 86 
bolls, 1 firlot, 1 peck, \^ lippie of meal, and 10 bolls, 3 firlots, 
IJlippie of barley, including communion elements. The average 
number of communicants is 420, of whom 144 are heads of fa- 
milies. About L. 10 are usually drawn at the church door at 
the time of the sacrament, which is distributed in the usual way 
among the aged and infirm. There is no dissenting chapel in 
the parish. Exclusive of the population at the Blantyre Works, 
there are 6 families, including 30 individuals belonging to the 
Relief, and 2 families, including 7 individuals, belonging to the 
Roman Catholics. Divine service at the parish church is well at- 
tended. Lord Blantyre is patron. The average weekly collec- 
tion at the church door is 9s. 

Education. Besides the parish school in the village, in which 
all the usual branches of education are taught, there are two En- 
glish schools, one at Auchinraith, and another at Hunthill, and 
also a school for females. The number of scholars attending these 
schools is 123, twenty-five of whom attend the female school. The 

LANARK. Y 



326 LANARKSHIRE. 

salary of the schoolmaster is the minimum, being about L. 26. 
Amount of parochial schoolmaster's fees per annum is L. 20. All 
children at the proper age are taught to read, except a few be- 
longing to the Roman Catholic persuasion at the mills.* 

Poor and Parochial Funds. There is no assessment in this pa- 
rish for the poor. There is at present a fund in the hands of the 
heritors, minister, and kirk-session, amounting to L. 213, 13s. 
which is increasing. The foundation of this sum is said to have 
been donations left to the poor of the parish by benevolent per- 
sons, who occasionally resorted to this part of the country to 
enjoy the benefits of the well at Park. There are at present 
only four persons on the poors' roll. The expenditure for the 
poor during the year from February 1834 to February 1835 was 
L. 29, 18s. 8d. and the average of five years preceding February 
1835 was L. 37, 15s. 4d. The allowance per week is from Is. to 
2s. 6d. The people at Blantyre works support their own poor, 
and never allow them to be chargeable to the parish. 

Alehouses, fyc. There are 13 alehouses in the parish, one of 
which is at Blantyre works. Coal is almost the only fuel burned, 
and it is generally brought from Hamilton, and laid down at the 
village of Blantyre, which stands nearly in the centre of the parish, 
at about 6s. 6d. per ton. The present contract for coals laid down 
at Blantyre Works is 4s. lid. per ton. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

The changes which have occurred in this parish since the pub- 
lication of last account are considerable. The population has 
increased from 1040 to 3000, and the comfort and intelligence of 
the people keep pace with their numbers. This must be owing 
in a great measure to the stimulus given to industry by the great 
manufacturing establishment of Messrs Monteith and Company. 
It has been supposed that agriculture is scarcely so far advanced 
here as in some neighbouring parishes. This may perhaps be at- 
tributed to the easy tenure by which most of the proprietors now 
hold their lands ; being a very small or mere nominal feu from 
Lord Blantyre. On the whole, however, the people of Blantyre 
have reason to congratulate themselves on the rapid strides they 
have already made, and are still making. 

July 1835. 

* These children are now, however, in terras of the late Factory Act, obliged to at- 
tend the school. 



PARISH OF CRAWFORD. 

PRESBYTERY OF LANARK, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. THOMAS ANDERSON, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name. Crawford is supposed by antiquarians to signify the 
road or passage of blood. This derivation seems natural, from 
the circumstance of the old Roman road passing through the vil- 
lage and crossing the river Clyde below it, towards the old Castle 
of Crawford, which stands on the right bank of the river, where it 
is probable many bloody conflicts took place between the invaders 
and the native inhabitants. Part of the parish was formerly known 
by the name of Douglas Moor, and part of it by that of Friar Moor, 
but the district or parish is now designated Crawford Muir. It lies 
in the south-east corner of Lanarkshire. There are two farms, in 
the corner of Lanarkshire, attached to the parish of Moffat, in the 
county of Dumfries, quod sacra. 

Extent, 8fc. The length of the parish is about 18 miles, and 
the breadth 14 or 15 miles, but from its irregular figure, it does not 
contain more than 118 square miles, or about 75,500 acres. It 
is bounded by eleven different parishes : chiefly by Crawfordjohn 
on the west ; by Sanquhar, Durrisdeer, and Morton, on the south- 
west; by Closeburn, Kirkpatrick-juxta on the south ; by Moffat and 
Tweedsmuir on the east ; and by Lamington on the north. 

Topographical appearances. The range of the mountains is 
chiefly south-west and north-east ; but the parish may rather be re- 
garded as a group of mountains or hills, the glens or valleys run- 
ning in every direction. The Louther mountains lie chiefly in 
this parish, and they are generally stated to be about 2450 feet 
above the level of the sea. The acclivity of the hills being in ge- 
neral gentle, they are for the most part covered with heath or grass, 
which affords excellent pasture for sheep. The valleys or flat 
grounds which separate the hills are partly dry, and partly wet and 
spungy. Grounds of the last description when improved by drain- 
ing, as many of them are, produce great quantities of coarse hay, 



328 



LANARKSHIRE. 



which proves a seasonable supply, in the time of deep snow, for 
the sheep. 

Meteorology. The only meteorological observations that I have 
seen, as connected with the parish, are these made by Bailie Mar- 
tin, at Leadhills, the highest inhabited village in the south of Scot- 
land, an abstract of which is here subjoined.* 

Abstract of Meteorological Observations, from the year 1818 to 
1832 inclusive, extracted from the Register kept by Bailie Mar- 
tin, at Leadhills, Lanarkshire, in latitude 55 28' north ; and 
longitude 3 50', west, at an altitude of 1240 above the sea; 
distant from Leith 48 miles, and 30 from Dumfries. 



Years. 


Mean an- 
nual tem- 
perature. 


Mean temperature of the seasons. 


Mean an. 
height of 
barometer. 


Fair 
days. 


Winter. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


1818, 


44 1-2 


38 


34 1-2 


54 1-3 


51 


28 7-10 


201 


1819, 


42 1-2 


29 2-3 


37 o 


51 1-6 


50 1-8 


28 25-30 


195f 


1820, 










47 2-3 


28 5-8 


205$ 


1821, 


43 3-8 


37 1-2 


37 


4.9 1-3 


50 1-2 


28 5-8 


180 


1822, 


44 


34 4-10 


39 


53 4-10 


48 7-10 


28 5-9 


182 i| 


1823, 


42 1-8 


38 1-9 


34 1-3 


48 5-6 


47 1-5 


28 4-1 1 


170^ 


1824, 


43 7-9 


36 2-3 


36 1-2 


52 4-11 


49 


28 7-91 


195 


1825, 


43 3-4 


32 2-9 


37 7-9 


52 2-3 


52 1-4 


28 1-9 


200 


1826, 


45 1-6 


35 1-6 


38 2-3 


56 


50 2-3 


28 2-3 


193ft 


1827, 


44 1-2 


38 2-3 


35 7-9 


52 1-6 


51 2-3 


28 1-2 


205tf 


1828, 


45 1-2 


38 2-3 


39 1-7 


52 3-8 


51 2-3 


28 4-11 


208 


1829, 


42 


83 1-3 


35 3-4 


51 3-8 


47 1-3 


^8 1-2 


237 


1830, 


43 


34 


38 1-3 


50 2-3 


48 7-9 


28 1-2 


163 


1821, 


44 1-2 


36 


39 1-6 


53 2-3 


52 1-3 


28 1-2 


215IIH 


1 832, 


43 1-2 


36 4-5 


38 1-5 


51 T-3 


51 1-12 


'28 3-5 


2351Jf 



The winds are generally from west and south-west. In spring 

* Vide early volumes of Blackwood's Magazine and Edinburgh Philosophical 
Journal for other details illustrative of the climate of the Leadhills. 

REMARKS. 

f One day in July, thermometer at 78. December 13th at 13. Barometer, 
September 22d and October 3d, 4th, 5th, at 29 2'. 

| Thermometer, January 17th, at 7. November 28th, a shock of an earthquake 
at 8 A. M. ; a more severe one at half-past 1 1 P. M. 29th, a slight shock half-past 10 
p. M. It was felt by the miners in the mines. The barometer 29 1'. 

May 25, thermometer 28. On the 26th at 29. In January 23d, barometer at 
29 5', and four following days at 29 4' 

|| June 9th, thermometer in the sun against a wall stood at 106 at 5 p. M. 
f November 12th to 18th, barometer at 29. 

** -July 26th, thermometer 80 at 2 p. M. Barometer, January 4th to 13th, at 29 
or above ; on the 10th at 29' 6'. 

j-f- June 26th, thermometer 86 at half-past 2. In the sun, 109 at 6 P. M. In 
April 27th, at 23. 
%% January 3d, thermometer at 7. 

April 30th, thermometer at 12 at 4 A. M., and so high as 54 at 4 P. M. July 
30th, in the sun, 125 

|| || December 9th, barometer at 27 3'. December 27th, at 29 1', 
J<| August 26th, Aurora Borealis extremely brilliant about 10 p. M., and the noise 
distinctly heard by persons whose veracity cannot be doubted. It resembled the 
sound of distant waters. 



CRAWFORD. 329 

they are frequently from east and north-east, and are generally 
cold and dry. The heaviest rains are supposed to fall in the month 
of September. The old inhabitants state that deep snows are less 
frequent than in former times. 

As the parish has in general rather a northern exposure, and 
the lowest part of it towards the north-west is about 850 feet above 
the level of the sea, the climate cannot be supposed to be very ge- 
nial, yet it cannot be said to be unhealthy. Rheumatism seems 
to be the only prevailing disorder with which the inhabitants are 
afflicted, no doubt occasioned by the fogs and damps prevalent 
at high altitudes. 

Hydrography. This parish abounds with springs of the purest 
water. Two of these send forth mineral waters resembling those 
of Moffat. They are all on one line, and about eight miles distant 
from each other ; but the springs in this parish have never been 
analyzed. There is a spring on the boundary of the parish which 
possesses a strong petrifying quality, and all the^/oy around it is 
turned into stone, from whence beautiful specimens are often taken. 
There is another spring in the parish at Campshead still stronger. 

The Clyde is the principal river which takes its rise in this pa- 
rish ; all the others flow into it, except the Evan, which joins the 
Annan near Moffat. The source of the Clyde is about 1400 feet 
above the level of the sea, and upwards of fifty miles from Glasgow. 
It runs in a small stream till it joins the Daer, a very considerable 
river which takes its rise near the boundary of Closeburn parish. 
The Clyde receives a number of tributary streams in this parish. 
It has a north-west direction, with a gentle declivity, and flows over 
a broad gravelly bed. It leaves the parish at Abington, when it 
takes a north-east direction by Lamington. 

Geology. To those interested in the study of the transition 
rocks of that particular series which forms the greater part of the 
southern high land of Scotland, this parish affords many facilities. 
Here, as in other districts of the mountainous region of southern 
Scotland, grey wacke, with its subordinate formations, predominates. 

Soil. The soil which chiefly abounds in the parish is the moor soil. 
On the banks of the Clyde the soil is rich. Cultivation is carried 
on chiefly on the banks of the Clyde, and at the junction of the 
smaller streams with the Clyde. Within this small space are found 
soils of various kinds, gravelly, sandy, loamy, and alluvial. By the 
improvements that have taken place, in consequence of the use of 
lime, the regular change of early seed, and the cultivation of green 



330 LANARKSHIRE. 

crop, the harvest is now much earlier than in former times, and the 
crops much more abundant. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

It is supposed that in the charter-chest of the Marquis of Lo- 
thian, there are a variety of papers which, if examined, might illus- 
trate the state of the parish before the Reformation. A chapel or 
church at Crawford was dedicated to Constantine, King of the 
Scots, about the year 943 ; and the greater part of the parish be- 
longed at one time to the monastery of Newbattle, and the lesser 
part to Holyrood. 

Eminent Men. The celebrated poet Allan Ramsay was a na- 
tive of this parish. He was born at Leadhills, and lived there for 
fifteen years, when he went to Edinburgh, and commenced a cir- 
culating library. 

James Taylor, son of one of the overseers of the mines, first 
suggested to Mr Miller of Dalswinton, the idea of propelling ves- 
sels by the power of steam, and assisted that gentleman in his ex- 
periments. He was born here in the year 1757, and died at Cum- 
nock in 1825. Setting aside the invention of Jonathan Hulls in 
1736, which led to no practical use, the above individual has cer- 
tainly the distinguished honour of first applying steam power to 
propel vessels on water. The successful experiments were made 
at Dalswinton in 1788. * 

William Symington, practical engineer, was likewise a native of 
this village, and deserves notice from his having been employed 
by Mr Miller and Mr Taylor in fitting up the steam-engine on 
board the pleasure boat at Dalswinton, and afterwards suggesting 
the application of that power to land-carriages. 

Land-Owners. The chief land-owners in the parish are, in the 
order of their valuations, Lord Hopetoun, Henry Colebrooke, Esq. 
Lord Balgray, Lord Douglas, the Duke of Buccleuch, George Ir* 
ving, Esq. and Mr John Forsyth ; there are five other smaller 
land-owners. 

Parochial Registers. The earliest date of the parochial regis- 
ter is 1707. This register has been regularly kept, but is now in 
a very bad state. 

Antiquities. Although there are no remains of religious houses 

* For a more particular account of this splendid discovery, reference may be made 
to a biographical sketch of Mr Taylor in No. 58 of Chambers' Edinburgh Journal ; 
also a Brief Account of the rise and progress of steam navigation, with an impartial 
inquiry into the claims of the principal pretenders to the honour of that important 
discovery, lately printed at Ayr j and lastly to the newspapers at the period of the 
discovery. 



CRAWFORD. 331 

in the parish except the old church, yet it is evident, from various 
circumstances, that there were at one time many houses or places 
of worship. One place, in particular, is pointed out as an ancient 
burying-ground, and lies on the bank of what is called the Chapel 
Burn. 

There are two or three apparently old Roman camps in the pa- 
rish. The one that is most entire, and the largest, is on Boads- 
berry hill, the property of George Irving, Esq. The other is on 
the farm called Whitecamp, and lies towards Tweedsmuir. The 
two great Roman roads by Moffatand Dumfries had their junction 
in this parish, which, when formed into one great road, passed on 
towards Lamington. 

The old Castle of Crawford or Tower Lindsay bears every mark 
of having been strongly fortified and surrounded by water. There 
are various traditions regarding it, but none of these appear parti- 
cularly interesting. The farm-houses, in ancient times were gene- 
rally vaulted, and served as small fortifications. This was neces- 
sary during the times when the Douglas family and Johnstone of 
Annandale were carrying on their petty wars, and when the bor- 
derers were committing their ravages. 

Some years ago an earthen vessel or urn was dug up on the 
castle farm, which contained something like small pieces of bone. 
This urn is in the possession of Mr James Watson, the present 
tenant. 

Mansion-House. The only new modern building is Newton 
House. It was built a few years ago by the late Lord Newton, 
wholly on a plan formed by his Lordship, and is both substantial 
and commodious. 

III. POPULATION. 

It appears that the population of this parish was in former 
times much greater than at present. At the time of Dr Web- 
ster's Report in 1755, the population was 2009; at present it is 
1850. The practice, which now so generally prevails in this coun- 
try, of uniting many small farms into one, is no doubt the chief 
cause of the decrease. There is, perhaps, no parish where this 
practice has so generally prevailed as in this ; and, indeed, nearly 
the half of this extensive parish is in the hands of non-resident 
tenants, the resident tenants occupying only two or three farms. 
In the memory even of the present generation, fifteen families lived 
where there is now scarcely the vestige of a ruin. Other parts of 
the parish show the same marks of depopulation. 



332 LANARKSHIRE. 

The population is thus distributed : 

In the town or village of Crawford, - 217 

Leadhills, 1188 

In the country part of the parish, 445 

The average of births, _ . , _ 59 

deaths, - *- ' - - 26 

marriages, - - 13 

persons under 15 years of age, 578 

above 70, - - 23 

The number of families in the parish is - 406 

chiefly employed in agriculture, - ' 59 

in trade, manufactures, and handicraft, 35 

not included under either of these descriptions, - 312 

All the proprietors of land, to the number of twelve, possess land 
upwards of the yearly value of L. 50. 

IV.: INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture. Notwithstanding the extent of the parish, the 
arable ground is very limited, being not more than 1200 acres. As 
the parish is chiefly pastoral, it is difficult to say to what extent 
improvements might be carried on with advantage to the tenant. 
A very few hundred acres might perhaps be added to the arable 
grounds ; but it is the opinion of the judicious farmer, that much 
improvement might be made by turning up large tracts of rough 
moorlands, and sowing them with various kinds of grass seeds ; and 
by adding a portion of lime, according to the nature of the soil. 
^ There is no natural wood in the parish ; and till within these 
few years there were few trees in it excepting around Newton and 
the old castle. A number of small clumps have been planted dur- 
ing the last ten years. Still the number of acres under wood does 
not exceed 150. It s.eems evident. that the clumps are too small to 
do much good in this high climate. There are a few old trees in 
the parish ; these are chiefly ash, elm, and plane. It is quite un- 
certain whether these are the remains or not of the old forests. 
A charter, in the charter-chest of the Marquis of Lothian, secures 
to the inhabitants of Crawford the liberty to cut wood in the Forest 
of Glengonan, where there are now only two or three solitary trees. 

Rent of Land. As nothing but the best land is kept in cultiva- 
tion, the average rent may be stated as high as L. 1, or perhaps 
L. 1, 5s/ The rate of grazing may be thus stated; an ox or cow, 
L. 2, 10s. ; a ewe, 4s. 3d. for the year. 

Rate of Wages. There are few men-servants engaged express- 
ly for the purpose of farm labour ; but those who are thus em- 
ployed may receive wages varying in the rate betwixt L.6 and L.12 ; 
young girls receive from L. 1, 10s. to L.3, 10s. ; full-grown stout wo- 
men, who can milk cows, from L, 4 to L. 8 for the year. Shepherds 



CRAWFORD. 333 

in general receive little money from their masters. They enjoy the 
profits of what is called a pack, that is, forty or fifty ewes with their 
lambs. This is an encouragement to look after the interest of the 
flock in general. Should, however, the shepherd leave his master, 
he does not carry his little flock along with him ; it is taken off his 
hand at a valuation, and is transferred to his successor at the same 
rate, and forms part of the stock of the farm : besides, he receives 
forty or fifty stones of oatmeal, perhaps a few potatoes, and has a 
cow kept through the year at the expense of the master. 

Stock. In former times, the short or black-faced sheep formed 
the principal stock of the parish. This is still the case on the 
higher grounds; but of late years, in consequence of the high 
price of wool, the Cheviot breed has been introduced, where it 
can be done with propriety. In other cases, a cross breed between 
the short or black-faced and the Cheviot is preferred. This 
breed, by frequent crossing, has been brought almost to the real 
Cheviot, and gives satisfaction to many who have tried it. 

The duration of leases is generally from nine to fifteen years ; 
some few leases reach the extent of nineteen years. These short 
leases are very unfavourable to the improvements even of a pasto- 
ral country. Though draining and enclosing have been carried 
on to a great extent, (and perhaps there are few parishes where 
these improvements have been carried on to a greater extent,) yet 
short leases are a drag to the exertions of the tenants. The drains 
that are made, and the dikes reared, are generally at the expense 
of the land-owner, the tenant paying six or six and a-half per cent, 
on the outlay. Were the leases longer, many small enclosures 
would be made, many drains would be opened, and much ground 
would be turned up by the very active tenantry at present in the 
parish. It must be observed, that the chief landholders afford every 
encouragement to their tenants, and provide them with comfortable 
accommodation. 

Slate Quarry. A slate quarry (transition clay slate) on the pro- 
perty of the Earl of Hopetoun gives employment to six or eight 
men through the year. The slate, in general, is reckoned soft j 
some of it, however, is of an excellent quality. 

Leadhills. The mining village of Leadhills,'lies in the south- 
west of the parish at the distance of a mile from Wanlockhead in 
Dumfries-shire, where lead mines are also carried on. It contains 
a population of 1 1 88. It is situated in an irregular valley sur- 
rounded by hills covered with heath, and at a short distance on 



334 LANARKSHIRE. 

the south-east is overlooked by a lofty heather ridge, rising to the 
height of 2450 feet above the sea, and from the summit of which 
the view is truly grand and extensive. To the south the view is 
bounded by the Solway Frith, the mountains of Skiddaw and Hel- 
vellyn in Cumberland, and the Isle of Man ; to the west by Aisla 
Craig, Isle of Arran, Benlomond, and the Paps of Jura; and on 
the north, by the range of the Pentlands 

The appearance of the village is peculiar from the detached man- 
ner in which the cottages are placed on the eminences or in hol- 
lows of the valley, according as the fancy or caprice of miners sug- 
gested. The principal houses are, a large and somewhat ancient 
mansion called the Ha', belonging to the Earl of Hopetoun, and 
from which the noble family take their title. One of its wings is 
converted into a chapel, in which divine service is regularly perform- 
ed by a chaplain, principally supported by the Earl of Hopetoun. 
The villa appropriated for the agent of the Scotch Mines Com- 
pany is neat, and the garden laid out with considerable taste, pro- 
ducing strawberries, gooseberries, black and red currants, &c. and 
the usual culinary vegetables. In favourable years a few apples 
are also obtained. The house and grounds are surrounded by a 
thriving plantation of beech, larch, common and mountain ash, 
plane and elm trees. 

The library was instituted by the miners in the year 1741, and 
consists of 1600 or 1700 volumes. The terms of admission and 
annual subscription are extremely moderate, and consequently af- 
ford every facility for intellectual instruction, thus, in some mea- 
sure accounting for the character which the workmen have long 
had of possessing a more than usual share of intelligence for men 
in their situation. 

The soil is indifferent, and in a natural state would only afford 
pasture for sheep ; still, under every disadvantage, the miners by their 
industry, aided by the kindness of the noble proprietors, who give 
land to improve, rent free, have by spade labour alone brought 
into cultivation somewhat more than a mile square, yielding one 
year with another not less than 10,000 stones of hay, and a con- 
siderable quantity of grass for summer use. The potatoe crop ave- 
rages 8000 or 10,000 stones, and to these may be added a small 
quantity of oats. The two last occasionally suffer from wet or frost. 
In the year 1731, little cultivation had been attempted, and only two 
cows were kept in the village; in 1773, twenty cows were maintained, 
and at present there are upwards of ninety, the produce of which 



CRAWFORD. 335 

affords material assistance to the miners in supporting themselves 
and their families during the present depressed state of the mining 
concerns. At this moment, when the capabilities of spade labour 
engage so much attention, it is surely consolatory to know from 
experience how much it can effect on coarse lands, and at an ele- 
vation of 1300 feet above the level of the sea. 

The prevailing diseases are, rheumatism, hernia, and affections 
of chest, especially the last. The men engaged in reducing the 
ores are occasionally seized with the painters' colic, or, as the 
smelters term it, "mill-reek;" but from the improved construction 
of furnaces, the disease is becoming less frequent. It, however, 
causes a considerable mortality among animals, both wild and do- 
mestic; and though the symptoms vary in the different species, yet 
in all they exhibit the usual effects of the poison of lead. 

Mining District of Lead/tills. The mines are of considerable 
celebrity, and have in all probability been worked from a very re- 
mote period, although the written documents reach no farther 
back than the year 1600. It is well known that lead mines were 
opened by the Romans in England ; and as one of their principal 
military roads passed through the parish, and the remains of seve- 
ral of their camps in this and the adjoining one are still visible, it 
may be reasonably supposed that people possessed of so much in- 
telligence might have discovered them. 

The mineral district comprehends a space about 3 miles in 
length by 2J in breadth, and is principally composed of greywacke 
and greywacke slate, which range from south-west to north-east. 
These strata are associated with transition clay slate, called edge 
metal, from its vertical position, through which the metalliferous 
veins pass.' A basaltic, or, if I may be allowed the expression, a 
basaltic-greenstone vein, crosses the country from east to west ; . 
it is 50 or 60 yards in breadth ; and the detached masses on the 
surface, in many instances, have a pentagonal form, and seem as if 
they had been acted on by fire. Specimens of calcedony are 
found in it, but they are coarse, and of little or no value. 

A thick bed of flinty-slate also occurs among these transition 
rocks, which on each side degenerates into a clayey substance, 
which, by weathering, becomes very white and soft, and if properly 
examined may be found useful in the arts. This bed points south- 
west and north-east, is vertical, and the lead veins do not pene- 
trate it. The veins appear to the north, but are too poor to be 



336 LANARKSHIRE. 

wrought. In addition to the above, irregular beds and masses of 
quarry-stone or felspar rock are found. 

The principal lead veins run south-east and north-west, with a 
dip or hade to the east of one foot in three. Several of them have 
afforded large quantities of ore, especially the High Work, Meadow- 
head, Brow, and Susannah veins, the last yielding a great part of 
the produce for many years. It is now nearly abandoned, from the 
low price of lead holding out little encouragement to sink deeper 
than at present, the present depth being about 140 fathoms from 
the surface. The common and compact galena or lead glance are 
the principal ores, and furnish all the lead used in the arts ; be- 
sides these, they contain small quantities of green, black, and yel- 
low lead ores ; white and black carbonates ; sulphate and sulpho- 
tricarbonates of lead ; phosphate and earthy lead ores ; copper and 
iron pyrites, malachite, azure copper ore, gray manganese, blende, 
and calamine. The vein stones are quartz, calcareous spar, brown 
spar, sparry ironstone, heavy spar, &c. 

The ore is prepared for reduction by bruising or pounding, and 
then subjecting it to a stream of water, by which means the im- 
purities are carried off, and the pure ore is collected. It is then 
put into a small blast furnace with peat or turf, coal, and a small 
portion of lime, by which process the volatile ingredients are 
carried away, the ore becomes oxidized, then decomposed, and 
the oxygen combining with the carbon flies off in the form of car- 
bonic gas, while the lead in its metallic state sinks to the bottom 
of the furnace. It is then drawn off into a reservoir, and put into 
moulds with an iron ladle or spoon. At present the mines yield 
annually about 700 tons of lead. 

A manufactory of small shot was established about eighteen 
months ago, and is likely to succeed. All the different kinds are 
made, and of the best quality. The largest varieties are consider- 
ed superior to any produced by the English manufactories. 

Silver is contained in the lead, but in too small quantity to re- 
pay its extraction. * 

Gold is found in all our neighbouring streams, disseminated in 
minute particles through the till or clay more immediately cover- 
ing the rocks, and also occasionally interspersed in quartz. The 
search for this precious metal was formerly conducted on a large 
scale, and afforded a remuneration to the adventurer. During 

* Vide, for further particulars of the mineralogy of the district, Professor Jame- 
son's Mineralogy of the County of Dumfries, published by Blackwood in 1805. 



CRAWFORD. 337 

the reign of Elizabeth, several Englishmen and Germans obtained 
commissions from the Scottish Regent, and employed a number of 
men in the above work. They obtained very considerable quan- 
tities, which were sent to Edinburgh, and coined into bonnet or 
unicorn pieces. The manuscript records of these works, some of 
which are to be found in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh, 
state that specimens of native gold were sometimes found, weigh- 
ing from one to several ounces. In more recent times, the largest 
found have not weighed more than two guineas, and these very 
rare ; at present it is only occasionally sought after, and then only 
for the curious, as the amount got will not repay the expense of 
collecting. 

Produce. The amount and value of the gross produce of the 
parish may be thus stated : 

Oats, including fodder, . L. 900 

Green crop, ... . 420 

Meadow and bog hay, . . 437 

Dairy produce, .... 785 

Young cattle, . . . . 350 

Product of sheep, .... 9200 

Horse, 50 

Lead mines, . . 6000 

Slate quarry, . . . *; 250 

L. 18392 

The rental may be about L. 8500. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Villages. The village or town of Crawford contains a population 
of 217. In ancient times, it enjoyed many privileges, and was un- 
der the superintendence of a bailie of barony, and in later times 
under what was called a birley court. It has now lost all its pri- 
vileges, a circumstance, perhaps, not much to be regretted. The 
inhabitants are chiefly employed in country labour. The nearest 
market-towns are Moffat on the south, and Biggar on the north, 
each about fifteen miles distant. Although it may thus be con- 
sidered far from a market-town, yet it enjoys great advantages, 
having daily communication with Glasgow, Edinburgh, Carlisle, 
and Dumfries. The great road from Glasgow to Carlisle, and 
that from Edinburgh to Dumfries by Biggar, runs through the 
middle of the parish for the distance of thirteen or fourteen miles. 
The mail-coach passes through the village daily to and from Glas- 
gow, and a heavy coach runs daily between Edinburgh and Dum- 
fries. 

The village of Leadhills has been already described. It has 



338 LANARKSHIRE. 

enjoyed the privilege of having a post-office for many years, and 
has at present a daily post. 

Means of Communication. The turnpike roads are in the best 
state of repair. A new and elegant stone bridge was built at 
Newton in 1824; and by the liberality of a few of the proprie- 
tors, a chain bridge was thrown over the Clyde at Crawford in 
1831, the span of which is upwards of 75 feet. This bridge affords 
great accommodation ; the children are thereby enabled to attend 
school regularly, and the inhabitants the church. 

Ecclesiastical State. In the present state of the parish, the 
church, though not in the centre of the parish, is perhaps in 
the most advantageous situation. It is an old building, but in a 
state of good repair, having been new seated about twenty years 
aero. It affords accommodation for about 260 sitters, and it will 

o ' 

soon be made to contain 50 more. There are at present no free 
sittings, except the communion tables. The manse was built about 
25 years ago, and has since been repaired. The extent of the 
glebe is about 12 acres. There are 4 acres of arable ground 
and 8 acres of what is called a grass glebe, and the whole may 
be valued at L. 15. The stipend is 15 chalders of victual, the one- 
half barley, and the other oat-meal; L. 8, 6s. 8d. are allowed for 
communion elements. The stipend may thus be stated at L. 220. 

There is a chapel or preaching station at Leadhills. In 1736, 
the Earl of Hopetoun obtained the sanction of the General As- 
sembly, to employ a chaplain or preacher for the benefit of the 
miners, at the same time retaining the power either to employ one, 
or not, as his Lordship should deem expedient. The salary is paid 
by Lord Hopetoun and the Mining Company, and amounts to about 
L. 70, with a house. There is not a dissenting meeting-house in the 
parish, nor more than twelve or fifteen persons connected with dis- 
senting houses of any kind. The number of communicants con- 
nected with the Established Church may be about 480. 

Education. There are three schools in the parish. The school 
at Leadhills is the only one besides the parochial school, that en- 
joys the benefit of an endowment. The salary attached to the 
Leadhills school is about L. 30 and a house. The common 
branches of education only are taught in these schools. The pa- 
rochial schoolmaster enjoys a salary of about L. 34, with legal ac- 
commodation. The school fees may amount to about L. 15 more. 
Such is the value that the people in general set on education that 
all the farmers who have young families employ a teacher, espe- 



CRAWFORD. 339 

cially during the winter, and many of the shepherds who are at a 
distance from a school follow the same plan. 

Poor. In consequence of the mining operations being somewhat 
fluctuating, numbers of individuals occasionally leave the place, and 
afterwards become a burden on the poor's fund. The number of 
persons on the roll may be about 10, exclusive of the poor in Lead- 
hills, who are supplied by a stated sum, given by the heritors and 
Lord Hopetoun. The average sum given to the poor on the roljj is 
about L.2, 10s. The whole amount required in support of the poor 
in'the parish is about L. 85; L. 50 of which is contributed voluntari- 
ly by the heritors, and the remaining sum is raised by the collec- 
tions, &c. at the church and chapel, and by donations from Lord Hope- 
toun. The aversion to receive parochial relief, by which Scotland 
was formerly distinguished, seems here, as in many other places, to 
be on the decline. 

Fairs. There are two fairs held at Leadhills during the year, 
chiefly with the view of supplying the village with the necessaries 
and the comforts of life. These fairs are very advantageous to 
the country around, and are generally well attended. 

Inns. There are two inns at Crawford and one at Leadhills, 
which afford excellent accommodation to travellers. No alehouse 
is allowed at Leadhills. 

Fuel. In the higher parts of the parish, peat or turf is the fuel 
generally used, and is procured mostly from the tops of the hills. 
Peat ground does not abound in the parish, and it is difficult to pro- 
cure enough of it for the use of the smelting operations at Lead- 
hills. Coal, brought from Douglas, is generally used in the lower 
parts of the parish. Thus fuel is procured at no small experfse. 
The coal is carried upwards of fourteen miles, and access to the 
peat is difficult. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

The improvements that have been made in the parish within the 
last fifty years are very striking ; both as they regard rural economy 
and the morality of he people. The improvement on the stock or 
sheep is very apparent, the quality is better, the number is greater. 
This may arise from various causes combined, the spirit of emula- 
tion which exists amongst the tenants in the parish, the extensive 
improvement made on the sheep-walks by draining, and the vast 
extent of separation dikes, which allow the flocks to pasture at ease 
on their own grounds, and which afford shelter from the storm. 



340 LANARKSHIRE. 

Among the lower orders of the people, there are now more tem- 
perance and industry than formerly. 

The inhabitants of Leadhills have long enjoyed a respectable 
character, and every encouragement is held out for them to main- 
tain the high character which they have gained. They have an ex- 
cellent library, and through the liberality of the Earl of Hopetoun 
they enjoy many comforts. They have been allowed as much of the 
waste or muirland as they can cultivate. 

July 1835. 



PARISH OF CULTER. 

PRESBYTERY OF BIGGAR, SYNOD OF LOTHIAN AND TWEEDDALE. 

THE REV. JAMES PROUDFOOT, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name, Boundaries, fyc. THE name of this parish is a Gaelic 
compound, consisting of Cul, the back part or recess, and Tir, the 
land or country. The village of Culter accordingly, viewed from 
any commanding station in the adjacent valley, appears to occupy 
the " Back part or Recess of the District." 

In 1794, a decreet was given by the Lords of Council and Ses- 
sion suppressing the parish of Kilbucho, and annexing part of the 
same to that of Culter. By this deed, which took effect on the 
death of the then minister of Kilbucho, a very considerable addi- 
tion was made both to the territorial extent and population of Cul- 
ter. The following retnarks, therefore, refer both to Culter, as de- 
scribed in the former Statistical Account, and to that part of Kil- 
bucho which has since been added. 

Extent, 'c. The mean length of the parish, as it is now con- 
stituted, is 7 miles, and the mean breadth somewhat less than 3. 
It contains 19 square miles. In shape, it is a long narrow tract, ex- 
tending from north to south ; the Kilbucho part forming a large 
excrescence on the eastern side of its northern extremity. It is 
bounded on the west by Lamington and Symington; on the north 
by Biggar and a small part of Skirling ; on the east by the united 
parishes of Broughton, Glenholm, and Kilbucho; and on the south 
by Drummelzier and Crawford. 



CULTER. 341 

Topographical Appearances. The lower part of the parish con- 
sists of a long tract of land, partly level and partly undulating, 
running from S. W. to N. E., bounded on the one side by the 
river Clyde, and part of Biggar; and on the other by the hills rising 
toward the south. The whole of this vale is uncommonly beautiful. 
Here no less than five proprietors have their residences at no great 
distance from each other. Two of these are delightfully situated on 
the banks of the Clyde, and the other three stand nearer the hills. 
These, surrounded with their lawns and gardens, and partly seen 
from amongst long lines and clumps of fine old trees, present to the 
eye a landscape partaking more of the richness of England, than of 
our northern clime. The hilly part of the parish again exhibits a 
striking contrast to the division now mentioned. A long range of 
green hills, partly planted and parked, rises abruptly from the vale. 
These as they recede southward increase into mountains covered 
with heath, the chief of which is the Felly ascertained by a late mea- 
surement to be 2330 feet above the level of the sea, thus overtop- 
ping the neighbouring hill of Tinto by 94 feet. But neither is this 
mountainous district without its peculiar beauty. There is no 
sweeter glen than that of Culter water. As far as Birth wood, two 
miles upward, it is partially cultivated and wooded. Beyond this 
it narrows, affording little more than room for the stream, which 
here has its linns with their necessary accompaniments of " rock 
and roar" to captivate the admirer of wild and romantic beauty. 
The hills which border on the arable part of the parish range from 
S. W. to N. E. But in the higher district, their range is exceed- 
ingly varied. Sometimes they are lumpish and detached, and some- 
times they run into chains, lying in all possible directions. 

Meteorology. In the vicinity of such mountain ranges, the at- 
mosphere must be moist and rains frequent : but as we have no 
bogs or undrained marshes, the people are in general healthy, and 
in many instances live to a very advanced age. On the 28th day 
of July 1829, the thermometer at the manse stood at 83 in the 
shade : and on one day towards the beginning of the same month 
in the year 1834, at 82. These are the greatest heights observ- 
ed by the writer for the last seven years. On the evening of Ja- 
nuary the 17th of the present year it stood as low as 10. 

Hydrography. Towards the southern extremity of the parish, 
is a spring which has generally been "considered to have a petrify- 
ing power. The moss by which it is bordered is completely in- 
durated, and many beautiful specimens have been preserved, which 

LANARK. Z 



342 LANARKSHIRE. 

have all the appearance of having undergone a regular process of pe- 
trifaction. But upon a closer examination, it is found that the moss 
has by no means been converted into stone, but only been cover- 
ed over with it, having received a deposition of the incrusting car- 
bonate of lime. The only stream of any consequence is Culter 
water, which, after dividing the parish lengthways nearly into two 
equal parts, falls into the Clyde, about half a mile beneath the vil- 
lage. The Clyde itself forms the western boundary for about 
two miles. At the point where it leaves the parish, the river makes 
a remarkable bend, changing its course from N. E. to N. W. and 
this is the first of the many great curves which it makes in its pro- 
gress to the sea. * 

Geology. Sandstone does not occur within our bounds, al- 
though conglomerate or puddingstone is found in some places. 
The hills are composed chiefly of greywacke, the common blue 
whinstone of the peasantry, so prevalent all over Tweeddale. The 
soil is of great variety, as is generally the case where the surface 
is very uneven. In the lower grounds it is a sandy loam, not very 
deep, but dry, and when well managed never fails to yield the hus- 
bandman an ample return. On the braes and hills it is much 
lighter; and towards the eastern or Kilbucho part of the parish 
it inclines to clay. Moss may be seen on the tops of the highest 
hills, and in some particular spots of the lower grounds ; but the 
general character of the soil is that it is hard and dry. Foot-rot 
among the sheep is altogether unknown, and in few places are they 
so seldom exposed to diseases of any kind. 

Botany. The plants at all worthy of being called uncommon 
are extremely few. The following, with their several localities, are 
given as a specimen : Cistus Helianthcmum, found at Cultercraigs 
and several other places ; Geum urbanum, growing abundantly in 
a ditch at Hartree ; Ononis arvensis, seen scantily near Cornhill ; 
Rubus suberectus and Primula veris, both found in Culterallers 

* At Wolf- Clyde, the point above-mentioned, a curiosity may sometimes be seen, 
viz. the Clyde running into the Tweed. The vale of Biggar-water, which here 
stretches berween these two rivers, is but slightly elevated above the bed of the Clyde. 
During a top-flood, part of the latter river sometimes finds its way into Biggar-water, 
and is thereby carried into the Tweed, and this happens once perhaps in three or four 
years. Hence it will be seen that it were a very easy matter to send the Clyde to 
Berwick instead of Glasgow. Indeed a common tradition is prevalent here that the 
famous magician Michael Scott had nearly accomplished this. The story is, that he 
was marching down the vale of the Biggar, with the Clyde following at his heels, 
but that, being alarmed by the sound of the water as it came roaring behind, he 
looked back, and so the spell was broken, and the vagrant waters returned' into their 
wonted channel. Of course little were the Glasgow folks dreaming of the peril to 
which their city was exposed. 



CULTER. 343 

wood ; Orolus sylvat icus and Tussilago petasitcs, near Culter water; 
Saxifraga granulata, near Wolf- Clyde Bridge; Scleranthus annum, 
top of Crosscroin; Malva moschata, road near the village; and 
Rubus Chamcemorus, towards the top of the Fell. At Culterallers 
is the only piece of copse to be found either in the parish or 
neighbourhood. It consists of several acres, and has the following 
trees growing in a natural state : The sloe, the birch, the alder, 
the hazel, the hawkberry or bird-cherry, the rowan or mountain- 
ash, and many different kinds of the willow. In only one place 
(Kingsbeck-burn) is the juniper to be seen. Trees that have 
been planted are of the common kinds, but these are too numerous 
to be given in detail. Some attain to a very large size. At Nis- 
bet is a very fine plane of the following dimensions: height of 
trunk 10 feet: girth of trunk at 3 feet from the ground 12^ feet. 
The branches cover a circle 66 feet in diameter. This is no con- 
temptible tree, standing, as it does, at an altitude of about 650 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

Fine Old Maple Tree. The following description of this tree 
is taken from Sir Thomas D. Lauder's Edition of Gilpin's Forest 
Scenery : " A maple at Culter, in Clydesdale, measured in the 
year 1800, at the height of three feet from the ground, was found 
to be 8 feet in circumference : at the height of three feet it divides 
into two arms, one of which at two feet above the trunk measures 
6 feet round ; the other at the same height above the trunk mea- 
sures 4 feet 2 inches round." These were its dimensions in 1800, 
as taken by Dr Walker, then Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh. Its dimensions in the year 1835 are the 
following : At the height of three feet above the ground the cir- 
cumference is 10 feet ; of the larger arm at two feet above the trunk 
the circumference is 7 feet, 6 inches ; of the lesser arm at the same 
height the circumference is 5 feet. The branches cover a circle, the 
diameter of which is 57 feet This very fine tree stands directly 
in front of the mansion-house of Mr Baillie of Culterallers, and 
is understood to be the largest of the kind in Scotland, with the 
exception of one at Roseneath, belonging to the Duke of Argyle, 
From a comparison of the above measurements may be seen what 
has been its increase for the last thirty-five years. 

The tree that holds the predominance in this parish and district 
is the Scoth fir ; and the result here, as in other places where it 
has been planted in a light soil and very exposed situation is, it 
thrives very well for about twenty or thirty years : it then begins 



344 LANARKSHIRE. 

to decay, and finally dies at a premature old age. This melancholy 
spectacle is but too common in this parish. Several plantations 
on the higher grounds and lighter soils are fast dying out, and 
ere long must totally disappear, an evil which might have been 
avoided if, instead of the fir, had been planted the larch, and the 
many other kinds of trees which might have been found better suit- 
ed to the soil. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Parochial Registers. The oldest register bears date 1700. 
The sederunts of session are recorded continuously from that date 
down to the present time ; but there is no record of births, bap- 
tisms, marriages, or deaths, from 1721 to 1737. For this blank 
no cause can now be assigned. The whole sessional accounts and 
records are contained in five books or volumes. During the in- 
cumbency of the Rev. Mr Forrester, ordained in 1700, these do- 
cuments seem to have been kept with considerable care ; but ge- 
nerally speaking, afterwards, very little attention has been bestow* 
ed upon them. 

Land-owners.* Besides Mr White, farmer in Shaw, who jointly 
with another person has lately purchased that farm, the land- 
owners are the following: David Dickson, Esq. of Hartree and 
Kilbucho; Robert Granbery Baillie, Esq. of Culterallers; Adam 
Sim, Esq. of Cultermains; William Bertram, Esq. of Nisbet; 
Robert Paterson, Esq. of Birthwood, and Robert Bruce Camp- 
bell, Esq. of Cornhill. With the exception of Mr Bertram, the 
whole of these reside on their respective properties, and for the 
most part during the whole year. 

Eminent men. Anthony Murray, minister of the parish dur- 
ing the religious persecutions of Charles II. is mentioned by the 
historians of these times in terms of the highest commendation. 
He belonged to the suffering party, and seems to have been a lead- 
ing man. It appears from Wodrow that he was related to the 

* The following extract from Chalmers' Caledonia throws some light on the pro- 
prietorship of the parish in ancient times. " During the reign of David II. the half 
of the barony of Culter was held by Walter Byset of the King in capite, and Byset 
stated that it hrd been so held by his ancestors. In 1367 Walter Byset granted to 
William Newbiggin of Dunsyre, all his lands in the barony of Culter, except the 
lands of Nisbet; and he also granted the patronage of the church with these lands, to 
be held by Newbiggin and his son David, of the King. In 1367, Sir Archibald Dou- 
glas the Lord Galloway obtained, on the resignation of Walter Byset of Clerking- 
ton, a charter of the lands of Clerkington in Edinburghshire, and the half of the 
barony of Culter in Lanarkshire. On the JOth of December 1449, William Earl 
of Douglas obtained a charter of the half of the land near the parish church of Cul- 
ter, and of the advowson of the same church. The right of these was forfeited by 
his successor James Earl of Douglas in 1455." 

8 



CULTER. 345 

Duchess of Lauderdale, and that, on account of this connexion, he 
was delegated by the influential ministers of the day to present an 
address to the Duke in favour of the Nonconformists.* A tradition, 
which is still prevalent, says, that, after being prohibited from 
preaching, he continued to reside in the parish, and supported him- 
self by his medical skill, observing facetiously, that Now he would 
make the doctor keep the minister. He outlived these troublous 
times, and died minister of the parish, as is testified by the inscrip- 
tion on his tombstone in the church-yard. 

Under this head may be also mentioned the late Dr Jackson, 
so well known by his excellent work on fever, and numerous other 
valuable contributions to medical science. He was not a native of 
Culter, but his father came to the parish whilst he was very young, 
and here his boyhood was spent. 

Antiquities. A little way below the village, on the west side of 
Culter water, is a place called Chapel-hill, where once stood a 
house belonging to the Knights- Templars, founded by Walter 
Bysset, in the reign of David II. At that time the church of Cul- 
ter belonged to the Abbey of Kelso. A keen dispute having 
arisen on one occasion between the abbot and the master of the 
Templars, about tithes alleged to have been due to the Abbey, 
the latter, in his unwillingness to pay, gave an instance of special 
pleading, which must appear a curiosity to all who have seen the 
place to which reference is made. " The master and brethren 
pleaded, that their order enjoyed a general exemption from pay- 
ing tithes ; also that the parish church of Culter, standing on the 
other side of a great river, on which there was no bridge, was sel- 
dom accessible to them without great danger."f All things seem 
formidable to an unwilling mind. The great river here spoken of 
is Culter water, a stream of a few paces in width, and which is 
not so large, even once in half a dozen of years, that it may not be 
forded. In the last Statistical Account, mention is made of four cir- 
cular encampments, popularly called Castles, the use of which seems 
to have been to afford temporary security to the inhabitants and 

" Sir David Menzies, laird of one half of the barony of Culter in Lanarkshire, gave 
the whole of his part of the land called Wolfclyde to the convent (of Melrose) in 
1431. After the Reformation this land came into the possession of Sir William Men- 
zies of Gladstones." Morton's Monastic Remains, p. 270. It is worth remarking that 
the lands of Wolfclyde, now a part of Hartree estate, pay a few shillings annually to 
the Duke of Buccleuch, in right of the Abbey of Melrose, of which his Grace is Lord 
of Erection. 

* Wodrow's History, Vol. ii. page 349. 

f Morton's Monastic Remains of Tcviotdale, p. 144. 



346 LANARKSHIRE. 

their cattle in times of civil or predatory warfare. And to these may 
be added two round mounds or moats., one at Wolf- Clyde, and one 
at Bamflat, anciently employed as watch-towers and signal posts. 
A chain of these artificial mounds can easily be traced all along 
the vale, running between the Clyde and Tweed, and from these 
the inhabitants of the one district telegraphed to those of the other, 
when danger was near. 

In the midst of a morass, half a mile north-east from the farm 
of Nisbet, may be seen a very singular remnant of antiquity. A 
mound of an oval shape, called the Green Knowe, measuring about 
thirty yards by forty, rises about two or three feet above the sur- 
face of the surrounding bog. On penetrating into this elevated 
mass, it is found to consist of stones of all different kinds and sizes, 
which seem to have been tumbled promiscuously together without 
the least attempt at arrangement. Driven quite through this su- 
perincumbent mass, are a great number of piles, sharpened at the 
point, about three feet long, made of oak of the hardest kind, re- 
taining the marks of the hatchet, and still wonderfully fresh. A 
causeway of large stones connects this mound with the firm ground. 
All around, it is nothing but soft elastic moss; and beneath it 
too, for on cutting through the bed of stones you immediately 
meet with moss. No vestige of lime has ever been found near the 
place. The spot was probably chosen for concealment or protec- 
tion to man or cattle, perhaps to both. The thick stratum of loose 
stones would afford firm footing, the oaken piles driven through 
the bed of stones would consolidate them, and hold them together 
like a pavement ; whilst the surrounding marsh would keep off the 
aggressor. Near the spot are the remains of some very large trees. 
Suppose the whole morass to have been a wood, might not the 
cattle during a sudden foray have been driven into this encamp- 
ment as a place of concealment ? For who would think of search- 
ing for them in a moss ? All this, however, is conjecture, and con- 
jecture for which there will soon be no data. The mound for many 
years has been used as a quarry ; hundreds of cart loads of stones 
have been taken from it, and at this date the work of demolition 
goes on. 

III. POPULATION. 

Culter proper being in Lanarkshire, and the part of Kilbucho 
annexed being in the county of Peebles, the population of each is 
here given separately. 



cuLTEa. 347 

In 1755, the population of Old Culler was 422 

In 1791, 3-26 

In 1801, ... . - - - 369 

In 1811, 415 

In 1821, - - "?- ... 467 

In 1831, 497 

Of these 175 were found to live in the village of Culter, and 
the remaining 322 in the country part of the parish. 

In 1811, the population of the Kilbucho part of the parish was 183 
In 1821, ICO 

In 1831, - - w - - - .'- - - 171 

In Culter. 

Number of unmarried men, bachelors or widowers, upwards of 50 years of age, 8 
women, including widows, upwards of 45, 

In the Kilbucho part of the parish. 

Number of unmarried men bachelors or widowers, upwards of 50, 

women, including widows, upwards of 45, 2 

In 1831, the population of the united parish was 668. The 
average number of births yearly for the last seven years, according 
to the public register, is 9 ; but many are not registered. The 
average number of deaths for the same period is 5^ ; and of mar- 
riages 5. The average number of children in a family is 4, if 
we take account only of those families where children actually re- 
side ; but if we include all the families in the parish the average 
number of each family is 3. There is one fatuous person and one 
blind; and seven proprietors of land whose respective properties 
exceed the yearly sum of L. 50. 

Character of the People. The people are of sober and indus- 
trious habits, respectful to their superiors, and kind and obliging in 
their intercourse with each other. With few exceptions, they are 
regular in their attendance on public worship, and the other ordi- 
nances of religion ; and a thoroughly profligate or reckless person 
is not to be found among them. No lover of his country, however, 
ean fail to deplore the growing prevalence of an evil which was 
comparatively unknown to our forefathers, the unlawful intercourse 
of the sexes, especially among the poorer and more dependent 
classes of the community. There were four illegitimate births in the 
parish during the last three years. The writer would by no means 
insinuate that this vice is peculiarly prevalent here. But it does pre- 
vail in this parish in common with the other parishes of the bounds, 
and it is to be feared of Scotland generally : And it is an evil omen 
of the times, and threatens ere long to bring down the common people 
of Scotland from that high station of respectability and moral worth 
which they have occupied so long, and which perhaps never has been 
attained by the people of any other nation. The Christian philan- 
thropist hopes that true religion may be on the increase ; but the 



348 LANARKSHIRE. 

hope is damped by the consideration, that " the Wisdom which 
cometh down from above is first pure." 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

The tables under this head are again given separately, in order 
that it may be seen what portion of the parish lies in Lanarkshire, 
and what in the county of Peebles. 

Agriculture and Rural Economy. 

Old Culter contains 9950 imperial acres, of which there are either cultivated or occa- 
sionally in tillage, , ....... 2671 

Of lands which never have been cultivated, and which remain constantly in 
pasture there are ....... 6871 

Acres in a state of undivided common, ..... Q 

Acres planted are, . . , . . 408 

The Kilbucho part of the parish contains 1597 imperial acres, Of these there 

are either cultivated or occasionally in tillage, .... 1319 

Of lands which never have been cultivated and which remain constantly in pas- 
ture, there are . . . ... . . t . . 251 

Acres in a state of undivided common are 

Acres planted are, ........ . * . 27 

In the united parish, there are still perhaps from 100 to 200 
acres which might be profitably brought under the plough. 

Rent of Land, Wages^ Sec. There is great diversity in the qua- 
lity, and consequently in the rent of arable land. Whilst some of 
the better sort might be let as high as L. 4 or perhaps L. 5 per 
acre, a still greater proportion would scarcely bring 15s. ; but the 
average may be given at L. 1, 3s. The average rent of grazing 
is at the rate of L. 3 per cow or full-grown ox ; L. 2 per head of 
young cattle ; and 5s. 6d. per ewe or full-grown sheep. Wages are 
the same as in the neighbouring parishes. 

Breeds of Cattle. The sheep with which our hills are pastured 
are of the short or black-faced kind. No other kind has ever been 
tried, as the grounds are reckoned too hard and bare for rearing a 
finer species. They are all regularly smeared with tar and oil at the 
approach of winter. The horses are mostly of the Clydesdale, and 
the cows of the Ayrshire breed. Upon this latter kind of stock a 
very great improvement has been made of late years. Till very 
lately the cows in this district were neither of the Teeswater, 
Ayrshire, nor of any regular and approved breed, but a mixture of 
all the different kinds ; but now a fine animal is known and appre- 
ciated, and consequently the inferior kinds are rapidly disappearing. 
This amelioration of stock we owe in a great measure to a Farmer's 
Society instituted in Biggar, which has an annual competition, at 
which stock of all the different kinds is exhibited, and prizes duly 
awarded. 

Husbandry. Whilst our farmers have been improving their 






CULTER. 349 

live stock, they have not been stationary in the improvement of 
their lands. Their farms are managed pretty much on the com- 
mon rotation plan, viz. first oats, then green crop, then barley, then 
hay, and lastly pasture, which last is allowed to continue for one, 
two or more years, according to the quality of the land. Lime, 
which is driven from a distance of seven miles, is plentifully applied, 
and on new land yields a rich return. It seems to be generally 
agreed, however, that, when repeatedly applied to the same field, its 
effect is greatly diminished, and the farmer sees more and more the 
necessity of resting his land. Big or bear is fast disappearing, and 
barley coming in its place. Till the last two or three years, there 
was not a field of wheat in the parish, but now there is scarcely any 
farm, however small, where it is not to be seen. Draining in all 
its different branches is duly attended to. The sheep-walks have 
been dried with surface-drains, and much wet land reclaimed and 
rendered arable by those of the ordinary kind. The late Mr Sim 
of Cultermains, erected an embankment along the Clyde nearly 
\\ mile in length, which cost upwards of L. 1000; and calculated 
that he had, on that part of his property which he retained in his 
own possession, underground drains extending to the length of 35 
miles. 

Leases, Farm-Buildings, *c. The leases all over this part of 
the country are of nineteen years duration, a term which seems to 
give satisfaction both to landlord and tenant. The farm-houses 
and offices are in general commodious, and enclosures are nume- 
rous and increasing. 

Produce. The average gross amount of raw produce raised in 
Old Culter, as nearly as can be ascertained, is as follows : 

Produce of grain of all kinds, whether cultivated for food of man or domestic animals, 

including straw, ... L. 5236 15 5 
Of potatoes, turnips, cabbages, and other plants cultivated in the fields 

for food, - - - - 1 1 77 

Of hay, whether meadow or cultivated, 1032 3 4 
Of land in pasture, rating it at L. 3 per cow or full-grown ox ; L. 2 per 
head of young cattle ; and 7s. per ewe or full-grown sheep, including 

the fleece, - - .... 2829 8 

Of gardens and orchards, - - - 80 

Miscellaneous produce not enumerated under any of the foregoing heads, 119 

Total yearly value of raw produce raised in Old Culter, L. 10,474 6 9 

The average gross amount of raw produce raised in the Kilbucho 
part of the parish, as nearly as can be ascertained, is as follows : 

Produce of grain of all kinds, whether cultivated for food of man, or domestic ani- 
mals, including the straw, - . L. 2894 12 8^ 

Of potatoes, turnips, cabbages, and other plants cultivated in the 

fields for food, - . 553 

Of hay, whether meadow or cultivated, - '+'* . ' : - "- -"' 341 10 



350 LANARKSHIRE. 

Of land in pasture, rating it at L. 3 per cow or full grown ox ; L. 2 
per head of young cattle j and 7s. per ewe or full-grown sheep, in- 
cluding the fleece, - - 709 9 
Of one garden, . . .... 30 

Miscellaneous produce not enumerated under any of the foregoing heads, 47 



Total yearly value of raw produce raised in the Kilbucho part of 

parish, L. 4575 11 8 

The gross annual produce of the united parish, therefore, is 
L. 15,049, 18s. 5jd. ; and the gross rental, as nearly as can be com- 
puted, is L. 5210. 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Market- Town. Biggar is the market-town and the post-town of 
the district. The two parishes are contiguous, and the village of 
Culter is distant from the town of Biggar nearly three miles.* 

Village. There is but one village, and, as has been already stat- 
ed, it contains only 175 persons. It is pleasantly situated close 
upon Culter water. The houses are scattered along the stream, in- 
terspersed with fine old trees, neatly built, and in many instances 
adorned with honeysuckle, and flowering shrubs. It has its mill, 
its smithy, and small grocer's shop, and altogether presents a very 
pleasing aspect to the passenger. The turnpike road from Dum- 
fries to Edinburgh lies through its centre by an excellent bridge, 
built a few years ago. 

Means of Communication. The Dumfries road now mentioned 
is carried through the parish for the space of nearly four miles ; 
and the parish roads are kept in good repair. Where there are hills 
the roads must often be uneven, and such is the case here ; but no 
pains are spared to render them smooth and dry. The parish roads 
are about ten miles long. 

Ecclesiastical State.-^ The church, which was built in 1810, 
and contains 350 sitters, is situated conveniently enough for the 
bulk of the people.j Within it is sufficiently commodious, but 
the exterior is plain and tasteless, which is the more to be regret- 
ted, as the beautiful site and splendid trees amid which it stands, 
would have done ample justice to a handsomer building. The 

* Culter is distant from Edinburgh 30 miles, from Glasgow 36, from Lanark 11, 
and from Peebles 17. 

f Chalmers in his " Caledonia" says, that " Richard, the parson of Culter, witnes- 
sed a charter of Hugh de Biger on the 14th of February 1228-9, and he appears as 
parson of Culter before that time. In 1296, Mestre de Tillol, the parson of Culter, 
swore fealty to Edward I. Thomas de Ballasky was rector of the church of Culter 
in 1388. George Shoreswood was one of the King's clerks, and rector of Culter in 
the reign of James II." And we learn from the same authority, that " at the Refor- 
mation this benefice was held by Mr Archibald Livingston, who reported in 1562 
that the revenues of the parsonage and vicarage of Culter wereleased by him for 100 
merks yearly." 

J None of the seats are paid for, but none are common, they being divided among 
the heritors according to their respective valuations. 



CULTER. 351 

manse was built in 1774, and is still in a state of very good re- 
pair. It has an orchard in front, and a steep hill covered with 
wood to the top, behind, and is the very beau ideal of a quiet par- 
sonage. The glebe consists of 8 or 8J acres of excellent land ; 
is well enclosed all around, and might be let for about L. 25. The 
stipend is L. 208 in money, with twelve bolls, three firlots of oat- 
meal, and the interest of L. 282, 12s. lodged in the Royal Bank 
of Scotland. This latter sum is the half of the price obtained for 
Kilbucho glebe when that parish was suppressed. By order of the 
Court of Session it must lie in the bank till it can be invested in 
land contiguous to the glebe of Culter. In the meantime the in- 
terest forms an item in the living. The families presently in con- 
nection with the Establishment are 100; the average number of com- 
municants yearly is 290, and the average number of young persons 
admitted to the communion for the first time is 12. The dissent- 
ing families are 23, partly connected with the Relief, and partly 
with the United Secession church. There is neither chapel nor 
dissenting meeting-house of any kind. The Dissenters attend their 
respective places of worship in Biggar, to which, indeed, a great 
proportion of this parish are nearer than to their own parish church. 
Collections have been made in the church from time to time, in 
support of the Infirmary of Edinburgh, the Assembly's Schools, 
Bibleand Missionary Societies, and for other charitable and religious 
purposes, the amount of which may be estimated at L. 5 yearly. 

Education. The parochial school is the only one for general 
education. On it, however, the Kilbucho part of the parish is no- 
ways dependent. It has still a school of its own : for the legal man- 
date that swept away the church spared the school.* In the school 
of Culter are taught Greek, Latin, practical mathematics, and 
geography, besides the more ordinary branches of education. The 
teacher's salary is L. 34, 4s. with a small garden ; and as the quar- 
ter fees bring about L. 20, his income, exclusive of the dwelling- 
house, is rather more than L. 54. No part of the parish is so dis- 
tant as to prevent the attendance of the young, and there is not 
an individual upwards of six or seven years of age who is unable 
to read. It may also be mentioned, that a Sabbath school is con- 
ducted by the writer of this article and the schoolmaster, which is 
attended by an average number of scholars of about thirty-five. Con- 

* At the election of the present schoolmaster of Kilbucho the minister of Brough- 
ton objected to the vote of the minister of Culter. A long dispute ensued, but the 
matter being ultimately referred to the arbitration of Sir James Mongomery, Bart, 
he gave a decision in favour of the minister of Culter, awarding to each of the two 
ministers an equal vote in the election of schoolmaster for Kilbucho. 



352 LANARKSHIRE. 

nected with the Sabbath school is a small library but lately begun ; 
and this is the only one in the place ; but the want is in some measure 
supplied by the vicinity of Biggar, where there are several very good 
libraries, and where books of all kinds may easily be found. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. At present, there are five regular 
paupers on the roll. Of these two are very old women ; two wi- 
dows with families, and one an old man with a family. They re- 
ceive on an average L< 4, 10s. a-year, a sum which would be in- 
adequate for their support were they totally incapacitated for la- 
bour; but all of them can do something for themselves. Besides 
these, there are several others who receive occasional help from 
the session, in the form of house-rents, coals, and small donations 
of money. To meet this outlay, there are the church collections, 
which average for the last seven years L. 32 a-year, with L. 4, 4s. 
of yearly interest upon L. 105, the only lying fund belonging 
to the poor. Hitherto these sources have yielded a sufficient sup- 
ply without either assessments or extraordinary collections of any 
kind. But how long this state of things may continue is uncer- 
tain, as the reluctance to receive assistance from the public fund, 
though slowly, is perceptibly on the decrease. 

Bequests for the Education of the Poor. The session have under 
their management the following sums, the interest of which goes 
to the education of poor children. 1. L. 18, understood to have 
been mortified by the Rev. Anthony Murray, previously mention- 
ed. 2. L. 40 mortified by William Nisbet, saltman in Biggar, 
who died in 1820. 3. L. 100 mortified by the late David Sim, 
Esq. of Cultermains, who died at London in 1834. This latter 
bequest is for " the education and clothing of a boy or girl in the 
parish of Culter, of poor and industrious parents." 

Inns. We have no public-house nor inn of any kind. The 
heritors, seeing that nothing of the kind is needed, do not allow any 
to be kept, by which wise resolution, whilst they do no injury to 
the community at large, they lay this parish under very great ob- 
ligations. 

Fuel. Almost the only fuel used is coal, driven from Douglas, 
a distance of eleven miles, and costing 7s. 6d. per cart of four loads, 
each load consisting of about three cwt. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

It appears from the last Statistical Account, that this parish was 
in a forward state as far back as 1793. The writer of that account 
tells us, that in the lowland part of the parish " the ground was 
mostly either well enclosed with hedge and ditch, or covered with 



CULTER. 353 

thriving plantations ;" that " many thousand trees had also been 
planted in different parts of the parish within the last seven or eight 
years ;" that " the proprietors seemed to vie with each other in im- 
provements;" and that u enclosed land was let at an average of 
from L. 1, 10s. to L. 2 per acre." The improvements thus early 
begun have been going on steadily and progressively ever since, as 
will appear when we have mentioned some of the more remarkable 
changes that have taken place within the period now referred to. Since 
1791 the population has been increased by an addition of 171 ; the 
rental has been nearly trebled ; a new church has been built ; a new 
school and school-house, and a new bridge over Culter water. 
Since then, an elegant mansion-house has been erected by Mr 
Campbell of Cornhill. The wooden ploughs which were then in use 
have almost totally disappeared, and their place been supplied by 
others made of iron. The labour of hoeing has been greatly abridged 
by the introduction of the drill harrow, an implement then alto- 
gether unknown. The church collections have risen from L. 8 to 
L. 32 annually ; farm-houses and cottages have been either re- 
built or undergone a sufficient repair ; and agriculture in all its 
branches is much better understood and more successfully prac- 
tised. Plantations also have been greatly extended, and are still 
extending ; and, with some exceptions referred to under a former ar- 
ticle, are healthy and thriving. For many of these improvements, 
the parish is indebted to the late John Dickson, Esq. of Hartree, the 
principal landed proprietor within its bounds. He first introduced 
many of the most approved modes of husbandry into this district, 
at a time when the art was but little understood ; and gave an im T 
pulse to a spirit for planting at a time when trees were indeed " few 
and far between." Mr Dickson, having survived what Dr John- 
son calls The frightful interval between the seed and the timber, 
died in May last at a very advanced age. The heritors, who are 
seven in number, are all resident with but one exception. The 
advantages resulting from such a state of society must be obvious 
to any one. Money is plentifully circulated ; regular employment 
is given to tradesmen and labourers of every kind ; the church col- 
lections are large, whilst the number needing parochial aid is com- 
paratively small ; courtesy and good breeding are diffused on every 
side ; the richer and poorer classes are brought into frequent and 
intimate intercourse with each other; and that kindly bond of con- 
nexion is formed between landlord and tenant, which constitutes 
at once the happiness and strength of the country. 
July 1835. 



PARISH OF BIGGAR. 

PRESBYTERY OF BIGGAR, SYNOD OF LOTHIAN AND TWEEDDALE. 

THE REV. JOHN CHRISTISON, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Name and Boundaries. IN ancient charters, the name is gene- 
rally written Biger and sometimes Bigre. Its origin is very doubt - 
ful, but probably, as Chalmers thinks, from the Scoto-Irish words 
biff, thir, pronounced big'er, and signifying soft land. This de- 
scription does not apply to the parish generally, nor even to the land 
immediately around the town ; but the old castle of the family of 
Biggar stood in the middle of a morass, and this circumstance, 
which has evidently given rise to its own name Tfo^hall, may be 
thought to justify the derivation now given of the name of the 
parish. 

Biggar is a border parish of Lanarkshire, on the south-east, where 
it marches with the county of Peebles. It is bounded on the 
south by Culter and Kilbucho ; on the east by Skirling ; on the 
n orth by Dolphinton and Walston ; and on the west by Libberton. 
Its length from the south-west, where it is washed for about 300 
yards by the Clyde, to its north-eastern extremity, is 6 J miles. It 
approaches the form of a triangle, and contains 11 J square miles, 
or 5852 Scots acres. 

Topographical Appearances. There is a good deal of level land 
in the parish, but generally speaking it is hilly. The hills are of 
moderate elevation, sometimes half forming themselves into ridges, 
but in general pretty much detached. Their near equality in point 
of height, their gentle acclivities, round backs, and surfaces unbrok- 
en by natural wood, rock, or torrent, preclude all picturesque ef- 
fect, but they present nevertheless a very pleasing aspect. To- 
wards the south, they subside into a plain of considerable extent. 
This plain, which is the lowest land in the parish, is about 628 feet 
above the level of the sea. The town, which stands on a gentle 
elevation between it and the hills, is 695 feet, the ridge of heights 
north-west of the town, 1260, and Bizzyberry, on the north-east, 
1150. 1 



BIGGAlt, 



355 



Climate. From the elevated situation of the parish, we have ne- 
cessarily a keen atmosphere and severe winters, yet from the dry- 
ness of the soil, and from our being equally out of range of the 
eastern haars and western rains, the climate of this parish is neither 
so damp nor cold as that of many lower situations. Cold easterly winds 
blow in spring, but the prevailing wind during the remainder of the 
year is the south-west, which acquires great force as it passes through 
the vale of Clyde, sometimes sweeping this parish with untempered 
violence. The parish of Biggar used to suffer so much from autum- 
nal frosts that the grain produced on some of the low-lying farms 
could not be used as seed above once in four or five years. Since 
1817, these frosts have almost entirely disappeared. One undoubt- 
ed cause of this is the extensive draining of the low lands, which has 
taken place since that time. 

The following tables have been constructed from a book of daily 
observations on the weather kept by Mr Alexander Watt, late te- 
nant in Biggar mill. The hour of observation was nine o'clock in 
the evening, the place 685 feet above the level of the sea, Longi- 
tude 3 26' W., Latitude 55 37' N. 

Monthly Mean Temperature. 



1802, 
1803, 
1804, 
1805, 
1806, 
1807, 


Jan. 
33.42 
32.16 
37-93 
34.80 
33.45 
35.48 


Feb. 
33. 59 
34.03 
32.65 
34 .7J 
.?5 .82 
33.50 


Mar. 
37.32 
38.16 
36.03 
38.90 
37.38 
33 .06 


Apr. 
41.8C 
42.46 
38.20 
41 .00 
40.93 
41 .53 


May. 
45. 96 
45.00 
50.35 
43.80 
47.64 
46.93 


June. 
50. 46 
51 .33 
54 .03 
50.50 
52.26 
50 .00 


July. 
51.06 
57.77 
54.67 
55.51 
54.19 
56.51 


Aug. 

55'.67 
53.70 
53.83 
54 .IS 

54.70 
56.58 


Sep. 
50.46 
46.43 
51 .5e 
51 .60 
51 .33 
43 .H 


Oct. 
46.70 
43.10 
45.54 
41 .77 
46.96 
39 .61 


Nov. 
38.23 
35.96 
38.36 
41 .00 
41 .76 
29.54 


Dec. 
36.25 
35.83 
32.06 
34.74 
39 .45 
?3 .67 



Monthly Mean Height of the Barometer. 



1802. 
1803. 
1804, 
1805, 
1806. 


Jan. 
29.70 
29.97 
29.70 
29.54 
29.CO 


Feb. 
29.57 
29.89 
.'iO.22 
29.63 
29.72 


Mar. 
29.95 
30.20 
29.84 
29. HG 
29.78 


Apr. 
30.07 
29.97 
29.93 
29.87 
2!). 59 


May. 
30.25 
30.07 
30.00 
29.86 
29.91 


June. 
29.97 
30.17 
30.20 
W.21 
30.30 


July. \ Aug. 
29.9130.09 
31.2730.11 
30.03 30.02 
29.98 29.9.0 
29.9930.00 


Sep. \ Oct. 
29.1629.84 
30.2330.20 
30.2229.81 
30.1630.00 
30.12130.02 


Nov. 
29.93 
29.70 
30.08 
29.87 
29.92 


Dec. 
29.8K 
29. 7C 
29.95 
29.90 
29.88 



Hydrography. Biggar water rises on the north side of the pa- 
rish, and when about two miles on its course passes the town of 
Biggar, or rather divides it; for though the bulk of the town lies at 
a little distance from the left bank, a large suburb has within the 
last forty years sprung up on the right. To the traveller who en- 
ters Biggar by the Carnwath road, this suburb presents a scene 
decidedly picturesque, houses perched on the brow of the steep 
bank, others standing tower down on the declivity, sloping gardens 
below, the opposite bank crowned with lofty old trees, and Biggar 



356 LANARKSHIRE. 

water winding most circuitously along the bosom of the little val- 
ley. On issuing from the town, Biggar water enters a fine open 
vale, which includes the southern frontier of the parish, and extends 
to the Clyde on the one hand, and the Tweed on the other. It 
enters this vale about a mile and a-half from the Clyde, and after 
receiving a small tributary which connects it with that river, pur- 
sues its way to the Tweed. As the Clyde in high floods sends a 
portion of its waters by this channel to the Tweed, Biggar water 
may be said to unite these two great rivers. Indeed, the waters of 
the one might all be conveyed without any great difficulty to the 
other. The length of the vale which extends between them is 7 
miles, and its descent 25 feet. Biggar water, from its rise to its 
junction with the Tweed a little below Drummelzier, runs a course 
of 9 miles. The only other stream worth mentioning is Candy- 
burn, which rises in the north- east corner of the parish, divides it 
for the space of 3 miles from Peebles-shire, and then falls into 
Biggar water. The parish is well supplied with springs, but none 
of them deserve particular notice. 

Mineralogy. There are neither coal, limestone, nor freestone in 
the parish, the predominating rocks being varieties of the secondary 
trap and porphyry series of Jameson, (whinstone of the peasantry.) 
Of these Plutonian masses the following may be mentioned: green- 
stone, amygdaloid, and porphyry. They are very untractable in 
the hands of the mason, but when once built form an excellent 
wall. Some fine pebbles and moss-agates are occasionally found 
in the amygdaloid rock, but are confined to the south-west quarter 
of the parish. 

Soils. There are probably about 1000 acres of clayey soil, which 
are very open, and rest on an open substratum of clay or gravel. 
That of which there is the greatest quantity in the parish, and 
which prevails particularly on the higher grounds, is a light black- 
ish soil, incumbent on rotten whin. The epithet deaf is often ap- 
plied in the district to this kind of soil, and it seems much im- 
proved by the stimulus of lime. There are probably about 2000 
acres of this ; after which, there are pretty equal proportions of sand, 
gravel, sandy loam, blackish loam, inclined to moss, and peat moss. 
The whole arable land of the parish is well adapted to turnip hus- 
bandry, and capable of being very easily drained where required. 
Botany. There is little interesting under this head. We have 
no natural woods, deep ravines, or any of those localities so much 
prized by the botanist, who will here feel but little tempted to 



BIGGAR. 357 

" Steal along the lonely dale, 

In silent search, or climb the mountain rock, 
Fir'd by the nodding verdure of its brow." 

The following are the only plants not common everywhere, 
which have been observed in the parish : Anchusa sempervirens, 
F.pilobium angustifolium, Ononis arvensis, Sambucus Ebulus, Ra- 
nunculus Ficaria, Saxifraga granulata^ Genista anglica, Scrophu- 
laria vernalis, and Veronica scutellata. 

Some names of places, such as Carwood and Bizzyberry or Bushy- 
berry (hill) would seem to indicate that woods had formerly exist- 
ed which have long since disappeared. Considerable remains of 
alder, oak, and birch, have also been dug out of the mosses, and 
in many places hazel-nuts have been discovered several feet below 
the surface. But whatever may have been the case formerly, the 
soil seems but little congenial now to the growth of natural wood. 
The lover of Scottish scenery will look in vain for the hazel copse, 
or sloe-thorn thicket, or even for a patch of the trailing bramble. 
The only underwood is furze, broom, and in one or two places the 
wild rasp. This want of natural wood is in some measure com- 
pensated by plantations, of which there are about 750 acres. An 
erroneous notion once prevailed that the soil was best adapted to 
the Scotch fir, and the consequence is, that by far too great a pro- 
portion of the parish bristles with plantations of that unlovely tree. 
A glance at the large and thriving hard wood trees at every farm 
steading ought to have corrected this prejudice long ago ; but it is 
now happily on the wane. In all the recent plantations, there is 
a due mixture of hard wood, which seems to make the same pro- 
gress, in comparison with the resinous trees, as in other parts of 
the country. The ash and elm are the decided favourites of the 
soil, and next to these the beech and plane. The larch in gravel- 
ly soils and exposed situations becomes corky in the heart, and 
falls into premature decay. 

A method of pruning trees has originated in this parish, which 
well deserves public attention. Mr Gavin Cree, nursery-man in 
Biggar, the author of this improvement, has explained it at length 
in the third volume of the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. His 
plan is to apply the pruning-knife the third or fourth year after a 
tree has been planted ; but all that is done for some years is short- 
ening the lateral branches, and carefully suppressing all rivalry 
with the main stem. When the tree has attained the height of fif- 
teen feet, it is subjected for the first time to close pruning. The 
lowest tier of branches is cut off the first year, another tier the se- 

LANARK. A a 



358 LANARKSHIRE. 

cond, and so on, care being taken that not more than a single tier, 
and that always the lowest, be removed in any one season. This 
annual pruning goes on till about three-fifths of the whole height 
of the tree are cleared of branches, when the process is complete. 
It has been found that this method of pruning has the following 
advantages over that in common use : It brings the tree to a great- 
er height in a given time, enabling it, the author avers, to keep 
pace with the fastest-growing resinous trees. It causes it to make 
more timber in the trunk, instead of dissipating its strength among 
useless branches. It is so gradual a process that it does not en- 
feeble the growth of the tree, but enables it to cicatrize its wounds, 
and thus make finer wood. And finally, it enables it to afford 
more shelter, from the numerous branchlets and leaves thrown out 
by the lateral pruning. * 

Zoology. Of quadrupeds, the hedgehog, rabbit, polecat, squir- 
rel, and weasel are common. The ermine is rather scarce. The 
badger and otter are seen, but very rarely. The following birds 
are common : the sparrow-hawk, merlin, long-eared, brown, and 
barn owl, wild and teal duck, woodlark, fieldfare, goldfinch, bull- 
finch, gray, green, and rose linnet, redpole, common titmouse, 
gold-crested wren, lapwing, curlew, heron, common bunting, stone- 
chat, stank hen, black and red grouse, pheasant, woodcock. The 
black-cock has become abundant of late years. The water-crow 
is in small numbers. The starling used to be scarce, but has built 
for the last two years on the tower of the church. The king- 
fisher, redstart, goat-sucker, snow-flight, long-tailed titmouse, and 
coot are scarce. The quail has been seen, but not for many years. 
A bittern was shot five years ago on Biggar moss, but none have 
appeared since. The raven is occasionally seen passing to his 
haunts on Tinto. The moss-cheeper, muftin, and whitewing are 
three birds so called in this parish, which cannot be identified with 
any of acknowledged names. 

II. CIVIL HISTORY. 

Historical Notices. The battle of Biggar is celebrated by 
Blind Harry, but not mentioned by any other historian. It is said 
to have taken place between the English under Edward I. and the 
Scots under Wallace, and to have ended in a great victory over 
the invaders. Appearances still exist, and traditions float among 

* For notices and commendations of Mr Cree's system of pruning, see Quarterly 
Journal of Agriculture, Vol. iii. p. 308 ; Sir Henry Stewart's Planters' Guide, second 
edition ; and particularly Professor Low's Elements of Agriculture p. 388. 



BIGGAR. 359 

the people of the district, which leave little doubt of the engage- 
ment. Blind Harry says it was fought on marshy ground, and 
tradition points to a low-lying field south-east from Biggar, where 
pieces of broken armour have often been gathered. The remains 
of a camp are also to be seen at no great distance. The English 
are said to have approached the field by Cors-Cryne, and the 
Scots from their encampment on Tinto. Wallace, it is told, some 
time before the battle, gained admission to the enemy's camp, dis- 
guised as a cadger offering to sell provisions. By this means, he 
ascertained their strength and position, but had no sooner depart- 
ed than suspicion rose, and he was instantly pursued. On reach- 
ing a bridge over Biggar water, at the west end of the town, he 
turned on his pursuers, and putting the foremost to death made 
good his escape. There is still a foot bridge over the stream to the 
west of Biggar, which has been called from time immemorial " the 
cadger's brig." On the north side of Bizzyberry, are a hollow 
rock and a spring called Wallace's seat and Wallace's well. 

Biggar was probably the rendezvous of the Scots army, which 
under Sir Simon Frazer achieved the victory at Roslin in 1302. 
It is at least certain that the army marched from Biggar to Ros- 
lin during the night previous to the battle. 

When Edward II. invaded Scotland in 1310, penetrating 
through Selkirk to Renfrew, he spent the first six days of October 
in Biggar. 

When the Scots army, after Cromwell's victory in Fife in 165.1, 
marched to England by Biggar, Leslie, according to Whitelock, 
" summoned Bigger, and the governour returned a resolute an- 
swer, that he kept it for the commonwealth of England." The 
place thus summoned must have been Boghall jCastle, which was 
in 1651 garrisoned by the English. As Cromwell followed the 
tract of the Scots army, he" would probably halt some time at Biggar. 
In 1715, Lockhart, younger of Carnwath, raised a troop in this 
neighbourhood for the service of the Pretender, which after ren- 
dezvousing some time at Biggar, went to Dumfries, and joined 
Lord Kenmure. 

Family of Fleming. The manor of Biggar was given by David I. 
to Baldwin, a Flemish leader, whose descendants, though locally 
designed of Biggar, retain to this day the original surname of Flem- 
ing. Baldwin was Sheriff of Lanark in the reign of Malcolm IV. 
and it has been supposed that this office became for some time he- 
reditary in his family. The Flemings of Biggar appear to have 



360 LANARKSHIRE. 

obtained an earlier footing in this county than ever the more cele- 
brated race of Douglas; for between 1147 and 1160, Baldwin de 
Biger witnessed the charter granting the lands on Douglas water 
to Theobald the Fleming, the founder of the Douglas family. In 
1341, David II. formed the whole county of Wigton into an earl- 
dom, and bestowed it on Sir Malcolm Fleming, a cadet of the fa- 
mily of Biggar, but it afterwards fell by inheritance into the main 
branch. This family also acquired in 1357, certain lands within 
the barony of Lenzie, and in 1382, that whole barony, including 
the parishes of Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch. In 1606, the 
earldom of Wigton was erected anew, and conferred on them by 
James VI. The title being limited to heirs-male became extinct 
on the death of Charles the eleventh earl in 1747. The estates 
of Biggar and Cumbernauld went to his daughter, Lady Clemen- 
tina Fleming, the wife of the Honourable Charles Elphinstone, 
who succeeded his father as Lord Elphinstone in 1757. In con- 
sequence of an entail made in 1741, those estates went to her se- 
cond grandson, the Honourable Charles Elphinstone Fleming, the 
present possessor of the estate of Cumbernauld, and of a small 
portion of that of Biggar. The rest of the latter property was 
sold a few years ago, the entail of 1741 having been set aside by 
act of Parliament ; but the patronage of the church and superiority 
of the lands were retained. 

Ecclesiastical History. The first event of any interest under 
this head was the foundation of a chaplain ry in the parish church 
of Biggar, under the following unhappy circumstances : John Lord 
Fleming, Chamberlain of Scotland, went a hawking on the 1st of 
November 1524, when he was attacked and murdered by John 
Tweedie of Drummelzier, James Tweedie, his son, and several ac- 
complices. After a delay of some years, this affair was submitted 
to arbiters, who decreed that a certain assythment in lands should 
be given to Malcolm Lord Fleming, the son of the murdered Lord. 
In obedience to another part of the decreet, Tweedie, the princi- 
pal assassin, on the 10th August 1531, granted in mortmain L.10 
yearly from the lands and barony of Drummelzier, for the support 
of a chaplain " who shall pray and sing mass for the salvation of the 
soul of the deceased John Lord- Fleming in the parochin church 
of Biggar." 

Biggar was one of the five collegiate churches in Lanarkshire. 
According to the writ of foundation, dated 16th January 1545, " Mal- 
colm Lord Fleming, to the glory and honour of the High and Un- 






BIGGAR. 361 

divided Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and 
the Immaculat Virgin Mary, mother of our Lord, for the safety of 
the soul of King James V. late King of Scotland, of most worthy 
memory, and for the safety of the Cardinall Legat's soul, and for 
the safety of his own soul, and Joan Stewart, his wife, sister to the 
said seren King, and for the souls of his parents, benefactors, 
friends, and kinsmen, predecessors and successors, and of all faith- 
ful deceast, and principally for the souls of those from whom he 
had taken goods unjustly or don injury unto, and had not satis- 
fied and compensed either by wakes, prayers, or pryce, did found, 
date, and effectually erect a colledge or collegiate church, with 
the collegial honor, dignity, and pre-eminency, for one provost, 
eight canons, and prebends, and four boys having children's voyces, 
and six poor men bestowing upon the provost the rents, fruits, and 
emoluments of theparochin and parish church of Thankertoun, with 
the manse and glebe thereof, he always supplying the charge there 
by another." It appears that the church of Thankertoun, which 
was thus annexed to the collegiate church of Biggar by Lord Flem- 
ing, was given up to him by the abbots of Kelso for that purpose. 
They had received the right of patronage of Thankertoun from 
his predecessors ; but having learned his intention of building a 
collegiate church at Biggar, and " considering that all of them in 
these evil times, in the encreas of Lutheranism, were obliged to 
contribute to so good a work, again transferred to Malcolm Lord 
Fleming, in name of the colledge to be founded and built by him, 
the right of patronage of the church of Thankertoun." 

The abbot of Holy rood also granted to the collegiate church 
of Biggar, the right of patronage of the perpetual vicarage of the 
parish church of Dunrod, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, on 
the 5th May 1555. 

The church of Biggar, built in 1545, served both as the colle- 
giate and parochial church. It still serves as the parish church, 
and is in very good repair. It was built in form of a cross. The 
body of it is complete, but the spire was left unfinished, owing pro- 
bably to the breaking out of the Reformation, when it was in pro- 
gress. Though time has scarcely touched this venerable struc- 
ture, it has otherwise suffered some cruel mutilations. The ves- 
try, a fine flag-roofe4 building, communicating with the chancel, 
the large porch at the western door, the buttresses on the north 
wall of the nave, the arched gateway at the entrance to the church- 



362 LANARKSHIRE. 

yard all these were coeval with the church, and in equally good 
preservation, but were taken down about forty years ago, and the ma- 
terials sold for seven pounds to assist in pay ing some parochial expen- 
ses. About the same time, the organ gallery was removed, and the 
richly carved and gilt oaken ceiling of the chancel taken down, and 
replaced with another of lath and plaster. It seems the ceilings of 
the other aisles were of this description, and a taste for uniformity 
proved fatal to one of the chief ornaments of this ancient building. 
In Bagimont's roll, the rectory of Biggar in the deanery of Lanark 
was taxed L. 6, 13s. 4d. At the Reformation the benefice of the 
parsonage and vicarage of Biggar was reported at L. 100 yearly. 
In the scarcity of ministers after the Reformation, Walter Hal- 
dane, the minister of Biggar, also served in 1586 the three neigh- 
bouring parishes of Culter, Symington, and Lamington. 

Parochial Registers. There is a register of births from 1730 
to the present date. There is no register either of marriages or 
deaths. Parents are remiss in registering the births of their chil- 
dren. There are minutes of the kirk-session from 1730 to 1735, 
and from 1757 to 1759. From the last date to the present, there 
is no record whatever of their proceedings, if we except the mi- 
nutes of annual meetings held to examine the state of the poors' 
funds. 

Antiquities. There is a large moat at the west end of the town, 
120 paces round at the base, 54 at top, and 36 feet high. 
The laws may have been administered from this artificial hill, but 
it seems also to have served as a beacon-tower, and to have been 
one of a chain extending between the vales of Clyde and Tweed, 
and intended to give warning of any hostile incursion. On Dreva, 
Craig-end, Burnetland, and Castlehill in Symington, there are re- 
mains of works which were probably used for the same purpose ; 
and these, with the moats at Bomphlet, Biggar, Woolfe- Clyde, and 
Roberton, complete the communication. About half a mile south- 
west from Biggar are the remains of a camp, 60 paces in diameter, 
with a deep ditch and double rampart. The ditch is 3 paces wide, 
and the rampart in some places from 6 to 8 feet high. There is 
also a camp on a height near Candybank, with double ditches 
and ramparts. It is of an oval form, 42 paces by 30 within the in- 
ner rampart, the distance between this and the outer being 9 pa- 
ces. A camp of a similar form, 54 paces long, and 42 broad, is 
still visible on Bizzyberry. Fortifications of some sort may also be 



BIGGAR. 363 

traced on iher west side of that hill. Similar remains appear on 
the hill above Lindsaylands. Some of these smaller supposed camps 
were probably nothingmore than fortified cattle-folds, into which the 
flocks were driven on the approach of the southern reivers. Four 
large stones, which seem from their position to be the remains of a 
Druidical circle, stand on the top of a round hill on the lands of 
Oldshields, now added to Biggarshields. Several arrow-heads of 
flint were lately found near these stones. Two vessels of Roman 
bronze, and evidently of Roman manufacture, were found in a moss 
on the lands of Carwood. One of them, which holds about 2 quarts, 
and has a handle and three legs, is in the possession of Mr Brown 
of Edmonston. The other is of a squatter form, and holds about 8 
quarts. When Biggar Cross-know, a small eminence in the middle 
of the town, was removed a few years ago, a gold coin of the Emperor 
Vespasian was found in excellent preservation. But by far the finest 
object of antiquity of which this parish could boast was the remains 
of the old castle of Boghall. These fine ruins, standing near the 
middle of a beautiful vale, lent a most interesting feature to the 
landscape; but they now serve a very different purpose, having been 
recently demolished to furnish materials for farm buildings, dikes, 
and the like. A small corner tower or two still mark the place 
where they stood. 

Eminent Men. There are not a few names of note connected 
by birth or otherwise with the parish. The late Dr A. Brown, Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric in the University of Edinburgh, and one of the 
ministers of that city, was a native of Biggar. ' So also is Robert For- 
syth, Esq. the eminent counsel. The superior and patron of the 
parish is the Honourable Admiral Fleming, well known for his 
patriotic character, and for the many important commands he has 
held in the service of his country. The Admiral is at present 
Commander-in- Chief at the Nore. Another of our proprietors is 
the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone, a name dear to the 
cause of civilization in the east. He is well known to the world 
by his interesting account of the Kingdom of Caubul ; and his en- 
lightened and benevolent policy when Governor of Bombay, and 
subsequently of Madras, will ever form one of the fairest pages in 
the somewhat chequered history of British India. It may be ad- 
ded, that John A. Mnrray, Esq. the present Lord Advocate of 
Scotland, and the Rev. Dr Dickson of St Cuthberts, are connect- 
ed, by the holding of property, with this parish. 



364 LANARKSHIRE. 

Land-Owners. 

Scots Valued Real 

acres. rent. rent. 

Lawrence Brown of Edmonston, 1140 L.353 6 8 L 663 
Heirs of the late Joseph Stainton of Biggarshields, 1132 400 00 612 
George Gillespie of Biggar Park, 288 397 18 7 491 
Robert Gray of Carwood, 936 204 13 96 254 
Heirs of the late Samuel Paterson of Lindsaylands, 299 250 00 218 
Thomas Edmonston of Cambus- / 

Wallace, - - - 263 140 10 249 

John A Murray of Langlees, - 214 238 3 6 216 

Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone of Foreknows, 106 2321? 4 208 

Rev. David Dickson of Persilands, - 180 107 200 a 

Thomas Murray of Heavyside, - 258 186 1? 6 192 

Robert Craig of Little Well, - 44 531710 160 

William Murray of Spittal, - - 212 11520 150 00 

Heirs of John Liddel of Easter Toftcombs, 130 86 15 7 3 123 

John Wyld of Springfield, - - - 152 31 4 7 120 

William Watson of W. Toftcombs, 86 56 13 4 115 

David Maclagan of Stane, - - 2 109 13 4 100 

John Forest of E. Toftcombs, - 58 34 15 1 83 
Thirty-eight other proprietors of land under L. 50 

of yearly rental each, - - 292 324 10 09 517 



5852 L.3323 7 L.46?l 

Modern Buildings. Edmonston, a castellated house of impos- 
ing appearance, after a design by Mr Gillespie Graham, is beauti- 
fully situate in a secluded valley near the east end of the parish. 
Biggar Park, and Cambus- Wallace, are both pleasant residences in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Biggar. A large mansion-house 
was built on Carwood in 1832, and when the young wood around 
it is farther advanced will be an ornament to the country. 
III. POPULATION. 

Amount of the population in 1755, - 1098 
1791, - 962 

1801, - 1216 
1811, - 1376 
1821, - 1727 
1831, - 1915 

The number of families in the parish is JtQ4 

chiefly employed in agriculture, - 58 

in trade, manufactures, or handicraft, 222 
not engaged in any of these employments, - ___124_ 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

Agriculture. The parish contains 5852 Scots acres. The town 
occupies about 30 of these ; 750 are planted, and 400 of hilly 
ground are too steep to be cultivated with advantage. There are 
about 100 acres of moss, all in the course of improvement, with the 
exception of about 35 acres belonging to the town. The remain- 
der of the parish is either all arable, or may easily be made so. 

Rent of land. The average rent of arable land may be stated 
at L. 1 per acre. Grass for a milch cow on the best land will cost 
L. 4 ; a one-year-old may be grazed for L. 1, or on rather superior 
land for L. 1, 5s ; a two-year-old for L. 1, 10s. 



BIGGAR. 305 

Breeds of Live-Stock. The cattle in this parish are a cross be- 
tween the Ayrshire and the native breed of the district. The Ayrshire 
blood, however, predominates, and is becoming purer every year by 
the constant introduction of new stock from the west, and by the 
favourable effect of the annual cattle shew at Biggar. The Tees- 
water breed has also been introduced to a small extent. A good 
many sheep are scattered throughout the parish, but there is only 
one flock of eleven score regularly kept up. They are of the old 
Tweeddale breed. 

Husbandry. On the very best croft land the usual rotation is 
1. oats ; 2. green crop ; 3. barley ; and 4. hay. But by far the most 
general rotation is two crops of oats in succession ; 3. green crop ; 
4. barley or oats ; 5. hay ; and then three, four, and sometimes five 
years pasture. The dairy has become a great object of attention 
of late years. Irrigation begins to be practised. Inclosing has 
made great progress, and is still proceeding rapidly by stone dikes 
on the higher grounds, and thorn hedges on the lower; but the lat- 
ter are in general ill kept. The implements of husbandry are of 
the most approved description. There are two mills for grinding 
oats and barley. There are twenty-five thrashing machines, ten 
of which are water-driven. One of these, constructed by Mr James 
Watt, an ingenious mill-wright in Biggar, deserves particular men- 
tion. The water-wheel is 50 feet below the level of the barn or 
machinery, and 120 feet distant from it, the two being connected by 
shafts along an inclined plane ; a very useful contrivance where water 
cannot be commanded except at a low level. This machine per- 
forms remarkably well. There is a bone-mill in the parish, at 
which there is an extensive sale. There is besides this a portable 
hand-mill for grinding bones kept by the inventor Mr Bell, brewer 
in Biggar. It is worked by three persons who can grind 25 bu- 
shels a-day. There are ground with it on an average 375 bushels 
a-year, the bones being all collected in Biggar and the immediate 
neighbourhood. Such an instrument might be useful in every small 
town. One may be made for L. 3. A model of it is to be seen 
in the Museum of the Highland Society, who awarded a premium 
to the inventor. The farm buildings in the parish are in general 
good. On a farm belonging to Mr Gillespie of Biggar Park, of 
195 Scots acres, and L. 300 of rent, a new steading was built in 
1831, which cost the proprietor L. 1500, and the tenant L. 300 in 
carriages. This is probably the most complete farm-steading in 
the county. 

A great deal of the land of this parish is in the hands of 



366 



LANARKSHIRE. 



the proprietors, by whom it is either cultivated or let annual- 
ly as grass parks. There are only twenty-two farms of con- 
siderable size in the hands of tenants, any others being small 
possessions let to persons who have some other employment be- 
sides farming. The size of farms is an important feature in the 
agriculture of a district. The following table will shew their extent 
in this parish, as well as the average rent of land. 
4 



Farms. 



Scots acres, 
Rent, ster. L 



200 
140135 




NO 
40 



y lull 



166'4790 
6060901100 



15 Ib 

130180 
1 231-200 



17 



37917537 
218.1551801 



195 

30( 



Produce. The following is the gross amount of raw produce 
raised every year as nearly as it can be ascertained : 

Acres. 

1018 oats, at b\ bolls per acre, equal 5599 bolls at IGs. per boll, L.4479 

147 barley, at 9 bolls per acre, equal 1323 bolls at 21s. per boll, * - 1389 
203 rye-grass hay, at 125 stones per acre, equal 25375 stones at 

6d. per stone, - - 1 26K 

52 meadow-hay, at 180 stones per acre, equal 9360 stones at 3d. 117 

36 pease, at 3 bolls per acre, equal 126 bolls at 15s. per boll, - 94 

16 wheat, at 9 bolls per acre, equal 135 bolls, at 24s. per boll, 162 
18 naked fallow. ______ 

184 turnip, at L. 4, 10s. per acre, - 828 

150 potatoes, at 30 bolls per acre, equal 4500 bolls at 5s. per boll, 1125 

16 tares, at L. 4, 10s. per acre, 72 

750 wood, the annual thinnings of which may amount to 30 

3232 pasture, the gross produce of which may amount to 15s. per acre, 2424 

Produce of gardens, ' - , - 40 

Total yearly value of raw produce raised, - L. 12,028 

V. PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Town. In 1451 James II. erected Biggar into a free burgh of 
barony " with all privileges, and particularly a weekly market 
on Thursday." New erections of it were made in 1526, 1588, 1634, 
and 1662. Biggar is the seat of a Presbytery, and of the Court of 
Justices, who meet four times a-year. It consists of one very wide 
street, stands on rising ground, enjoys a fine southern exposure, 
and might be a pretty little town if common sewers were provided 
to drain away the nuisance which at present stagnates on the street. 
In 1831 it contained 1454 inhabitants. It contains at present among 
others 210 weavers, 28 shoemakers, 26 masons, 20 tailors, 14 join- 
ers, 4 mill-wrights, 2 wheel-wrights, 2 coopers, 8 blacksmiths, 8 
nailors, 2 tinsmiths, 4 watchmakers, 20 carters, 6 sawyers, 1 um- 
brella-maker, 1 painter, 1 plasterer, 2 slaters, 5 saddlers, 7 ped- 
lars, 1 veterinary surgeon, 1 nurseryman, 1 brewer, 16 spirit-deal- 
ers, 5 of whom are innkeepers and the rest grocers, 9 bakers, 
3 butchers, 8 cloth-merchants. There are four surgeons. Some 
idea may be formed of the retail trade of Biggar by the following 
quantities of excisable articles sold during the year ending 5th July 



BIGGAR. 367 

1835 : 2608 gallons British spirits, 80 gallons brandy, 136 gal- 
lons ginger wine and other shrubs, 88 dozen foreign wine, 2528 
Ibs. tea, 1876 Ibs. tobacco and snuff. Biggar has increased in 
population, and improved very much in appearance of late years. 
Four very handsome houses have been built in it this summer, and 
only one of them on the site of an old one. There are 95 pro- 
prietors of houses, and the rental of the whole houses, as estimated 
for the laying on of the poors' rate, is L. 1350. 

Means of Communication. There is a post-office in Biggar. The 
revenue arising from letters delivered has averaged L. 231, 10s. 3d. 
for the last four years, while for the four preceding years it only 
averaged L. 163, 3s. 8d. A coach from Edinburgh to Durnfries 
passes through the town every alternate day, and one from Glas- 
gow to Peebles daily during summer and autumn. The Edinburgh 
and Dumfries mail also passes daily within four miles of the town. 
There are three weekly carriers to Edinburgh, and one to Glas- 
gow. Carriers from Hawick to Glasgow, and from Dumfries and 
Sanquhar to Edinburgh, pass through Biggar once a-week, as also 
one from Wigton to Edinburgh once a fortnight. The turnpike 
road fromDumfries to Edinburgh by Thornhill, Linton, and Morn- 
ingside, intersects this parish nearly at its greatest length, while 
another turnpike branches off from it about the middle of the pa- 
rish, and joins the Dumfries road to Edinburgh by Moffat, Noble- 
house, and Libberton. The whole length of turnpike within the 
parish is seven miles. During last year L.I 500 have been spent 
in rendering it more level. There are fourteen miles of parish 
roads, which are kept in excellent repair. The expense of keep- 
ing them up has averaged for the last three years L. 39, 13s. 3d. a 
year. A new road from Biggar to Broughton is very much needed. 
This would not only be a great convenience to the district, but were 
it continued round Dreva, Craig-end, and close by the Tweed, to the 
Crown ford, as has often been projected, the Glasgow and Peebles 
road might then abandon the rugged hilly tract by Ellsrighill, and 
Corsincon, and travelling down the banks of Biggar water and the 
Tweed reach Peebles by a route as short and infinitely more le- 
vel and agreeable than the present, The road from Biggar to 
Carnwath stands much in need of improvement. It ought to be 
diverted so as to avoid the long ascents on both sides of Carwood 
burn, an object which might be accomplished by embankingit over 
the hollow of the burn above the present ford, where two steep 
banks approaching each other, and narrowing the intervening space, 
invite the operation. 



368 LANARKSHIRE. 

Ecclesiastical State. The parish church, though now 290 years 
old, is in very good repair. In 1834 it received an addition to the 
accommodation of 120 sittings, by the erection of a gallery, and was 
at the same time new-seated. A division of the area also took 
place last year, under direction of the Sheriff, when it was appor- 
tioned among the landward heritors according to their valued rent. 
The communion table affords 44 sittings, which are free. In a 
certain sense, indeed, all the seats are free, none of them being let 
for money, though in a few instances some small services, such as 
shearing in harvest, &c. may be rendered by the occupants to the 
proprietors. The church is conveniently situate, as there are not 
more than four or five families who are above three miles.from it. 
Divine service is well attended. The average number of commu- 
nicants is 400. 

The manse, which was built in 1805, and received an addition 
in 1827, is a very good house. The glebe contains 10 acres, which 
may be worth L. 30. The stipend is 17 chalders, half oatmeal 
and half barley, with L. 8, 6s. 8d. for communion elements. The 
average amount of stipend for the last three years is L.239, 7s. 4 r 6 2 d. 

A congregation of Burghers was formed in this parish in 1760, 
and still exists. Their chapel contains 450 sittings, 360 of which 
are let. They give their minister L. 130 per annum. There is 
also a Relief congregation, which was formed in 1780. Their cha- 
pel contains 700 sittings, 320 of which are let. They pay their 
minister L. 110 per annum. The members of these congrega- 
tions are collected from fifteen different parishes. Of the 404 fa- 
milies which this parish contained in 1831, 118 belonged to the 
Relief congregation, 48 to the Burghers, and 236 to the Church. 
Of the two remaining families one was Roman Catholic and the 
other Cameronian. 

Religious Societies. A Bible Society was formed here in 1810, 
since which time it has paid away L. 950. It used to be auxi- 
liary to the British and Foreign Bible Society, but withdrew from 
that body five years ago, and is now auxiliary to the Edinburgh 
Bible Society. It consists indiscriminately of Churchmen and 
Dissenters ; but there is also a Bible and Missionary Society, con- 
sisting exclusively of Dissenters. 

Education. There is only one parochial school, which is very 
ably conducted by Mr John Gray. The branches taught are, 
English, writing, arithmetic, geography, Latin, Greek, French, and 
mathematics. The average number of children attending the school 
is 170. The number at present is 180, of whom 12 are learning La- 



B1GGAR. 369 

till, 6 Greek, and 8 French. The fees are, for English, 2s. 6d. per 
quarter : English and writing, 3s., English, writing, and arithmetic, 
3s. 6d., Latin, Greek, or French, 6s., for any two of these languages, 
8s., and for all the three, 10s. The probable amount of school 
fees is L. 80 per annum. The salary is the maximum. The house 
affords more than the legal accommodation, but there is a defici- 
ency of garden ground, for which an allowance is given of L. ], 14s. 3d. 
Mr Gray keeps an assistant at his own expense, to whom he pays 
L. 24 per annum. In 1767, William Law, skinner, Biggar, mor- 
tified L. 41 Sterling, and in 1817, William Nisbet, saltman, Big- 
gar, mortified L. 40 Sterling, the interest of both sums to be ap- 
plied in educating poor children. In 1828, L. 20 were raised by 
subscription, and expended in founding a library for the use of the 
parish schools. An annual sermon has since been preached in be- 
half of its funds, and a small contribution is occasionally made to 
them by the scholars. The library now contains 250 volumes. 
Some children who live near the east end of the parish are too 
remote from Biggar to be able to attend the school, but they are 
within easy distance of Skirling, or of a side school at Ellsrighill, 
in the parish of Walston. There is an unendowed school in Big- 
gar, attended by about 50 scholars, and at which the ordinary 
branches are taught. 

Literature. A public library was instituted here in 1797, ano- 
ther in 1800, and a third in 1807. The first contains 735 vo- 
lumes, the second 503, and the third, which consists exclusively of 
religious works, 680 volumes. Their aggregate number of sub- 
scribers is 148, and their yearly income L. 20, 6s. A public read- 
ing-room was attempted in 1828, but failed after languishing a year. 
Newspapers are extensively read. Forty-five numbers of different 
English and Scotch papers circulate through the parish weekly. 

Poor and Parochial Funds. The poor of this parish were sup- 
ported from 1730 to 1746 by church collections, and mortcloth 
dues, by the rent of a house and small piece of land belonging to 
the kirk-session, by the interest of L. 250 Sterling, which had ac- 
cumulated in their hands, and by a legal assessment of L. 100 
Scots, on the whole valued rent of the parish. From 1746 to 17QO, 
there is no record of transactions regarding the poor. From 1760 
to 1802, they were supported as during the former period, only 
there was no assessment ; and the house and land were sold in 1774, 
and the proceeds gradually expended in aid of the other funds. 
In 1802, the assessment was resumed, and has continued ever 
since. In 1802, also, the principal sum of L.250, already mention- 



370 LANARKSHIRE. 

ed, was encroached on, and by 1815 exhausted. Previous to 1 828, 
the assessment was laid upon land only, according to the valued 
rent, but since that time, houses as well as land have been as- 
sessed, the real rent of both being taken as the rule, and a de- 
duction of one-fourth being allowed, in estimating the rent of houses, 
for the expense of repairs. Pauperism has certainly increased here 
of late years. This has arisen in some measure from the depres- 
sed state of the weaving trade, but still more, it is to be feared, 
from the decay of the old independent spirit. During the year 
ending in February 1835 there have been raised for the mainte- 
nance of the poor, 

By assessment at the rate of 6|d. on the rent of the whole lands and houses within 

the parish, - _ L. 153 11 H 

Kirk collections, - - . ' - - 12 18 119 

Bell and mortcloth dues, - - - 6 8 9 6 

Sale of the effects of deceased paupers, - - - - 2 19 10 



Total receipt for the year ending in February 1835, - - L. 175 18 87 

Expenditure, 

35 Enrolled poor,* - ^ L. 145 11 

Occasional do. - - - - - - 12 11 6 

Vagrant ditto, belonging to other parishes. - - 114 
Fees to collector and treasurer of assessment, Synod and Presbytery 

clerks, and presbytery and church officers, - - 9 2 6 

New registration book and incidental expenses, . - 0173 



Total disbursements for year ending in February 1835, L. 169 3 9 

* It may be worth while to subjoin the following tabular view of the state of the 
enrolled poor of the parish, for the year ending as above. It may furnish the means 
of comparison with the scale of parochial relief in other parishes. The relations bound 
to support are all grown up, unless where otherwise mentioned. 

Ground of claim, other means of sup- Monthly al- 

port, fyre'.ationsloundin law to support, lowance in Rent and Total for 

^ Males. Money. Coals. Year. 

79. Infirm, wife so too, lodges vagrants, 

3 sons and 2 daughters, L. 5 L. 1 L. 4 

85. Infirm, cannot work any, a son, 2 daugh- 

ters, and a grandson, 060 1170 590 

86. Bed-rid, lodges vagrants, 1 daughter, 060 110 4 13 

66. Disabled by accident, can work none, 

1 son and 2 daughters, - 040 110 390 
55. Wants a leg, works a little, 1 son and 

2 daughters, - 050100 400 
78. Infirm, can work none, 1 son & daughter, 050 200 500 
35. Disabled by accident, unable to work, 0100 000 600 
40. An idiot, 168000 16 00 
42. Diseased, has 2s. 6d. a week from a so- 
ciety, 5 children, all young, - 000 200 200 

Females. 

50. Infirm, has an annuity of L.I, - 020 000 140 

85. Infirm, can work none, 050 260 560 

35. Weak in mind, works a little, - 050 00 

65. Infirm, works a little, 1 son & 2 daughters, 046 16 

63. Do. lodges vagrants, - 050 10 

67. Do. works a little, 3 sons, - 050 10 

57. Diseased & bed-rid, cannot work, 4 sons, 060 12 54' 

70. Infirm, works very little, 1 daughter, 050 10 410 



BIGGAR. 371 

Friendly Societies. There are four of these in the parish. 

1st. institut. 1786, pres. stock L.660, memb. 220, 1st weekly allowance 5s. ; 2d. do 3s. fid. 
2d. 1787, 250, 114, for 12 weeks, 4s., for rest of year, 3s. 

3d. 1806, 1074, 288, 6s., 3s. 

4th. 1806, 1V6, 111, 4s, 3s. 

Of the 733 members of these societies, only 323 belong to this parish. 

Inns and Alehouses. There are five inns in the parish, and ten 
grocers who are licensed to sell spirits. The effect of such a 
number of public houses is in every respect pernicious.* 

Banks. A branch of the Commercial Bank was established 
here in 1833, and is understood to be flourishing. A handsome 
building is at present in course of erection for its accommodation. 
A savings bank was instituted in July 1832. The depositors con- 
sist chiefly of farm-servants. Their number at this date (August 
1835) is 200, and the amount of deposits L. 1168. 

Fairs. There are three fairs held in Biggar, the Candlemas 
fair, the Midsummer fair, and the old Biggar fair, held on the last 
Thursday of October, old style. The first is a hiring market, 
and very well attended. At the second, a little business is done in 
wool. The third is for horses and black cattle. 



85. 


Infirm, can work none, 2 sons & 4 daughters, 


5 








12 





3 


12 





92. 
62. 


Do. do. 1 daughter & 1 son, 
In bad health, works stockings a little, 







9 
4 






1 
1 


12 
16 






7 
4 



4 






55. 


A widow with 3 young children, 











1 


1 





1 


1 





55. 


Occasionally deranged, 





5 





1 


7 





4 


7 





55. 


Do. works a little, 





5 





1 


1 





4 


1 





55. 


Infirm, works a little, 1 son & 5 daughters, 





3 


6 











2 


2 





68. 


Do. 





4 





1 


16 





4 


4 





57. 


Do. sews a little, 





2 


6 











1 


10 





52. 


Rather infirm, 











2 








2 








60. 


A lunatic, 





17 














10 


4 





55. 


Infirm, lives with a daughter, 1 son, 





2 


6 











1 


10 





52. 


Do. works a little, 





3 





1 


1 





2 


17 





60. 


Do. sells brooms, 1 daughter, 





3 








15 





2 


11 







Families. 






















A brother and sister, the brother of weak 






















intellect, the sister an idiot, 





10 





2 








8 










An orphan boy and girl under 14, 





8 


4 











5 









L. 145 11 

* It would be quite enough for the public convenience here, and in most places of 
the same size, if the license were granted only to persons who keep stables and other 
accommodations for travellers. At any rate, the grocers should be restricted from 
allowing the spirits they sell to be consumed on their premises. As it is at present, 
their shops are often infested with loiterers in all stages of drunkenness, an exhibition 
of the worst influence on young persons, and others who may have occasion to go 
there. Another bad practice is the licensing of toll-keepers. Often shifting about, 
they are less interested in maintaining a good character than the more stationary in- 
habitants ; and in order to make the most of their short leases, and to eke out a high 
rent, perhaps they are often tempted to encourage excess. In many places, however, 
ten per cent, of additional rent is given for a toll-bar that is licensed, and while this is 
the case, it will be very difficult to get the practice abolished. Candidates for ale and 
spirit licenses are generally required to produce a certificate of character from the mi- 
nister of the parish in which they reside, but in one instance in this district, where the 
ministerial certificate was withheld from a toll-keeper on account of bad character, no 
explanation of the circumstance was ever required from the minister, and yet the toll- 
keeper found no difficulty in getting his license. 



372 LANARKSHIRE. 

Fuel. Almost the only fuel used is coal from Ponfeigh, in the 
parish of Douglas, which is about 1 4 miles distant from Biggar, 
and sometimes, though more rarely, from Wilsonton, in the parish 
of Carnwath. A cart-load of 15 cwt. is delivered in Biggar for 
9s., that is 3s. 3d. for the coals at the mouth of the pit, lOd. for 
tolls, and the remainder for driving. Peats, or rather turfs, called 
rough-heads, are dug from a moss belonging to the town, and used 
as fuel to the extent of about 400 carts yearly, but they are not 
reckoned profitable. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

Few parishes have been more improved than this since the date 
of the last Statistical Account ; but there are two periods in the 
history of its improvement which ought particularly to be noted. 
In 1806 the late Mr Stainton bought Biggarshields, containing 
'1132 Scots acres, and then all let as a sheep-walk for L. 150. 
This lease expired in 1817, and during the years 1817, 1818, 
1819, and 1820, he reclaimed 600 acres, drained extensively, erect- 
ed 18 miles of stone dikes, planted 15 miles of thorn hedges, and 
forest trees to the extent of 265 acres. The rental of the pro- 
perty is now above L. 600, but two of the farms, consisting wholly 
of land not formerly reclaimed, are let on improving leases for 
trifling rents, and in the course of ten years, when these leases 
shall have expired, the whole of the estate, with the exception of 
100 acres too steep for cultivation, will be under the plough, and 
the rental not less probably than L. 900. 

In 1830 Mr Gray bought Carwood, containing 947 Scots acres, 
since which time he has reclaimed 400, formed fifty inclosures by 
stone dikes, thorn hedges, and turf fences, and planted in stripes 
and clumps 210 acres. He has, besides this, built an excellent 
mansion-house, and is engaged in improvements which will soon 
treble the rental of his property. 

The greatest improvement which can now be effected in this 
parish is the deepening of Biggar water. Were it deepened two 
feet for the space of four miles, that is, from Broughton Bridge to 
Boghall, 500 acres of land on its banks, but not all in this parish, 
would be improved L. 1 per acre. And as the operation would 
not, in the opinion of competent judges, cost more than L. 500, 
the expense would be repaid in the course of one year. There 
are ten proprietors concerned, and it can only be ascribed to the 
difficulty of acting in concert that such an improvement is delayed 
for a day. The advantage which would result to the climate from 
the draining of such a tract of marshy ground would be very great. 

August 1835. 



PARISH OF BUTHERGLEN.* 

PRESBYTERY OF GLASGOW, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR. 

THE REV. PETER BROWN, MINISTER. 



I. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE royal burgh and parish of Rutherglen is situated in the 
lower ward of the county of Lanark. It stands on the south bank 
of the river Clyde, latitude 55 51' 32" north, and longitude 4 11' 
84" west. 

Name and Boundaries, <rc. The name of Rutherglen, or by con- 
traction Ruglen, is said to be derived from King Reuther or Reu- 
therus, the fifth in the genealogy of the Kings of Scotland from 
Fergus I. This King, according to the Scottish historians, was the 
son of Dornadilla, whose memory is still preserved in the name of 
Dun-Dornadilla, a venerable ruin in Strathmore. 

From Reuther or Reuda, as Bede calls him, the Scots were for 
a long time called Dalreudini. He began to reign about the year 
213 B.C. Having experienced the various changes of a war, by which 
his army was greatly exhausted, he retired to the mountainous county 
of Argyle, where he remained in peace for several years. Finding at 
length that his forces, now greatly increased, were inflamed with the 
love of war, he left his retirement, and by many successful attacks 
upon the Britons, regained the ancient boundaries of his kingdom. It 
appears from Wright's Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of Parlia- 
ments, that Rutherglen was erected into a royal burgh in 1126 by 
King David, and from the numerous subsequent royal charters narrat- 
ed in Ure's History, it is evident that Rutherglen was originally a 
place of great note; indeed, it seems probable, that, fora considerable 
time after its erection into a royal burgh, it was superior to Glasgow 
as a place of trade, the latter being chiefly occupied by churchmen.f 
Its consequence, however, as a place of trade, has long been on the 

* This article has been drawn up by James Cleland, LL.D. President of the Glas- 
gow and Clydesdale Statistical Society, Fellow of the Statistical Society of London, 
Member of the Society of Civil Engineers, London, Corresponding Member of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, &c. &c. 

j- It would appear that the bishops burgh of Glasgow had been comprehended with- 
in the original boundaries of the royal burgh of Rutherglen, and that in the year 
LANARK. Bb 



374 LANARKSHIRE. 

decline. In 1692, as is elsewhere shown, it had neither foreign nor 
home trade, while Glasgow had a part of both. It is remarkable 
that two places so similarly situated, both on the banks of the Clyde, 
and within two miles of each other, should, in the process of time, 
become so very different. In 1831, the population of Rutherglen 
was only 5503, while that of Glasgow had increased to 202,426. At 
that period the former had no shipping, whereas, the latter had 
ships trading to all parts of the world, besides sixty-seven steam ves- 
sels of nearly 10,000 tons burthen, carpenter's measurement. 

In the early part of its history, the town of Rutherglen contained 
a castle which appears to have been a place of great strength, and 
ranked among the ancient fortresses of Scotland. In 1306, when 
Edward King of England was appointed arbiter in the dispute be- 
tween Bruce and Baliol, respecting the succession to the throne of 
Scotland, the castle of Rutherglen fell into his hands. Bruce, sen- 
sible of the great importance of this fortress, besieged it, and this 
coming to the knowledge of Edward, he sent his nephew, the 
young Earl of Glocester, to raise the siege. After various con- 
flicts, this castle seems to have been taken from the English in the 
year 1313 by Bruce. 

The castle, which stood near the east end of the back row, was 
kept in good repair till a short time after the battle of Langside, 
when it was burned by order of the Regent, out of revenge on the 
noble house of Hamilton, in whose custody it then was. The prin- 
cipal towers, however, were soon repaired, and, being enlarged by 
some modern improvements, became the seat of the Hamiltons of 
Elistoun, lairds of Shawfield, &c. At length, on the decline of that 
family, it was more than a century ago left to fall into ruins, and 
by frequent dilapidations was levelled to the ground. The walls 
of this ancient tower were very thick. Each corner rested upon 
a foundation stone 5 feet in length, and 4 feet in breadth and 
thickness. These corner stones being very massy, were allowed to 
remain till about seventy years ago, when they were quarried out, as 
being cumbersome to a kitchen garden, into which the site of the 
fortress of Rutherglen is now converted. Some carved stones be- 
longing to the castle are built in the adjoining dikes. 

About 150 yards to the south of the main street, there is a kind of 
lane known by the name of Dins- Dikes. A circumstance which be- 

1226, Alexander II. granted a charter to Walter Bishop of Glasgow, relieving his 
town from certain servitudes formerly due to Rutherglen. Municipal Corporation 
Report, 1835, Part II. p. 371. 



RUTHERGLEN. 375 

fell the unfortunate Queen Mary, immediately after her forces were 
routed at the battle of Langside, has ever since continued to cha- 
racterize this place with an indelible mark of opprobrium. Her Ma- 
jesty during the battle stood on a rising ground about a mile and 
a-half from Rutherglen. She no sooner saw her army defeated than 
she took her precipitate flight to the south. Dins-Dikes unfortu- 
nately lay in her way. Two rustics who were at that instant cutting 
grass hard by, seeing her Majesty fleeing in haste, rudely attempt- 
ed to intercept and threatened to cut her in pieces with their scythes 
if she presumed to proceed a step farther. Neither beauty nor even 
royalty itself can at all times secure the unfortunate when they 
have to do with the unfeeling or the revengeful. Relief, however, 
was at hand, and her Majesty proceeded in her flight. 

The parish of Rutherglen, of which the burgh forms a part, 
extends on the south bank of the river Clyde, about 3 miles in 
length, and 1 mile 2 furlongs in breadth. Clyde is the bound- 
ary on the north ; the parish of Govan on the west ; Cathcart on 
the south-west ; Carmunnock on the south ; and Cambuslang on 
the east. The whole is arable, and is mostly enclosed, chiefly with 
thorn hedges. It lies in a pleasant situation, forming the lower 
part of the declivity of Cathkin hills, and is beautifully diversified 
with a regular succession of hills and narrow dales, excepting the 
parts next the river, where it forms into some very fertile plains. 

There is nothing on record by which we can precisely ascertain 
what was anciently the extent of Rutherglen, or the number of 
houses it contained. When digging at the east end of the town, 
the foundations of buildings are sometimes met with in places which 
were never known to have been occupied by houses. One princi- 
pal street, in a direction nearly east and west, and a parallel lane 
called the Back Row, constitute the greatest part of the town. 
The main street, which is very straight and well paved, is nearly 
half a-mile in length, and is in general 112 feet broad. From both 
sides of it go off a few lanes, as the Farm Lone, School Wynd, &c. 

The plains next the river comprehend the estates of Shawfield, 
Farme, Hamilton Farme, and Rosebank. Shawfield extends about 
a mile in length from the town of Rutherglen to Polmadie, having 
the Clyde for its boundary on the north. Sir Claud Hamilton was 
laird of Shawfield in 1615. This property was adjudged to Mi- 
John Ellis, and other creditors of the family, about the year 1657, 
and in 1695 it was conveyed by the said John Ellis to Sir Alexan- 
der Anstruther of Newwark, who sold it in 1707 to Mr Daniel 



3/6 LANARKSHIRE. 

Campbell, collector of his Majesty's customs at Port- Glasgow, 
whose descendant, Mr Walter Campbell of Shawfield, sold it in 
1788 to Mr Robert Houston Rae of Little Govan. It does not 
appear that any of the proprietors took the title of Shawfield, but 
the Hamiltons, Crawfords, and Campbells. 

Next to the town on the east, and along the side of the river, 
is the estate of Farme. It is said to have been once the private 
property of some of the Stuarts, Kings of Scotland. It after- 
wards belonged to the family of Crawford, who naming it from 
themselves called it Crawford Farme. It soon afterwards came 
into the possession of Sir Walter Stewart of Minto, who dwelt in 
the castle about the year 1645. He is reported to have been a 
gentleman of extraordinary prudence and humanity, and during the 
commotions of the times, to have obtained many favours for Ru- 
therglen. The Flemings had it for some time in their possession, 
and at length it came into the Hamilton family. It is now called 
Farme, and was purchased by Mr Farie, father of Mr James Farie, 
the present proprietor, from the Duke of Hamilton. On the estate, 
and nearly in the middle of the beautiful lawn, the ancient castle, 
now the family seat of Mr Farie, is situated. The period in which 
it was built is unknown, but the thick walls, the narrow and irregu- 
larly placed windows, the strong battlements, &c. are evidences 
of its antiquity, and that it was erected as a place of strength. 
Being kept in excellent repair, it is wholly habitable, and may 
continue for ages to come, a beautiful pattern of the manner in 
which the habitations of the powerful barons of Scotland were an- 
ciently constructed. Mr Farie has built a suitable addition to the 
castle ; and, to prevent his lands from being injured by inundations, 
has raised a bank at the river along his property. 

In May 1792, one of the principal rooms in the old castle was 
repaired. The workmen having pulled down an old stucco ceiling, 
discovered another of timber under it. On the beams, which had 
been long covered up, several lines were written in old English 
characters, in the style of precepts, one of which was, " Fair speech 
in presence with good report in absence^ and manners even to fel- 
lowship obtains great reverence ; written in the year 1325. 

Farther up the Clyde is Hamilton Farme, the property of Miss 
Sommerville. Near to Hamilton Farme is Morrieston, the pro- 
perty of Mr Joseph Bain ; and Rosebank, the property of the heirs 
of the late Mr David Dale. 

In the higher parts of the parish are some considerable estates, 



RUTHERGLEN. 377 

as Gallowflat, the property of Mr John Robertson Reid; Scotstown 
of Mr John Gray; Stonelaw of Mr Charles Cunningham; Bank- 
head of Mr Walter White, the present Provost of Rutherglen. 
Elegant and commodious mansion-houses are built on these estates. 

The town's lands consist of the Green, a plain of 32 acres and 
31 falls, lying between the town and the river. The soil is rich 
and deep, owing to the accumulation of mud and decayed vege- 
tables carried down the Clyde. It appears from the Municipal 
Corporation Report that the other property of the burgh consists 
of the Court hall, prison rooms, gaoler's house, &c., a schoolhouse, 
schoolmaster's house, town-hall, and two other properties, the 
whole supposed to be in value about L. 10,000. 

Climate. As there are no known data in Rutherglen from which 
to ascertain the heat and quantity of rain, the following is taken 
from Cleland's Statistical Tables for Glasgow. 

The state of the thermometer in 1834 was ascertained at the 
Cranston Hill Water- works, (separated from the parish of Ruther- 
glen only by the Clyde) by Mr M'Kain, the scientific manager of 
the works, who suspended one of Crichton's Fahrenheit thermo- 
meters in an open well about twenty feet diameter, cradled with 
stone, in a position apart from the rays of the sun, and enjoined 
the day and night engineers, who are in constant attendance, to 
mark the hourly state of the thermometer in a book, and from that 
book Mr M'Kain constructed a table, exhibiting the temperature 
hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. The result was, an 
average temperature during two years, from 1st January 1833, to 
1st January 1835, 48.43. 

The greatest heat of the thermometer on 24th January 1834 
was 44.37, and the least heat on the 29th, 33.12. Average heat 
40.58. On the 18th February, 46.08; on the 13th, 32.25 ; ave- 
rage, 40.08. On 6th December, 52.16; on the 19th, 26.37 ; 
average, 39.63. On 2d June, 63.45 ; on 13th, 52.33 ; average, 
57.91. On 4th July, 67.33; on 19th, 56.87; average, 62.04. 
On 3d August, 67.83 ; on 28th, 49.75 ; average, 59.37. These 
six months exhibit the extremes in the year. The extremes were 
applicable only to a few hours in the respective months. The 
mean heat of Glasgow was formerly determined by Professor 
Thomas Thomson to be 47.75, while that of Edinburgh, as de- 
termined by Professor Playfair, was 47.72. But it is presumed 
that these eminent philosophers had not the advantage of hour- 
ly inspection. 



378 LANARKSHIRE, 

j^ 

Hydrography. A considerable part of the parish is bounded 
on the north by the river Clyde. The Bowtree dam, which sup- 
plies the mill with water, is the only pool in the parish. 

Mineralogy. There are five coal-mines in the parish, viz. one 
worked by Mr Farie at Farme; two by Mr Gray at Eastfield; one by 
Mr Cunningham at Stonelaw; and one by Mr Colin Dunlopat Ha- 
milton Farme. Some of these mines produce a small quantity of 
ironstone. It appears from the Government abstract for 1831, 
page 999, that 305 persons were then employed in the coal mines, 
and 27 in the quarries of Rutherglen. Prior to 1775, the colliers 
of Rutherglen, and other places in Scotland, were by the common 
law in a state of slavery. They, and their wives and children, if 
they had assisted at coal-works, became the property of the coal- 
masters, and were transferred with the coal-work, in the same man- 
ner as the slaves on a West India estate. 

In the Rev. Dr Maclae's report of the parish of Rothsay for 
the Statistical Account in 1791, it is said that a cart of coals con- 
taining 12 cwt. cost 3s. 6d. in Glasgow, and an equal sum to take 
them to Rothsay in the Island of Bute. For seven years prior to 
1836, coals in quantities were delivered in Glasgow at the steam- 
boat quay from Rutherglen at from 6s. 9d. to 7s. 9d. per ton. The 
supply for families was Is. more per ton. 

II. CIVIL AND ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The following facts, collected from the records of the burgh, 
the Presbytery of Glasgow, the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, 
Ure's History of Rutherglen, and other authentic documents, con- 
tain a pretty accurate account of the state of society in Ruther- 
glen at the periods referred to. 

The distinguishing characteristics of the people of this parish, 
(like others in the neighbourhood,) about the time of the Re- 
formation, and for nearly a century after it, were ignorance and 
a fierce sanguinary spirit. Their belief in apparitions, witches, se- 
cond-sight, their profanation of the Sabbath by working, rioting 
at fairs, and the numerous murders and cases of incest of the worst 
description, exhibit the depravity of the age. The administration 
of justice, and the execution of the criminal law must have been 
in a most deplorable state, when such crimes were left to the cen- 
sure of the church: 

A long letter from King James VI. is engrossed in the Synod 
records. It is dated at Ruthen (Ruglen) 19th August 1586, and 
directed to Mr Andrew Hay, Commissioner for the west country. 



RUTHERGLEN. 379 

It recommends the suppression of impiety and vice, and authorizes 
discipline promises the support of the civil power is willing to 
put the benefices on a proper footing to receive proposals from 
the church but reserves consideration of any alteration that may 
be made. Among the evils to be removed by the kirk are witch- 
craft, incest, murders, idle beggars, persons passing on pilgrimages 
to chapels or wells, inquiring the names of certain crofts or pieces 
of ground reported to be superstitiously consigned to the devil, 
under the name of the Gudeman or Hyndeknyt. 

On 24th February 1590, the presbytery of Glasgow directed 
the doctor of the school of Rutherglen to desist from reading 
prayers, and they complained that those who provided wine for the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper mixed it with water. The pres- 
bytery exhorted the people not to drink the wine greedily but to 
receive it with all sobriety, and to have the eyes of their souls 
lifted up to heaven, and not to drink the wine barbarously. 

On 8th May 1593, the presbytery ordered their clerk to write 
a letter to my Lord Paisley to repair the choir of Ruglen kirk; and 
at the same time they prohibited the playing of pipes on Sundays, 
from sun rising to its going down, on pain of excommunication, and 
forbade all pastimes on Sundays. This order to be read in all 
the kirks, but especially in the kirk of Ruglen. 

On 20th May 1595, the presbytery sent three letters, viz. to 
the Laird of Farme, the Laird of Lekprivick, and the bailies of 
Rutherglen, to stay the profane plays introduced in Ruglen on the 
Lord's day, as they fear the eternal God, and will be answerable 
to his kirk. They also complained of the practice of drawing sal- 
mon, and of the colliers in Ruglen settling their accounts on Sunday. 

On 20th March 1604, Sir Claud Hamilton of Shawfield in- 
terrupted the minister of Ruglen in time of sermon, after a bar- 
barous and unchristian manner ; and Andrew Pinkerton boasted 
that he had put away four ministers from Ruglen, and he hoped 
to put away Mr Hamilton also. He drew a whinger and held it 
to the minister's breast, and David Spens said he would stick twa 
ministers, and would not give a fig for excommunication." 

On 29th July 1607, the presbytery ordered the minister of 
Ruglen to intimate from the pulpit on Sunday next, that the next 
Wednesday is to be solemnly kept by every parishioner resorting 
to the kirk, for praising of God's blessed name, for his Majesty's 
preservation and deliverance from that treasonable attempt and 
conspiracy against his Majesty's life at Perth, (the Gowrie con- 



380 LANARKSHIRE. 

spiracy.) The tumults at Ruglen at this period were so great that 
it was thought meet that the minister should urge his transporta- 
tion. James Riddell sat at the communion table, though his mi- 
nister had ordered him to rise, and, in contempt of the minister and 
session, he cut the grass on the kirk-yard on the Sabbath day. At 
this period Sir William Hamilton, Elistoun, came from France, to 
reside in Ruglen, and being suspected of favouring papists, gave 
great uneasiness to the presbytery. 

During the troubles in the reign of Charles I. the presbytery 
of Glasgow, on 17th May 1648, declared that they were not sa- 
tisfied with the lawfulness, necessity, and manner of prosecuting 
the war, and desired that the levy might be stopped, and that re- 
ligion, loyalty, and the King, might be kept in their proper place. 
Mr Baillie, Professor of Divinity in Glasgow, and Mr Gillespie, 
minister of the Outer Kirk there, were appointed to draw up a re- 
monstrance to Parliament. The commissioners transmitted their 
declarature, in opposition to the Parliament's wish, and in defi- 
ance of the privy-council, and ordered the declarature to be read 
in all the kirks, as the ministers will be answerable to God and 
the kirk. Mr Robert Young, minister of Ruglen, was opposed to 
the reading of it, and the town-clerk of that burgh, who was a mem- 
ber of Parliament, forbade the magistrates to hear it. The laird 
of Minto, the magistrates, and the town-clerk, went out of the 
church, and desired the people to dismiss. The communion was to 
have been celebrated on the Sunday following, but the presbytery 
prohibited it till the scandal was tried and censured. The session 
of Ruglen, in opposition to the minister, sent a letter to the com- 
mittee of war at Hamilton, informing them that they were not sa- 
tisfied with the lawfulness of the war, and desired that it might 
be put an end to. 

The birth-day and restoration of Charles II. was celebrated at 
Ruglen, with bonfires and other marks of rejoicing, on 29th May 
1679. On that occasion a body of men, about eighty in number, 
who were incensed at government on account of the persecutions 
against the covenanters, to which it gave its sanction, assembled at 
the cross of Ruglen, with a fixed resolution to execute a plan of 
retaliation they had previously concerted. Having chosen a leader, 
they sung psalms, and prayed. The acts of Parliament against 
conventicles were then committed to the flames of the bonfire. 
This was the first public appearance of the Bothwell Bridge as- 



RUTHERGLEN. 381 

sociation, as it was called by the covenanters, or rebellion, as it was 
termed by the court party.* 

Guthrie gives the following account of this affair in his history 
of Scotland : " In the year 1679, immediately after the death of 
Sharpe Bishop of St Andrew's, the cruelty of Lord Lauderdale 
and his party arose to such a height against the Presbyterians, 
that many of them resolved to assert their liberty by taking up arms. 
About eighty of them assembled at Ruglen, a young preacher 
of the name of Hamilton was declared their head, and on the 29th 
May, they drew up a declaration against all the acts of Parliament 
relating to religion, and publickly committed them to the flames 
of the bonfire that had been lighted up in commemoration of 
the day. After a successful engagement with Captain Graham 
of Claverhouse, they took possession of the town of Hamilton, and 
soon made themselves masters of Glasgow, but were afterwards to- 
tally defeated at Bothwell Bridge, by the Duke of Monmouth." 

On 4th June 1690, the presbytery informed the people of Ru- 
glen, that, as this was the first meeting after the re-establishment 
of the Presbyterian form of government, the only standing go- 
vernment of this church, Mr Joseph Drew was directed to go to 
Stirling, and preach to the people who had left the west country, 
on account of the troubles of the kingdom, and considering the an- 
cient and laudable Custom of the ministers meeting together at din- 
ner on the ordinary days of the presbytety, agree to dine in Alex- 
ander Cochrane's house in Glasgow. Mr Dixon the minister of Ru- 
glen was prohibited from mentioning various interpretations of 
texts, in opposition to one another, and is instructed to give the 
interpretation which is agreeable to the analogy of faith and 
the analogy of the text; and if any? error is supposed to be taught 
it shall not be introduced before the congregation, but represent- 
ed to the presbytery, and their direction followed. The curates 
were examined on oath as to their knowledge of where the synod 
and presbytery records could be found.* Some course was to be 

* The people of Glasgow seem to have been actuated by a similar spirit to that 
of their neighbours in Rutherglen. " The commission of the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland, deprecating the union with England, appointed a fast to be 
kept on Thursday, the 7th of November 1706, to implore divine assistance from 
the impending calamity ; on which occasion the Rev. James Clark, minister of the 
Tron Church, Glasgow, preached from these words in Ezra viii. 21. * Then I pro- 
claimed a fast there, at the river of Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before our 
God, to seek of him a right way for us, and for our little ones, and for all our sub- 
stance.' After the discourse was finished, the preacher said ' Wherefore up and be 
valiant, for the city of our God.' The people instantly arose, and, along with their 
clergyman, hurried to the cross, where they burned the proposed articles of union." 



382 LANARKSHIRE. 

taken with the Episcopal men who preach on holidays, and ad- 
minister the sacrament of the supper privately, and by kneeling. 

The following account of the affairs of Rutherglen is taken 
from the general report of the Commissioners on Municipal Cor- 
porations, presented to both houses of Parliament in 1835, by com- 
mand of his Majesty. 

At a meeting of the general Convention of Royal Burghs, held 
at Edinburgh on 9th July 1691, it was enacted, that two commis- 
sioners should be sent to every burgh in Scotland, to ascertain 
their true state. Mr James Fletcher, Provost of Dundee, and Mr 
Alexander Walker, Bailie of Aberdeen, two of the Commissioners, 
opened their commission at Rutherglen on 7th May 1692, when 
Robert Bowman, Provost, John Scott, Bailie, and William Spens, 
town-clerk, gave in the following statement on oath : 

1st, That the common good of the burgh amount to 959 lib. 
16, 3, Scots, and the debt to 7100 merks. 

2e?, That the burgh has no mortifications (mortmains.) 

3d, That they have neither foreign nor inland trade ; that they 
do not vend nor consume French wine, sack, or brandy, except 
some few pints of brandy they buy in Glasgow ; and that they con- 
sume about five bolls of malt weekly. 

4th, They have no ships, barks, boats, or ferry-boats belonging 
to them. 

5th, Their minister is paid out of the teinds ; their schoolmaster 
and all their public servants out of the common good. 

6^, The most part of the houses are inhabited by the respec- 
tive heritors. The rent of the best and the worst of those houses 
will be between the rent of eight and four pound Scots, and that 
they have no stranger inhabitants. 

7th, They have four yearly fairs, three of one day's continuance, 
and the fourth of four or five days' continuance, and that they have 
no weekly market.* 

* The following note, taken from the same document, relates to Glasgow. On 
1st May 1692, Provost James Peddle, Bailies Matthew Cummin and Simon Tennent, 
and Mr George Anderson, town-clerk, gave in the following statement on oath : 

}st, The common good of the burgh amounts to 16,9021ibs. Scots, and the debt to 
178,800 libs. Scots, principal, and annual rents. 

2d, That their foreign trade amounts to 205,000 libs Scots ; that they vend and re- 
tail about twenty tuns of French wine, twenty butts of sack, and about ten or twelve 
butts of brandy yearly; and that they vend and consume about 1000 bolls of malt 
monthly. 

3d, That they have fifteen ships, whereof eight are in the harbour and seven abroad, 
and eight- lighters ; viz, 1 ship, 160 tons ; 2, 150 ; 1, 100 ; 4, 80 ; 1, 70 ; 2. 50; 2, 36 
and 2, 30. At this period the shipping harbour was at Port- Glasgow. 



RUTHERGLEN. 383 

Antiquities. At Gallowflat there are the remains of a tumulus of 
earth. This mound was anciently surrounded with a ditch, the 
traces of which were visible so late as the year 1773. At that pe- 
riod the proprietor, Mr Patrick Robertson, formed the ditch into 
a fish pond. During the operation a paved passage, six feet broad, 
was discovered leading up to the top of the mound. Near to this 
passage, two brass or copper vessels were found shaped like por- 
ringers, with broad handles about nine inches long, on which the 
word Congallus was cut. 

In a tumulus at Hamilton Farm, a stone coffin was found in 
1768 ; since that period, it has been levelled with the ground. 
The tumulus at Drumlaw has long since been removed. 

The cross erected on the top of Cross-hill was made of a hard 
stone, ten feet high and three and a-half broad, ornamented with 
various figures. The most remarkable was that of our Saviour 
riding upon an ass. This religious monument fell a sacrifice to 
the fury of a mob during the civil wars in Charles I.'s time. In Ure's 
History, from which this account of antiquities is taken, there are 
several others, though of less importance. 

Ancient Customs. The inhabitants of Rutherglen seem to have 
been very tenacious of ancient customs, some of which are still 
kept up. 

Perambulating the Marches. On a particular day, the magi- 
strates, accompanied by a great proportion of the inhabitants, per- 
ambulated the burgh marches, with drums beating and colours 
flying. When the procession was over, a mock engagement with 
broom besoms took place, which ended in a jollyfication. This 
custom was given up in 1830. 

Sour Cakes. Rutherglen has long been famous for sour cakes. 
About eight or ten days before St Luke's fair, in October, a cer- 
tain quantity of oat meal is made into dough with warm water, 
and laid up in a vessel to ferment. Being brought to a proper 
degree of fermentation and consistency, it is rolled up into balls, 
proportionably to the intended largeness of the cakes. With the 
dough is commonly mixed a small quantity of sugar, and a little 
anise-seed or cinnamon. The baking is executed by women only, 

4/7i, The decay of trade is such that a great number and many of the best of the 
houses are waste, yea, that there are near 500 houses standing waste, and that those 
inhabited are fallen nearly one third of the rent, and that the best and worst will be 
betwixt 100 pounds, (whereof they have not eight inhabited by burghers) and 4 lib. 
Scots yearly, except some large taverns. 



384 LANARKSHIRE. 

and they seldom begin their work till after sunset, and a night or 
two before the fair. A large space of the house chosen for the 
purpose is marked out by a line drawn upon it. The area within 
is considered as consecrated ground, and is not by any of the by- 
standers to be touched with impunity. A transgression incurs a 
small fine, which is always laid out on drink for the use of the 
company. This hallowed spot is occupied by six or eight women, 
all of whom, except the toaster, seat themselves on the ground in 
a circular form, having their feet turned towards the fire. Each 
of them is provided with a bake-board, about two feet square, 
which they hold on their knees. The woman who toasts the cakes, 
which is done on a girdle suspended over the fire, is called the 
Queen or Bride, and the rest her maidens. These are distinguish- 
ed from one another, by names given them for the occasion. She 
who sits next the fire towards the east is called the Todler ; her 
companion on the left hand is called the Hodler, and the rest 
have arbitrary names given them by the Bride, as Mrs Baker, best 
and worst maids, &c. The operation is begun by the Todler, 
who takes a ball of the dough, forms it into a small cake, and then 
casts it on the bake-board of the Hodler, who beats it out a little 
thinner. This being done, she in her turn throws it on the board 
of her neighbour, and thus it goes round from east to west, in the 
direction of the course of the sun, until it comes to the toaster, by 
which time it is as thin and smooth as a sheet of paper. The 
first cake that is cast on the girdle is usually named as a gift to 
some well-known cuckold, from a superstitious opinion that there- 
by the rest will be preserved from mischance. Sometimes the 
cake is so thin as to be carried by the current of the air up into the 
chimney. As the baking is wholly performed by the hand a great 
deal of noise is the consequence. The beats, however, are not ir- 
regular, nor destitute of an agreeable harmony, especially when 
they are accompanied with vocal music, which is frequently the 
case. Great dexterity is necessary not only to beat out the cakes 
with no other instrument than the hand, so that no part of them 
shall be thicker than another, but especially to cast them from one 
board to another, without ruffling or breaking them. The toast- 
ing requires considerable skill, for which reason the most experi- 
enced person in the company is chosen for that part of the work. 
One cake is sent round in quick succession to another, so that 



RUTIIKRGLEN. 385 

none of the company is suffered .to be idle. The whole is a scene 
of activity, mirth, and diversion, and might afford an excellent sub- 
ject for a picture. There is no account of the origin of this cus 
torn. The bread thus baked was doubtless never intended for 
common use. It is not easy to conceive why mankind, especially 
in a rude age, would strictly observe so many ceremonies, and be at 
so great pains in making a cake, which, when folded together, makes 
but a scanty mouthful. Besides it is always given away in pre- 
sents to strangers, who frequent the fair. The custom seems to 
have been originally derived from Paganism, and to contain not a 
few of the sacred rites peculiar to that impure religion, as the le- 
vened dough, and the mixing it with sugar and spices, the conse- 
crated ground, &c. &c. This custom is given up, except in 
the house of Bailie Hugh Fulton, vintner, where the entire ce- 
remonies are gone through. 

Sour Cream. Rutherglen is famous for making sour cream of 
an excellent quality. It is made in the following manner : A cer- 
tain quantity of sweet milk is put into a wooden vessel or vat, which 
is placed in a proper degree of heat, and covered with a linen 
cloth. In due time, the serous or watery part of the milk begins 
to separate from the rest, and is called whig. When the separa- 
tion is complete, which, according to circumstances, requires more 
or less time, the whig is drawn off from near the bottom of the 
vessel. The substance that remains is then beat with a large 
spoon or ladle, till the particles of which it is composed are pro- 
perly mixed. A small quantity of sweet milk is sometimes added 
to correct the acidity if it is in excess. The cream thus prepar- 
ed is agreeable to the taste, and nourishing to the constitution. 

III. POPULATION. 

There seems to have been no enumeration of the inhabitants 
of the parish of Rutherglen that can be relied on prior to 1755, 
when it was taken for Dr Webster, then drawing up his report for 
the widows' fund. In that year, the population amounted to 988. 
In 1791, according to Chalmers' Caledonia, it amounted to 1860. 
In 1793, lire states, that, " the town of Rutherglen consisted of 
255 dwelling-houses, inhabited by 400 families, containing 1631 
persons, of whom 270 children under six years of age, males, 
801, females, 830." This does not include the landward part 
of the parish. If the landward contained 500 persons, which it 
is very probable it did, the population in 1793 would have been 
2131. 



386 



LANARKSHIRE. 



From the Government Censuses. 



Year. 


Houses. 


Occupations. 


Persons. \ 










I 


&4S 


f ^ 


i 






1 




i 


1 


1 


| 
I 


* * 8 
I'll 

*e ft ^ 

I 7 


'" 8 i-e 


II 

1 3 


j 


fc. 


| 












fc,^lP 


Q S 1 


^ 








1801, 


347 


533 





21 


270 


640 


1527 


1200 


1237 


2437 


1811, 


728 


726 


9 


19 


48 


427 


251 


1660 


1869 


3529 


1821, 


617 


928 








163 


736 


29 


2295 


2345 


4640 


1831, 


661 


1238 


2 


4 


102 


1136 





2733 


2770 


5503 



As there is no enumeration of births, marriages, and deaths, in 
this parish, by which the probability of human life can be ascer- 
tained with any degree of accuracy, it seems proper to explain the 
manner in which bills of mortality have been drawn up in the ad- 
joining parishes of Glasgow, where great pains have been bestow- 
ed to render them accurate. For want of understanding the prin- 
ciples upon which the proper construction of such tables depend, 
most of the writers on this subject, many of them men of great 
merit and industry, have taken much pains to little purpose, and 
after excessive labour, have arrived at false conclusions. Hardly 
any of them appear to have been aware of the necessity of ob- 
taining the number of the living as well as of the annual deaths 
in each interval of age, or that that would greatly enhance the 
value of bills of mortality, by extending their useful applications. 

According to Cleland's folio Statistical Tables for Glasgow, 
p. 260, it appears that, in the year 1821, the population was 147,043; 
deaths, 3686; rate of mortality 1 in 39 T 8 5 9 (j persons. 

In 1831, the population was 202,426; deaths, 5185; rate of 
mortality, 1 in 39 T D persons. 

From an official return for the kingdom of the Netherlands, 
where the code Napoleon is strictly enforced, the population was 
found to be 6,166,854; deaths, 158,800; rate of mortality, 1 in 
38 T 8 o 2 o persons. 

From the Government parish register abstract, Vol. iii. p. 496, 
ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 2d April 1833, 
it appears that, on the average of the metropolis from 1811 to 
1821, the rate of mortality was 1 in 39.6 persons. From the 
same official document it appears, that, on a similar average, from 
1821 to 1831, the rate of mortality was 1 in 39.8 persons. 

IV. INDUSTRY. 

It does not appear that Rutherglen has ever been very conspi- 

3 



RUTHERGLEN. 387 

cuous for the extent of its trade. At an early period, there was 
a considerable traffic in salmon for the French market ; returns 
were made in brandy. The quay at the south-west corner of the 
public green seems to have been built for shipping coals. In 1813, 
a judicial examination of very old persons took place with refe- 
rence to the upper navigation, from which it appeared, that about 
the year 1745, craft went up the Clyde as far as West-thorn, and 
even so late as 1786, small craft went up to Rutherglen, and it is 
pretty evident, that but for the erection of a wear at the Glasgow 
bridge, the trade might not only have continued, but increased. 
A few years ago, the Messrs Wilson of Thornlie began to bring 
coals down the river, from their pits at Dalmarnock, in punts 
propelled by a steam tug, to their quay a little above Hutchison's 
bridge, but with this exception there is no craft plying above Glas- 
gow bridge. About ten years ago, a small steamer, the Marion, 
during a flood in the river, made an experimental trip through the 
arches of the bridges, and moored off the quay at Rutherglen. 

Fifty years ago, there were no manufactories in the parish. 
About 1790, two printfields were made, one in the burgh of Ru- 
therglen by Mr Gumming, and the other in Shawfield by Mr Dal- 
glish. These works, which then employed about 200 persons, 
have been enlarged, and now belong to Messrs Reid and White- 
man, and Stewart and M'Aulay., 

About 1796, Mr Peter Ferguson made a bleachfield at Shaw- 
field Bank. After occupying it for some time he was succeeded by 
Messrs Gowdie, who introduced Turkey-red 'dyeing on the pre- 
mises. It was subsequently converted into a chemical work by 
Messrs Downie and White, and is now the property of, and occu- 
pied by Messrs John and James White, manufacturing chemists. 

About 1800, Mr M'Taggart built a small cotton-mill in the 
parish, which, after passing through several hands, has been en- 
larged, and is now the property of Mr M'Naughton ; and in 1833, 
Mr Mathieson fitted up an extensive Turkey-red dye-work, on the 
lands of Farme. These are the only manufactories in the parish, 
but there are nearly 500 hand-loom muslin weavers in it, who all 
work for Glasgow manufacturers. 

Agriculture. The agriculture of the parish has been greatly 
improved of late years. Inclosing, draining, and limeing has now 
become general in the parish. Ure, in giving great credit to Ma- 
jor Spens of Stonelaw, for his improvements in 1790, mentions, 
that to improve the soil, besides limeing and dunging, he purchased 



388 LANARKSHIRE. 

all the oyster-shells he could get in Glasgow, which he spread in 
the gin-tracks of his coal-works, where they were broken in pieces 
by the horses feet, and reduced to excellent manure.* The seed- 
time in the parish is usually about the end of March, and the har- 
vest about the middle of September. The farms are let from 
L. 2, 10s. to L. 5 per acre, according to quality; good land rents 
at a grain rent of 3J bolls of wheat per acre. 

Price of Labour in Rutherglen. In 1660, a ploughman received 
L. 10 Scots, with a pair of shoes and stockings for a half year's ser- 
vice ; a female servant ten merks Scots, a pair of shoes, an ell 
of linen, and an ell of plaiding ; masons and wrights a merk Scots 
without meat, or half a merk with meat and drink for a day's work. 
A common labourer half a merk without meat, and forty pennies 
with meat and drink. In 1836 a good ploughman gets from L. 9 
to L. 10 Sterling, with bed, board, and washing for six months ser- 
vice. Dairy-maids having a charge, L. 5, and ordinary female 
farm-servants, L. 3, 10s. to L. 4, 10s. with bed, board, and wash- 
ing, for six months service. Masons and wrights average 3s. per 
day; labourers, Is. 6d. to Is. lOd. In 1660, workmen who re- 
fused to work for the prices fixed by the magistrates were impri- 
soned ; and no servant was allowed to take up house and work 
for themselves without a warrant from the magistrates. In 1836, 
workmen of all descriptions combine to raise their wages, and fre- 
quently through the medium of political unions clog the wheels of 
industry, to the great injury of their families. 

V.- PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. 

Royal Burghs. Although in the lapse of ages, the privileges 
originally granted to royal burghs have now become questionable, we 
should not forget that we are much indebted to them for the reli- 
gious and civil liberty we now enjoy. They were at first erected 
by our monarchs with a view to rescue mankind from the op- 
pressive power of the barons. For this purpose certain portions of 
the King's lands were bestowed upon them. The circumstance of 
these lands being commonly adjoining to royal garrisons, is the rea- 
son why the greatest number of ancient burghs are situated in the 

* It appears from the following note, taken from the Rev. John Bower's account 
of the parish of old Monkland, in the former Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. 
vii. p. 389, that the steam engine was not then used in taking up coals from the pits. 
Mr Bower says " In the spring of 1792, Mr Hamilton erected a machine for draw- 
ing up the coal at Barrachnie and Sandy-hills coal works entirely by steam. It is on 
an improved plan and the first of the kind in Scotland. It is found to be the cheap- 
est and most expeditious way of doing that business, for could colliers be placed in 
the pit to keep her constantly employed, she would turn out about 200 tons per day. 
The present output is 35,000 tons per year." 

4 



RUTHERGLEN. 389 

immediate neighbourhood of places of strength. They were put in 
possession of certain rights and privileges, the management of 
which was committed to the inhabitants. They were consequent- 
ly viewed as so many free and almost independent communities 
existing in the midst of oppression and slavery. Justice was to be 
found in their courts, the lives and properties of the inhabitants 
were secured from the rapacity of the haughty barons, arts, com- 
merce, and industry prospered within their territories, and from 
them the cheering rays of liberty were widely diffused. 

The inhabitants of Rutherglen have long been considered adepts 
in burgh politics. From the union with England till the passing 
of the Reform Bill, great exertions were made by many of the in- 
habitants to become members of the town-council, that body hav- 
ing an equal share in electing a Member of Parliament as the im- 
portant city of Glasgow. At contested elections (and there were 
few otherwise) a considerable part of the community deserted their 
usual avocations. The sinews of industry were enervated, and in- 
stances were not awanting of families being ruined by habits of 
dissipation, acquired on such occasions. Liberty was turned into 
licentiousness, and the political franchise became, in the respect 
now alluded to, a curse instead of a blessing to its possessors. 
From living several years in the immediate vicinity of the burgh, 
I am enabled to say that, notwithstanding this general character, 
I have seen some noble instances of patriotism among the working- 
classes who happened to be electors. 

Since the passing of the Reform Bill, for the attainment of 
which the inhabitants were most solicitous, the political influence of 
Rutherglen may be said to be annihilated. There is now good 
reason, however, to hope that industry, trade, and manufactures 
will rapidly increase in the burgh. 

Incorporations. There are four incorporated trades in the 
burgh, viz. hammermen, governed by a deacon, collector, and four 
masters, freedom fine for a stranger, L. 1 ; weavers, governed 
by a deacon, collector, four masters and five directors, freedom 
fine for a stranger, 16s. 4d. ; masons and wrights, governed by a 
deacon, collector, and four masters, freedom fine for a stranger, 
L. 1, 13s. 4d. ; tailors, governed by a deacon, collector, two mas- 
ters, and an assay master, freedom fine for a stranger, L. 1, 5s. 

Burgess Fines. The fines on becoming a freeman are as fol- 
lows : a stranger, L. 1, 2s. 2d., a burgess's eldest son, if his fa- 
ther is in life, 8s. 4d. ; if his father is dead, 6Jd. ; other sons of 
burgesses and sons-in-law, 11s. IJd. 

LANARK. C C 



390 LANARKSHIRE. 

Members of the Scottish Parliament. The following is a list of 
the commissioners which the burgh of Rutherglen sent to the 
Scotch Parliament: 

1579, 23d Oct. Robert Lindsay 1661, 1st Jan. David Spens 

1587, 13th July, David Spens 1669, 19th Oct. James Riddell 

1612, 20th Sept. Andrew Pinkcrton 1670, 22d July, James Riddell 

1617, 28th June, Robert Lindsay 1672, 12th June, James Riddel! 

James Riddell 1673, 12th Nov. David Spens 

1 621, 25th July, John Pinkerton 1699, 14th March, John Scott 

1633, 20th June, John Scott 1703, 6th May, George Spens. 

Mr Spens served till the union with England. The commis- 
sioners had their expenses paid out of the town's revenues, at the 
rate of L. 3 Scots per diem, during their attendance in parliament. 

At the union with England, 13th June 1707, the burghs of 
Glasgow, Rutherglen, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, sent one member 
to the British Parliament, and since the 2d of February 1801, 
(the Union with Ireland,) till 3d December 1832, when the par- 
liament was dissolved after passing the Reform Bill, one member 
to the Imperial Parliament. 

The following is a list of the Members of the British and Im- 
perial Parliaments for the above burghs: 

1. Sir John Johnstone, Knight, elected on 13th June 1707 

2. Robert Rodger, Lord Provost of Glasgow, - - 8th July 1708. 

3. Thomas Smith, Dean of Guild of Glasgow, 28th Nov. 1710. 

4. Do. do. do. - - 12th Nov. 1713. 
5.. Daniel Campbell of Shawfield, - - - 6th Oct. 1715. 

6. Do. do. - 28th Nov. 1727. 

7. Col. John Campbell of Croombank, 13th June 1734. 

8. Neil Buchanan, Merchant in Glasgow, 25th June 1741. 

9. Lieut. Col. John Campbell of Maw more, - 13th Aug. 1747. 

10. Do. do. ... 31st May 1754. 

11. Lord Frederic Campbell, - - - 19th May 1761. 

12. Do. do. - - - - - 10th May 1768. 

13. Do. do. - *:... ..,.'- 29th Nov. 1774. 

14. John Crawford of Auchinamcs, - - - 31st Oct. 1780. 

15. Islay Campbell of Succoth, . . - 18th May 1784. 

16. John Crawford of A uchinames, - .- - 26th Feb. 1790. 

17. William M'Dowall of Garthland, - - 12th July 1790. 

18. do. do. - - , 27th Sept 1796. 

19. Boyd Alexander of Southbar, - Ifith Nov. 1802. 

20. Archibald Campbell of Blythswood, - - 15th Dec. 1800. 

21. do. do. - - 22dJune 1807. 

22. Alexander Houston of Clerkington, 30th June 1809. 

23. Kirkman Finlay of Castle Toward, Lord Provost of Glasgow,* 30th Oct. 1812. 

24. Alexander Houston of Clerkington, llth July 1818. 

25. Archibald Campbell of Blythswood, - 31st Mar. 1820. 

26. Do. do. - 3d July 1826. 

27. Do. do. 23d Aug. 1830. 

28. Joseph Dixon, Advocate, - - - 23d May 1831. 



* Ninety years having elapsed since the burghs were represented by a Glasgow 
merchant, Mr Finlay's election was attended by extraordinary marks of approbation. 
His fellow citizens, as a pledge of their esteem and regard, appreciating his commer- 
cial enterprise, popular talents, and public spirit, drew him in an open carriage from 
the town-hall of Glasgow, where the election took place, to his house in Queen Street, 
amid the acclamations of the multitude. His friends, Mr James Oswald of Shield- 



HUTHERGLKN. 391 

By the reform in parliament bill, the burghs of Kilmarnock, 
Port- Glasgow, Dumbarton, Rutherglen, and Renfrew, send one 
member to the Reform Parliament. 

Constituency, 1415, viz. Kilmarnock, 687; Port-Glasgow, 238; 
Dumbarton, 204; Rutherglen, 196; Renfrew, 90. 

John Dunlop of Dunlop, represented these burghs in the first 
Reform Parliament, which met on 29th January 1833. 

John Bowring, LL. D. represents these burghs in the second 
Reform Parliament, which met on 19th February 1835. 

George Crawfurd, Town- Clerk, salary L. 30. 

Poor. There is no assessment for the maintenance of the 
poor in the parish. The heritors make an annual subscription, 
and it is from this, the fees from proclamation of marriages, and 
the collections at the church doors, that the ordinary poor are main- 
tained. In 1835, the poors' fund amounted to L.279, 19s. Id. and 
the number of enrolled poor, to 86.* The allowance to paupers 
and their families is from 2s. to 4s. per month ; a few of the more 
clamant, receive 6s. per month. The interest of some small be- 
quests, and the donations of Messrs Finlay and Buchanan, amount- 
ing to L.23, was given to poor householders not on the paupers' 
roll. As the mortcloths belong to the corporations, the fees aris- 
ing from them are given to decayed members. 

Church. The old church with the burying ground, nearly in 
the middle of which it was situated, exhibited a beautiful example 
of a Druidical temple with its groves of trees. The oldest account 
probably on record concerning the church of Rutherglen is in the 
History of the Life of Joceline Bishop of Glasgow, who made a do- 
nation of it, together with the churches of Cathcart and Mearns, 
&c. to the Abbey of Paisley. f He died in the year 1199. The 
church, which was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was 62 feet 
long, 25 feet wide, and 20 feet high. Plans and elevations of this 
church are given in Ure's History of Rutherglen. The choir, which 

hall, (one of the present Members of Parliament for Glasgow,) and the writer of this 
account, were selected to accompany him in the carriage. Medals were struck on 
the occasion. On the one side, were inscribed the words, Truth, Honour, Industry, 
Independence, Finlay, 1812 ; and on the other, Agriculture, Commerce, and Manu- 
factures, for our King and country, &c. On 29th December 1812, Mr Finlay gave 
two hundred guineas, and his brother-in-law Mr Archibald Buchanan of Catrine one 
hundred guineas, to the corporation of Rutherglen, the interest of which to be giv- 
en annually to the poor householders in that burgh not on the poors' roll. The pro- 
vost of the burgh, and the minister of the parish for the time being, and the writer 
of this account, were appointed trustees for the charity. 

* From July 1790 to July 1791, there were 26 persons on the poor roll in Ru- 
therglen who got from 2s. to 5s. per month. The sum expended was L. 46, 16s. 

t Keith's History of the Scots Bishops. 



392 LANARKSHIRE. 

extended 33 feet from the steeple, has long since been entirely 
demolished. The church was rebuilt in 1794. The old steeple 
still remains at about the same distance from the new church as it 
did from the old ; the bell was made in Holland in 1635, by Mi- 
chael Burgerhwys. 

The church of Rutherglen is rendered famous on account of 
two transactions in which the fate of Sir William Wallace and of 
his country were deeply concerned. It was in this place of wor- 
ship that a peace between Scotland and England was concluded on 
8th February 1297. 

In Ruglen kirk ye traist yan haiff yai set 

A promes maid to meit Wallace but let 

Ye day offyis approchyt wondyr fast 

Ye gret Chanslar and Amar yidder past, 

Syne Wallace come, and hys men weill beseyne 

With hym fifty arayet all in greyne, 

Ilk ane of yaim a bow and arrowis bar, 

And lang swerds, ye whilk full scharply schar, &c.* 

It was in this place also that Sir John Monteath contracted with 
the English to betray Wallace. 

A messynger Schir Amar, has gart pass 

On to Schir Jhon, and sone a tryst has set 

At Ruglan kirk yir twa togydder met, 

Yan Wallang said, Schir Jhon yow know yis thing, c.f 

Patronage and Ministers.^ The right of patronage was ancient- 
ly lodged in the abbots of Paisley. After the Reformation it be- 

* Henry's Life of Wallace, B. vi v. 852. f Ibid. B. xi. v. 796. 

Ministers since the Reformation 1. John Muirhead, son of the laird of Car- 
luke, admitted on 16th December 1586. He left Rutherglen and went to Glassford, 
or parsonage of Castle Sympell, on 8th December 1587. Mr Muirhead and the laird 
of Cleland-town and his friends had a quarrel, in the course of which Mr John was put 
in fear of his life, and durst not attend to his cure. Mr John Hamilton, provost of 
Bothwell, was directed to endeavour to make peace. At length Lord Hamilton set- 
tled the difference between the lairds of Cleland-town and Carluke 2. Alexander 
Rowat, from Dalziel, admitted 25th April 1592. In 1595, he went to be minister of 
the Barony parish of Glasgow, and to Calder in 1615. Lord Hamilton having failed 
to pay his stipend, is supplicated by Mr James Crawfurd of Farme. 3 Archibald 
Glen, admitted 30th March 1596. He was a man of great abilities and learning. He 
left Rutherglen and went to Carmunnock in 1603 4. William Hamilton, son of 
John Hamilton of Newton, admitted 18th April 1 604'. Mr Hamilton gave in his presen- 
tation to the rectory of Rutherglen from the master of Paisley in a different form from 
that of Mr Glen, the last minister. 5. Robert Young, admitted on 21st August 1611. 
His son William was ordained assistant and successor to his father on 28th May 1647. 
He was succeeded by another assistant, of whom Principal Baillie in his letters says, 
" He was a manikin of small parts." The laird of Shawfield, patron. 6. John 
Dickson was third assistant to Mr Young, and succeeded him in the charge. It ap- 
pears from Wodrow's Church History, that on 13th October 1660, Mr Dickson was 
brought before the Committee of Estates, and confined in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, 
in consequence of information given by Sir James Hamilton of Eliestown, and some 
of his parishioners, of some expressions he had used in a sermon alleged to reflect upon 
the Government and the committee, tending to sedition and division. This good man 
was kept in prison till the Parliament met. His church was vacated in 1660, and he 
was kept a prisoner in the Bass for nearly seven years. The church was given to Mr 
Hugh Blair Junior, who was ordained in 1661 : he remained till the revolution in 1688, 
when he was turned out and Mr Dickson replaced, where he continued till his death 



RUTHERGLEN. 393 

longed to the Hamiltons of Eliestoun, and having passed through 
several families along with the estate, was sold in 1724 by Mr Da- 
niel Campbell of Shawfield, for the perpetual retention of eight 
bolls of teind meal, payable from his lands within the royalty. " The 
magistrates and council, the heritors residing within the burgh, and 
thirteen pund land thereof, the members of the kirk-session, and the 
proprietors and tenants of the lands of Shawfield have jointly the 
right of presentation." 

Stipend. In 1586, the stipend of Rutherglen was only 60 merks. 
In 1648, 4chalders 6 bolls of victual, and 250 merks. In 1665, 6 
chalders and 200 merks. In 1668, 6 chalders 200 merks, and 50 
merks for communion elements. At this period the following articles 
were given in charge to the minister, viz. communion cups, tables, 
table-cloths, bason, stoup, and kirk Bible. In 1775, the stipend 
amounted to L. 77, 10s. In 1793, including allowance for com- 
munion elements, 147 bolls 14J pecks of victual, of which 55 bolls 
oats, 34 bolls barley, and the remainder oatmeal. In 1805, the 
stipend amounted to L. 203, 15s. 5d. In 1831, 3 T Vo 2 o chalders of 
oats, 4 I \ ) 5 o 4 o of meal, 4 I 2 s 5 o 4 o ^ ear or barley, and L. 40, including 
communion elements. 

On 24th of February 1836, the Court of Teinds augmented the 
stipend to as many imperial bushels of victual as are equal to eight- 
een chalders, * Linlithgow standard, half meal and half barley, 
convertible into money at the highest fiar price of the county, 
with L. 10 for communion elements, exclusive of manse and glebe. 

This stipend, which is considerably above the average in the 
country, is very difficult to collect, it being paid by no less than 
151 heritors in the burgh and landward part of the parish; eighty- 
seven of the above number pay under 5s. ; some as low as 2d. ; twenty 

in 1700. The laird of Eliestown, patron. 7- Alexander Muir, ordained 17th De- 
cember 1701 8. Alexander Maxwell, ordained 22d September 1719 9. William 

Maxwell, his brother, admitted 19th August 1742 10. James Furlong, from Albion 
Street Chapel of Ease, Glasgow, admitted on 17th August 1780 11. John Dick, 
from Chryston Chapel of Ease, parish of Cadder, admitted on llth December 1810. 

He died on 29th November 1826 12. Peter Brown; the present incumbent, was 

ordained on 25th September 1834. 

* As reference in this account of the parish is frequently made to chalders, and 
as it is enacted, that, from and after the 1st January 1835, the fiar prices of all grainin 
every county in Scotland, for ascertaining the value of minister's stipends, teinds, &c. 
shall be struck by the imperial quarter, it may be useful here to state the difference 
between the old and the new measures. A Linlithgow firlot for the sale of oats, 
barley, bear, and malt, is equal to 1.456231.. that is, one bushel and .456231 decimal 
parts ; therefore 5.49363...firlots are equal to one imperial quarter. An imperial 
quarter, therefore, contains 1 boll, 1 firlot, 1 peck, 3 lippies, and about -^o* ns ^ a 
lippic. A more particular account of the old and new measures may be seen in the 
article Glasgow, in this work. 



394 LANARKSHIRE. 

pay below 6d.; twenty-nine from 6d. to Is.; eighteen from Is. to 
2s. eleven from 2s. to 3s. five from 3s. to 4s. and four from 4s. to 5s. 
Price of Oatmeal. Fiar price of best oatmeal per boll in Ru 
therglen at the following periods, viz. in 1705, two years before the 
union with England, L. 5 Scots, and in 1709, two years after the 
Union, L. 8, 17s. Scots. 

The following is the fiar price for thirty years of the best oat- 
meal in Lanarkshire, by which the stipend of the minister of Ru- 
therglen has been paid in Sterling money: In 1800, L.I, 19s.;* 
in 1801, 18s. 6d. ; i